If you are looking for MDC-001 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Fundamentals of Development and Communication, you have come to the right place. MDC-001 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in PGDDC, MADJ courses of IGNOU.
MDC-001 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MDC-001/July 22-Jan 2023
Course Code: MDC-001
Assignment Name: Fundamentals of Development and Communication
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Maximum Marks: 100
Note: Answer all the questions; they carry equal marks. (Answer in 500 Words)
Q1. Define Sustainable Development.
Ans) According to the definition of sustainable development provided in the 1987 report Our Common Future, it is development that satisfies current demands without jeopardising the ability of future generations to satiate their own needs. It includes two important ideas:
The concept of “needs”, in particular the essential needs of the world’s poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and
The idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organisation on the environment’s ability to meet present and future needs”.
Let's examine the fundamental difficulties raised in the definition above in order to comprehend its significance. The first concern is economic expansion. Economic growth is regarded as crucial for reducing poverty as well as for addressing basic human needs and aspirations for a better life. The second concern is the environment's capacity to provide for both current and future generations. As a result of pressures brought on by expanding human needs, societies are utilising cutting-edge technologies to harvest and use finite natural resources. Future generations won't be able to meet their own demands if we keep using up the earth's finite natural resources today. As a result, the environment's capacity to satisfy the demands of both the present and future generations is constrained. The definition amply conveys this realisation. In order to meet the needs and aspirations of the current generation without jeopardising our ability to meet those of future generations, the concept of "sustainable development" is based on an integrated view of development and environment. It encourages the pursuit of development strategies that maximise economic growth from a given ecological milieu on the one hand and minimise risks and hazards to the environment on the other.
Numerous academics have critically examined the Brundtland Commission's definition of the term "sustainable development." The criticisms focus on the term's fuzziness/ambiguity of the terms/phrases included in the definition, point to operational challenges, and attempt to elucidate underlying presuppositions and political motivations in addition to pointing out its logical contradictions and semantic ambivalence.
The idea of "sustainable development," according to Eduardo Sevilla-Guzman and Graham Woodgate, was the product of a dynamic gestation. As a result, they have tried to determine where it first appeared in "official international discourse". They have studied numerous international events and publications and outlined their discovery, item, and personality in a schematic way. Following a similar methodology, this section provides a succinct overview of the key international events and publications and how they contributed to the creation of the idea of "sustainable development."
The utilisation of contemporary technology, the factory system of production, and swift industrialization and urbanisation are characteristics of the economic growth model of development. This development model was initially advocated for the less developed nations by the Western nations who adopted it.
Q2. Explain the Differences between Economic Development and Economic Growth.
Ans) Economic growth is the rise or improvement in the market value of the commodities and services generated by an economy within a given fiscal year, adjusted for inflation. Traditionally, statisticians have calculated growth as a percentage rate of real gross domestic product, or real GDP.
In order to remove the inflationary distortion on the prices of produced items, growth is typically calculated in real terms, or terms adjusted for inflation. Economic growth is measured using national income accounting. Economic growth has both the benefits and disadvantages of GDP growth because it is calculated as the yearly percent change. The ratio of GDP to population is a typical metric used to compare the economic growth rates of different nations (per-capita income). The distinctions between economic development and economic growth will now be discussed. The key distinctions between economic growth and economic development are:
Growth is a long-term, gradual change brought on by an overall rise in the population and savings rate. Development is a discontinuous and spontaneous shift in the stationary Economic Development state that permanently modifies and displaces the equilibrium state previously existing.
While economic growth addresses issues in wealthy nations, economic development addresses those in underdeveloped nations.
According to Prof. Maddison, "the rise in income levels is often referred to as economic growth in affluent countries, and economic development in impoverished countries, which is the result of conscious planning." Thus, the word "economic development" refers to the greater utilisation of underutilised natural and human resources in poor countries, whereas the term "economic growth" is used to preserve the full employment scenario in rich countries.
"More output" is what Kindle Berger defines as "economic growth. The institutional and technological framework through which such output is created and dispersed is known as economic development.
Economic development refers to changes that promote economic growth, including social, economic, and other developments. Economic development cannot be exactly assessed, but economic growth can.
According to Robert Clower, development can happen without growth. It's possible that the effects of economic expansion on society won't spread. The people might be overlooked. Growth can be brutal and without jobs. It might not actually lead to social wellbeing and wealth. The stronger economic growth may not raise people's standards of living. On the other side, economic growth benefits from the process of economic development.
These variations demonstrate that there are no incontrovertible distinctions between economic growth and development. Economic development, as opposed to economic growth, is a measure of both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of development. Economic growth tomorrow may result from economic development now. The term "growth" is the one we use the most frequently, followed sporadically for variation by the term’s "progress" and "development". The terms "economic development" and "economic growth," though occasionally used synonymously, have different meanings, according to Gills et al. (1996). Economic development denotes fundamental changes in the economy's structure as opposed to economic growth, which refers to an increase in national or per capita income and product.
Q3. Describe the process of Communication.
Ans) In order to transfer a message, concept, or piece of information from the sender to the recipient, there are a number of obstacles that must be overcome. This is known as the communication process.
A message is first conceptualised by the sender and sent to the recipient over a medium. In exchange, the recipient is expected to provide feedback, which is then achieved over the same channel. It is a continuous process that demands a profound comprehension of all of its components to be successful. As a result of communication, meaning is created and then shared among the participants in a continuous, circular process. The sender imparts knowledge or information to the recipient based on his own unique experiences. The sender continues to communicate to the recipient what he has learned as a result of those encounters. Therefore, the following is a typical functional definition of communication:
Message is the actual content that the sender wishes to transmit, and channel is the vehicle through which that message is conveyed. The sender initiates communication by sending a message, and the receiver or audience is the one(s) who receive it. Channel, also known as the medium via which the message is communicated, includes signs, symbols, language, gestures, and body language. When a communication is sent across a channel to the recipient, the recipient decodes the message in his mind, interprets it, and then encodes the recipient's reaction to the message in his mind, sending it back to the sender.
Knowing what communication is, what makes it effective, and what decreases its effectiveness capacity is crucial. It's also crucial to understand the various ways this process is carried out. Despite the fact that we see each of these kinds on a daily basis, we might not have given them much thought. There are four fundamental types of communication, according to communication experts:
There are two people involved in this communication, and it might be official or informal. The sender can receive feedback immediately, and since it is one-on-one, the sender can also observe the recipient's body language (gestures, postures, facial expressions, etc.), which gives a clear indication of what the receiver means and whether what is said matches what is meant. It is simple to influence and persuade the other person, and there is more room for emotional appeal by way of inspiring, encouraging, and coordinating. Additionally called dyadic communication.
This is a development of interpersonal communication in which there are more than two participants and a chance for each to express themselves on a topic of shared interest. This communication serves a variety of purposes, including group decision-making, self-expression, and relaxation. It is successful because it allows for direct interaction with the recipients. Such communication frequently involves the formation of a group leader who directs communication among the members.
This communication occurs with the aid of a mechanical device that replicates messages and disseminates them simultaneously to a sizable faceless audience. This type of communication requires the use of mass media, such as newspapers, radio, television, and the internet. Physical distance exists between the source and the receiver in both space and time. The audience is diverse and anonymous. In mass communication, the response is sluggish, feeble, and delayed.
Q4. Define Development Communication.
Ans) Everett Rogers (1983) stated that "development communication refers to the applications of communication to enhance development. Such applications are intended to either support a particular development project or programme (this type of development communication is frequently referred to as "development-support communication," or DSC), or to advance development in a general way, such as by raising the level of mass media exposure among a nation's citizens, in order to create a favourable "climate for development."
In his Diffusion theory, Rogers concentrated on the role of communication to spread ideas and messages and bring about change. The flow of information, which is typically one-way, contributes to the creation of an atmosphere that is conducive to rapid adoption of new concepts or innovations by disseminating pertinent facts and persuasive messages.
These definitions emphasise the necessity to establish chances for people to freely express their opinions and engage in discourse about the topics that are most important to them in addition to the transactional nature of development communication and its emphasis on participation. They pay attention to the various elements that can affect the inclusion of numerous voices in development programmes and policies and action towards sustainable change by focusing on both the socio-cultural context and people's capacity. You would have gathered from the descriptions above that development communication goes beyond the simple dissemination of information regarding tools, concepts, and/or services that improve people's lives or the sharing of information to address issues. It also includes fostering empathy for others, elevating aspirations, acquiring new abilities, and boosting engagement in development initiatives. Development communication integrates interpersonal and mass media communication systems to help people understand the connections between local events and national and international issues, develop fresh viewpoints, and foster relationships among various stakeholder groups for efficient management of development activities and maximising the benefits of development.
Other types of communication, such internal and corporate communications, are different from communication for development. Corporate communication aids in forming an organization's identity and effectively conveying to the public the organization's values, mission, and activities. On the other side, internal communication is the flow of information within a company that permits timely and efficient employee communication for improved coordination, productivity, and outputs. Development Because of the part it plays in processes of empowerment, communication is a specialised field that sets itself apart from others.
Development Communication helps create a constructive environment where stakeholders participate in defining problems, arrive at a common understanding of issues, consider and discuss ideas, negotiate, and collectively find solutions.
Development communication processes include, among other things, analysing the socio-economic and political context of communities, identifying and prioritising needs, assessing risks and opportunities, empowering people and strengthening institutions.
Development Communication utilises multiple communication methods and media, which include Interpersonal communication, Mass media, ICTs etc, for information dissemination, behaviour change, social mobilisation, advocacy for sustainable social change.
Development communication encourages advocacy to build networks and collectives to influence policy formulations.
Q5. Describe various Paradigm of Development Communication.
Less Consumerism and More Welfare Paradigm
The modern development philosophy's initial goal is to improve people's quality of life. In other words, it seeks to shift away from consumerism and toward welfare, as well as away from income concentration and toward wealth distribution. Selfish motivations drive consumerism, which results in malpractice and market inefficiencies. The adoption of phrases like "creative capitalism" or "benevolent capitalism" are steps toward eschewing the forced or voluntary consumerism of an elite group, both of which would be ideal tactics for a more equitable distribution of the advantages of growth. Because of the current development paradigm, man has essentially evolved into an economic species and become more and more materialistic, egocentric, and self-created. Complete non-possession, in the words of Mahatma Gandhi, "is an abstraction. It will never be realised entirely. Possession and possessiveness are not the same things.
The Human Development Paradigm
The main drivers of progress are people. In the 1960s, the idea of human capital first entered the field of development. For the creation of wealth and the accumulation of capital, it placed emphasis on the quality of human capital, including their talents and education. Utilizing one's natural abilities or acquiring new ones that allow one to set one's labour apart from that of others is considered to be one way to differentiate one's labour skills through education. Education is therefore both the seed and the blossom of progress. A person's income and wealth would be improved more by the accumulation of knowledge than by the accumulation of riches. The US, Japan, and South Korea are examples of developed nations that have a greater understanding of the value of human capital than emerging nations. In industrialised countries as opposed to developing ones, both the per capita spending on education and the proportion of GDP spent on education are substantially higher.
Social Development Paradigm
Economic development is not the only factor influencing social development; social development also plays a role. Faster development would be encouraged by social factors including education, health, the empowerment of women, and involvement by the socioeconomically underprivileged. As a result, social inclusion is now seen as one of the key drivers of development and growth. In addition to the family, society and the country have a duty to ensure the wellbeing of women and children. Therefore, several programmes for the welfare of women and children have been created by national and international organisations. With UNICEF's assistance, the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) was implemented in a number of developing nations as an example of preschool education, child health care, and nutritional care for lactating mothers.
The agriculture-Industry Interface Paradigm
Economic development does not only affect social development; social development also influences economic development. Social indicators that would hasten development include those related to health, education, women's empowerment, and involvement by socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. As a result, social inclusion is now seen as one of the key elements in growth and development. Not only is the family responsible for the wellbeing of women and children, but also society as a whole and the country. In order to improve the welfare of women and children, both national and international organisations have started a number of programmes. A good example of early childhood education, child health care, and nutritional care for young children and breastfeeding mothers is the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS), which was implemented in many developing nations with UNICEF's assistance.
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