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MDC-003: Media in Development Communication

MDC-003: Media in Development Communication

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MDC-003 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Media in Development Communication, you have come to the right place. MDC-003 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in PGDDC, MADJ courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MDC-003/July 22- Jan 2023

Course Code: MDC-003

Assignment Name: Media in Development Communication]

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Maximum Marks: 100

Weightage: 30%

Note: Answer all the questions; they carry equal marks. (Answer in 500 Words)


Q1. Explain the difference between Opinion Writing and other forms of journalistic expression.

Ans) The usual method of categorising newspaper content is to divide all non-advertising content into the two categories of news and perspectives. While news is holy, opinions can still be personal, it has been said with great passion. For more than a century, from the middle of the 19th century to the second half of the 20th century, newspapers in India based their editorial decisions on this maxim of the Victorian British press.


Editorial Writing and Opinion Writing

Editorials, as they are commonly known, reflect a newspaper or journal's overall philosophy and point of view on numerous socio-political and economic concerns. Therefore, leaders represent the views of a media organization's administration as well as the full editorial staff. In contrast to this, an opinion piece is the expression of a single writer and his or her point of view. You must frequently come across journals and websites that include a disclaimer at the end of a piece stating that the opinions expressed therein are the author's own opinions and may or may not reflect those of the journal, website, or news portal in question.


Features and Opinion Writing

The two basic categories of features are news features and non-new features. The two broad categories of features are news features and non-news features. Opinion pieces can be written on topics that are currently making news as well as topics that are not. Similar to opinion writing, features express the writer's opinions on a subject. Features, however, are distinct from opinion writing. The language, style, and presentation are the key points of distinction. Good features, however, often use flowery, twisted, and even idiomatic language. Straight and bold pieces are used. Opinion pieces require you to commit to a certain point of view, whereas features are intended for leisure reading in a casual setting.


Special Write-ups and Opinion Writing Opinion Writing

Every reputable news organisation encourages topic experts to write about difficult and complex issues that arise in the public sphere. These challenges primarily have an impact on our lives in the areas of defence, science, health, and the environment. But most of us lack the knowledge necessary to comprehend and evaluate the significance of such matters. We can improve our comprehension and grasp such complex subjects by reading special articles.


Special essays, of course, require that a topic or subjects be handled by a single person. These, however, are not pieces of opinion writing. The difference between regular articles and special articles is that the former contains the author's extensive and gathered information rather than just his or her opinion. While special reports are packed with statistics, research, and data and aim to engage readers' minds, it is opinion articles that sway readers' hearts more. Even if the content of these works is frequently bare bones, readers are nonetheless moved by it.


Middles and Opinion Writing

Middles are brief works of humour and satire that are intended as light reading. Because they are typically positioned in the centre of the editorial page, these items are known as middles. According to common knowledge, middles are positioned to add humour to an editorial page that is otherwise dense with leaders, special articles by subject matter experts, and comments from senior writers. Similar to opinion pieces, middles are a creative expression of the writer. Middles, on the other hand, lack the conviction, wit, and direct, occasionally aggressive, approach of an opinion piece.


Most daily newspapers have started using more box items and bulleted information as a result, which has had an impact on how they present information. This merely serves to make it simpler to browse the newspapers. One of the leading newspapers in India just underwent a relaunch under the direction of renowned page designer Mario Garcia. Gracia advised in a briefing that the page be created in a style that makes it simple to peruse. The interactive and feedback aspects of internet media are also frequently used in broadcast media. If you tune into the radio, you'll hear the DJ urge you to select your song online. Online polls are also used by TV news stations, and many discussions shows during prime time now include feeds from real-time social media debate.


This brings up a crucial query: Can the new media be viewed as a danger to traditional media or not? The academic community is divided on this issue. Some people think that because online media has all the same advantages as traditional news media, it will eventually displace it. You can read text, listen to audio, and view video on this website at your own pace and convenience. Others, however, think that many media forms will continue to coexist and that the online medium will enhance all others. Even today, many mediums exist side by side.


Q2. Describe the different stages of Radio Writing.

Ans) Each radio format has its own appeal and specifications. We select a format based on factors including target audience, subject matter, and airtime availability. Therefore, while a radio advertisement may only last 30 seconds, a radio play may last anywhere from 15 to 60 minutes, and a talk may typically last between 4 and 9 minutes. Before developing a script for a specific radio format, we must first comprehend it. It's important to keep in mind that some radio programme formats are by necessity unscripted.

Running commentary, for instance, cannot be pre-written because it is essentially a live account of what is happening at the moment, whether it be during a sporting event or not. The right planning and access to thorough background information are essential for running comments as well. Similar to extempore formats, interviews and discussions likewise require systematised preparation of talking topics in order to maximise the use of priceless radio time.


We should be aware of the numerous domains for which radio writing can be done after learning the radio language. For people of all ages and interests, we provide a wide variety of topics. Because broadcasting affects so many aspects of our lives, the potential for radio writing is practically limitless. However, it is important to note that, in contrast to AIR stations, private FM channels shouldn't be viewed as the standard for radio stations. Private radio stations' primary goal is to generate commercial income through largely entertainment-focused programming.


Information Based Programmes

Since the outset, radio broadcasting has been done primarily for the aim of informing its listeners. Most radio stations regularly air a wide variety of educational programmes. Current affairs shows and news bulletins are excellent examples of this function of radio. Even if there are now countless television channels and social media platforms where one may obtain information of all kinds, radio continues to play a crucial role in society as the main source of information dissemination.


Awareness Based Programmes

The second most significant role of radio is education. In India, broadcasting is a case in point of this. Radio helps people by not only keeping them up to date on current events, but also by providing informal education. For the listeners' benefit, radio stations offer educational programmes to round up their knowledge.


Any radio script can be successful based on its content, which is determined by the subject's study. Take this as an example. If a lecture on Delhi's ancient Red Fort states that the road leading from Red Fort to Chandni Chowk was a "canal" during the Mughal era, the listener would undoubtedly pay notice. The information that the route that is today jam-packed with heavy traffic was once a site where people could enjoy boating in the moonlight may interest the listeners because it was previously unknown to them. We should review books on the issue, browse periodicals for pertinent articles, speak with subject matter experts, visit a certain location or tourist attraction or historical structure related to the subject, and so on, to learn about undiscovered, uncommon information about a given subject.


Q3. Explain the basics elements of Online Journalism.

Ans) Today, as we see all forms of work moving online, the media sector has not fallen behind but has instead delved deeper and is investigating new possibilities for online news distribution and related online news enterprises. News organisations who do not use the internet media are projected to lose their competitive edge in the current climate of fierce rivalry in the news sector and may not be able to sustain for long.


You must have noticed that when you type specific terms into a search engine, you get results that span hundreds of web pages. This happens when you try to find any reading material, an image, or a video on the internet. These links occasionally take you to a blog, frequently to a news website, and infrequently to a government website. None of these URLs are associated with internet journalism. Online journalism may only be categorised as websites run by media organisations or blogs written by trained journalists for the purpose of presenting accurate information to their audience. In fact, you may have observed that in recent years the distinction between professional and personal journalistic works has become much hazier. This is mostly due to the widespread use of social media and its rising popularity.



It functions on an online platform that may be seen or updated in real time, as the name would imply. Here, breaking news and events can be updated as they happen. Live updates on news websites are now very regular, just like live telecasts on television news networks. The difference is that it can be viewed on your computing devices and even hand-held devices like mobile with some extra features, unlike radio and television where we can gather and acquire the most recent information.


Shifted Time

Shifted time is also utilised by online journalism. Online media have the option to save stories for later. Users are free to read the stories whenever they choose. This facility is not readily available in other media. In the traditional print media, obtaining access to the news organisation library or collecting newspapers on a daily basis and archiving them on occasion is required to read any prior day's or months’ worth of newspapers.



Interactive journalism is found online. The main tool for this interactivity on the web is hyperlinks. To add additional in-depth analysis to a news package, several media options are supplied via hyperlinks. A tale is constructed by connecting various components of extensive and complicated works. An internet journalist's work typically involves linking to their own websites or occasionally external websites.



Interactive reporting can be found online. The main method of this web-based interaction is through hyperlinks. In order to provide more in-depth analysis, various media options are added to a news package via hyperlinks. A tale is constructed by integrating together various components from long, intricate works. An online journalist's work includes creating internal links to their own websites and occasionally external links.


Q4. Discuss implications of Gender and Media relationship.

Ans) According to Kamla Bhasin and Bina Agrawal, "the media makes it impossible for women to break out of those predefined roles, customs, and behaviour patterns by reinforcing sex-stereotypes and continually promoting motherhood and obedient wifehood. The limited constitutional provisions addressing sex equality and women's equality in the workforce are reduced to mere window dressing in such conservative images. Fair gender representation can be advantageous for both the current and the future of society. Every member of society has the opportunity to realise their full potential if they are raised with gender roles that are non-stereotypical and gender identities that are neutral.



Stereotyping, which is described as a "determined manner of showing" or "fixing specific features with persons," is one of the most pervasive effects of gender portrayal in media. Stereotyping offers everyone a ready-to-use template. Cultural stereotypes are frequently seen in popular culture. Stereotypes are more convenient for media creators to adopt since they make communication simpler. But accessibility cannot come at the expense of gender. Women are portrayed as being weak, and men as being strong, as we explored in the prior parts. The same is true for how representation defines morality and sexuality. The "norm" is heterosexuality, while the "abnormal" is homosexuality. Such preconceptions not only make life challenging for those who don't "fit into the set norm," but they also breed opposition to social variances.



The way media portrays men, women, and third gender has an impact on how people think. Observe them in the actual world. While school textbooks declare that "My father goes to work and my mother is at home," the youngster is raised with an orientation toward the "not-working" housewife. The establishment of gender identities is influenced by any type of distortion or stereotyping. If their mother is not working, it makes them more likeable, and if their mother is working, it causes dissonance.


Individuals live lives independent of media, and media cannot have a significant impact on people. The commodification of women in advertising, the encouragement of unnecessary wants through consumerism, and the presentation of unsustainable lifestyles are realities of the media-saturated times, which cause viewers to be taken in by what is displayed without regard to gender.


Omission and Commission

Hindu upper caste men control close to 71% of the top positions in the national media, according to Sanjay, citing a survey of 37 Delhi-based media organisations conducted by the Centre for Social and Development Studies. Muslims, lower castes, and women are glaringly underrepresented. The "nature of content" reported and presented by media professionals may include "class and caste" prejudice due to their professional backgrounds.


Due to various societal and institutional pressures, media outlets naturally exaggerate some truths while erasing others without the involvement of media personnel. While regional media may be influenced by local contexts of creation and consumption, English media frequently does not fully justice to regional situations. Studies on women in the media have shown that they experience pressures just because they are women. Due to the bias of male editors, stories by female journalists may not get published. Due to their gender preferences, homosexuals experience prejudice at work. However, if the editor has a favourable attitude toward homosexuality, their tales might receive preference. Another gender- and media-related trip that is still developing is #MeToo.


Q5. Describe the impacts of Digital Media on children.

Ans) The media has some advantageous effects on kids. As we have discussed, ten years ago, social media applications were not widely used in society. Books and newspaper supplemental material for kids, both in English and regional languages, are introduced to children. Newspapers created specialised supplements that covered everything from science to politics, religion, and quizzes. Schools set aside time for students to spend in the library, where they typically read books and supplemental children's publications. Children are advised to read newspapers by their teachers, parents, and caregivers in order to increase their broad understanding of science, technology, politics, and literature.


Smart Phones and its Use for teachers and Children


  1. It may help the learners to enhance their learning Capacity.

  2. Subject-wise, the benefits of cell phones are clear. For instance, smartphones can use machine learning or artificial intelligence to construct diagrams, structures, and models that will help students better grasp biology, physics, chemistry, and engineering. It will improve the student's language class listening and reading skills.

  3. It will be helpful for both teachers and students.

  4. Students can get their doubts cleared by browsing the internet.

  5. It may improve a student’s independent learning capacity.

  6. Educational videos are beneficial for learners. Apart from that, smartphones are useful in education through Web Surfing Instant Communication, GPS, Entertainment, and data transfer.


The results of Munni Ray and KanaRam Jat's study on the impact of electronic media on youngsters are thought-provoking. It affects young people's health-related behaviour. Children have a hard time telling the difference between reality and fiction. Children who watch television for a long time lose the ability to distinguish between imagination and reality. They engage in fewer cultural and other activities if they watch more television. Children who are exposed to media violence may develop violent behaviour. Indian researchers Ray, et al. found that youngsters who were exposed to media violence performed less well in school. They have psychosocial effects, and they tend to interact with their peer groups less.


According to a study by Hopf et al., there is a direct link between a youngster's prolonged exposure to horror and murder mysteries and a higher risk of violent behaviour when that child reaches the age of 14.

Children's face-to-face interaction is impacted by prolonged use of social media and interactive technology. They lack the socialising process as a result. They might not be able to interact with people their own age once they reach maturity. They encounter loneliness on occasion. Their capacity to learn is impacted.

  1. They might experience moral, psychological, and bodily problems.

  2. It influences both a child's academic achievement and cognitive development.

  3. Media has an impact on kids' eating habits. It has a gendered difference in how it affects the kids. The media made an effort to portray the girl as being slender and lean. In order to maintain their weight and project themselves as thin and tiny, girl children may not eat healthful foods, as expected by the media.

  4. The results of the current study highlighted the significant association between media exposure and smoking behaviours in young adolescents and older children. When India first forbade smoking in movies and television shows in January 2006, there were protests. On January 23, 2009, the Delhi High Court removed the prohibition on cinema and television. There has to be more research on the effects of media on children's eating and smoking behaviours.ASSIGNMENT INFORMATION

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