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MDV-102: Dynamics of Development

MDV-102: Dynamics of Development

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MDV-102 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Dynamics of Development, you have come to the right place. MDV-102 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MADVS, PGDDVS, MACSR courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MDV-102 / TMA / July 2022 – January 2023

Course Code: MDV-102

Assignment Name: Dynamics of Development

Year: 2022 - 2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Answer all the questions. Each question carries 20 marks.

To be attempted only by those who have taken this course as elective.


Q 1. What are the dimensions and factors of social change? Explain.

Ans) Three major dimensions for analysis of social change are given below:


The Structural Dimension

Changes in the structural dimension include shifts in roles, the creation of new roles, changes in the structure of classes or castes, and shifts in social institutions like the family, the government, and schools or educational systems. We have already talked about some of the changes in the structure of the rural family, village council, or Panchayat (in India). There may also be a change in where roles are located, a change in the number and types of functions done by different parts of society, and a change in how roles talk to each other.


The Cultural Dimension

Changes in cultural dimension are things that happen to a society's culture, such as discoveries, inventions, new technologies, contact with other cultures that leads to diffusion and cultural borrowing. It means adding new things to the culture, getting rid of old ways of doing things, and rejecting some new things and ways of doing things. At the same time, it doesn't mean that everything that comes into a culture is diffused or that everything that goes through the process of diffusion ends up being a part of the culture. New forms and parts can be changed or turned down. But the cultural side of social change is a process that includes cultural innovation, diffusion, and integration. There are both material and non-material parts to a culture.


The Interactional Dimension

The interactional dimension of social change refers to changes in social relationships in society as identified under five dimensions, such as frequency, social distance, instrumentality, directionality and interactive. Modification and change in structure of the components of society, together with alterations in its culture bring about changes in social relations. Frequency, social distance, instrumentality, directionality, and interactive form constitute a schematic arrangement of specific dimension of change in social relationships, in terms of which social change in respect of social interaction can be analysed.


Factors of Social Change

Social change is a complex and multi-dimensional process that is influenced by a range of factors. Some of the key factors of social change can be grouped into the following categories:

  1. Physical Factors: Physical factors, such as changes in climate, natural disasters, and geographical conditions, can drive social change. For example, a natural disaster like a hurricane can lead to a change in the physical environment and force people to migrate to safer areas, altering the demographics and cultural makeup of a region.

  2. Biological Factors: Advances in medical science and changes in human biology can contribute to social change. For example, the development of vaccines and antibiotics has had a profound impact on the way people live and work, reducing the impact of disease and increasing life expectancy.

  3. Economic Factors: Economic factors, such as changes in the labour market, technological advancements, and the availability of resources, can drive social change. For example, the rise of automation and artificial intelligence has changed the way people work and the types of jobs that are available.

  4. Technological Factors: Technological advancements can drive social change by creating new products, services, and ways of doing things. For example, the widespread adoption of the internet and social media has changed the way people communicate and access information.

  5. Cultural Factors: Cultural factors, such as changes in beliefs, values, norms, and behaviours, can influence social change. For example, changes in attitudes toward gender roles and sexual orientation have contributed to a greater acceptance of diversity and equality in many societies.

  6. Legal Factors: Legal and political systems, laws, and policies can influence social change by setting standards and providing frameworks for behavior. For example, changes in immigration policies can alter the composition of a society and the relationships between different groups.


These factors of social change are often interrelated and can influence one another. For example, technological advancements may create new economic opportunities, which can then drive cultural and legal changes. Understanding the interplay between these factors can help us better understand the dynamics of social change and the forces that drive it.


In conclusion, the physical, biological, economic, technological, cultural, and legal factors of social change are all critical elements that contribute to the overall process of social change. Understanding these factors and their relationships can provide insight into the dynamics of social change and the ways in which different aspects of society interact and influence one another.


Q 2. What is Conflict? Explain the types and causes of conflict?

Ans) Conflict is a state of opposition or disagreement between two or more parties, often involving a struggle for power, resources, or control. Conflicts can occur between individuals, groups, organizations, or nations and can manifest in various forms, such as interpersonal conflicts, organizational conflicts, ethnic conflicts, and political conflicts. Conflicts may arise from differences in beliefs, values, interests, goals, or perceptions of fairness, and can result in negative consequences, such as decreased trust, strained relationships, and even violence.

Conflicts can have significant impacts on individuals and communities, leading to increased stress, decreased well-being, and reduced social cohesion. In some cases, conflicts can escalate and lead to violence, war, or other forms of destructive behavior. However, conflicts can also lead to positive outcomes, such as increased understanding, greater empathy, and improved relationships. Conflict resolution strategies, such as negotiation, mediation, and arbitration, can be used to resolve conflicts in a peaceful and constructive manner.


Types of Conflict


Latent Conflict-An outsider may think that the interests of two parties are at odds with each other, but the parties themselves may not be aware of this. This could be due to self-delusion, rationalisation, lack of knowledge, or keeping information from oneself. We call conflicts of interest that aren't known about or are barely known about "latent." When these unacknowledged, conflicting interests become clear and are spoken out loud, conflicts arise.


Peaceful Conflict-Peaceful conflict is handled according to rules so that different people can get what they want. There are many things that control conflict, such as national constitutions and laws, family and clan structures, court systems, religious rules, social norms, debate, and discourse. These can be social norms and mores that aren't spoken about openly. They can also be very formal and set in stone, like the written laws of a country. Elections are a tried-and-true way to solve problems without violence. Peaceful ways to solve conflicts can be old or new, local, national, or even international.


Violent Conflict-Conflicts can turn violent when people stop trying to reach their goals in a peaceful way and instead try to control or stop the other people from pursuing their own goals. Interests that are at odds with each other can be pursued without violence or coercion. Not all conflicts are violent. Conflicts that are solved peacefully and without force can be good things. Societies can move forward when people's changing needs are recognised and met, and when the needs of minorities are better met. Since there is so much violence in the world, we might think that violence and coercion are just the way things are: people are naturally aggressive, so wars and other violent conflicts are bound to happen. Violence does not happen all the time, even when people have different goals.


Causes of Conflict


Systemic Causes: Conditions of the structure Systemic causes of conflict are things like environmental degradation, population growth, lack of resources and competition for them, the legacy of colonialism or the Cold War, the breakdown of values and traditions, poverty, the marginalisation of pastoralists, and ethnicity. Systemic causes of conflict are widespread and affect a lot of people. Their effect on the likelihood of a fight happens slowly. Measures like international programmes or government policies that try to prevent or reduce conflicts by treating their systemic causes work in the long run.


Proximate causes: Factors that are political and institutional Problems in the social, political, and communication systems and institutions that act as mediators between systemic conditions and people's lives and actions are close sources. Systemic conditions can lead to either violent responses or more peaceful ways to deal with competing interests, depending on how close things are. The connections between near-term causes and violent conflict are easier to see and their effects are clearer. Government policies, social structure, economic reform programmes, problems with political liberalisation, militarization, and military aid from outside the country can all be close causes of conflict.


Q 3. Discuss the role of multilateral international agencies in development. Explain the role of WHO?

Ans) Multilateral international agencies play a critical role in promoting and supporting development around the world. These organizations, which are comprised of multiple countries, work together to address global issues, and promote economic, social, and political progress.


One of the key roles of multilateral international agencies is to provide financial and technical assistance to developing countries. For example, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) provide loans and grants to support economic development and poverty reduction efforts. Similarly, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) provides technical assistance and support to help countries achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).


Multilateral international agencies also play a crucial role in setting global standards and norms for development. For example, the United Nations (UN) sets standards for human rights, peacekeeping, and environmental protection, and provides a forum for countries to discuss and coordinate their efforts on these issues.


In addition to financial and technical support, multilateral international agencies also work to promote cooperation and collaboration among countries. For example, the World Trade Organization (WTO) promotes free trade and helps to resolve disputes between countries, while the World Health Organization (WHO) works to promote global health and prevent the spread of diseases.


Finally, multilateral international agencies play a critical role in monitoring and evaluating the progress of development efforts. For example, the UNDP provides regular assessments of countries’ progress towards achieving the SDGs, and the World Bank provides data and analysis on economic and social indicators.


Role of WHO

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is dedicated to promoting health and well-being around the world. Established in 1948, WHO is the leading global health organization, working to ensure that all people have access to the highest possible level of health.


One of the key roles of WHO is to provide technical assistance and support to countries in their efforts to improve health. This can include providing information and guidance on best practices for disease prevention and treatment, supporting health systems strengthening, and promoting the development of new vaccines and medications.


WHO also plays a critical role in disease surveillance and response. The organization works to detect and respond to outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as Ebola and COVID-19, and to support countries in their efforts to control and prevent the spread of these diseases.


In addition to its technical assistance and response efforts, WHO also works to set global health standards and policies. This includes setting standards for the quality and safety of medicines, vaccines, and medical devices, and developing and promoting global health initiatives and campaigns, such as World Health Day and World No Tobacco Day.


WHO also plays an important role in promoting health equity and addressing health disparities. The organization works to ensure that health services are accessible and affordable for all people, regardless of their income, race, or geographic location.


In conclusion, the World Health Organization plays a vital role in promoting health and well-being around the world. Through its technical assistance, disease response efforts, standard-setting, and promotion of health equity, WHO is working to create a healthier, more prosperous, and more equitable world for all.


Q 4. Define Freedom. Explain the relationship between freedom and the market?

Ans) Friedrich A. Hayek says, "The original meaning of the word 'freedom' was always that a person could act based on his own decisions and plans. This was in contrast to a person who was permanently subject to the will of another person, who could force him to act or not act in certain ways by making arbitrary decisions. So, the time-honoured phrase that is often used to describe freedom is "being free from the arbitrary will of another." In this sense, the word "freedom" only refers to how people relate to other people, and the only way other people can get in the way of it is by using force. Freedom from in this sense means that no one is forcing you to do something. This is the original and most basic meaning of the word, and it is also the most important kind of freedom-from.


Freedom is widely regarded as a fundamental human right and is essential to the flourishing of individuals and society. However, freedom is not absolute and must be balanced with other values and considerations, such as public safety and the protection of others' rights.


Relationship between Freedom and Market

The relationship between freedom and the market is a complex and controversial one, with different views and interpretations of the role of the market in promoting or limiting individual freedom.


For a free market to work, dictators and bureaucrats must be able to do what they want. Some interference can hurt the market, but it can still work. When the interference is so bad that a person can't figure out what will happen in the future or when his taxes are so high that it's not worth his time to keep working, the market is no longer able to produce a large number of goods and services at low prices. Freedom-from is essential to the market and is, in fact, the most important thing it needs to work.


Freedom to is a very good thing that comes from letting the market work without any problems. When entrepreneurs don't have to worry about the economy being controlled by other people, they will make a lot of goods that anyone can buy. This freedom-to on the part of the public is a direct result of the fact that there are no controls on the market, which is what makes it work.


Classical liberal thinkers view the market as a means of promoting individual freedom by allowing individuals to freely exchange goods and services and make their own economic decisions. According to this view, the market operates through voluntary exchange and competition, and the absence of government intervention allows individuals to pursue their own self-interest and achieve their goals. This, in turn, leads to the creation of wealth, economic growth, and the overall improvement of society.


On the other hand, some critics argue that the market can limit individual freedom by creating unequal economic outcomes, restricting access to essential goods and services, and reinforcing power imbalances between individuals and groups. These critics argue that the market operates on the principles of supply and demand, which can result in the exploitation of workers, the concentration of wealth in the hands of a few, and the creation of monopolies that restrict competition.


Furthermore, the relationship between freedom and the market is influenced by the political, economic, and social context in which it operates. In some countries, the market operates in a highly regulated and interventionist environment, while in others, the market operates with fewer restrictions.


In conclusion, the relationship between freedom and the market is complex and influenced by a range of factors, including individual views and interpretations, the political and economic context, and the impact of market forces on different aspects of society. While the market has the potential to promote individual freedom and economic growth, it must be balanced with other values and considerations to ensure that it operates in a way that promotes overall well-being and social justice.


Q 5. What do you mean by Inclusive Development? Explain need and importance of Inclusive Development?

Ans) Etymologically “Inclusive Development” is a combination of two words “inclusive” and “development” meaning a sense of belonging: feeling respected, valued for who you are; feeling a level of supportive energy and commitment from others so that you can do your best work. The process of inclusion engages each individual and makes people feeling valued which is essential for the development of not only of the individual but also for the entire society where they live in. The concept “inclusive development” though catch phase in recent policy and political domain across the globe, has had its civilizational root in almost all major ancient civilizations across different parts of the world.


The inclusive development has been a practice in the ancient Indian civilization. Evidences found in Indus valley civilization shows that the urbanization spread across hundreds of kilometres provided facilities to the masses i.e. common facilities like roads, bath room, transport and storage. Similarly, the village republic which has been existing in India for centuries is a form of inclusive development.


Importance of Inclusive Development

We all aspire for a developed human society where human being can lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living and to be able to participate in the life of the community. Development is possible only through the process of mass participation, which can be possible through the process of inclusion.


According to Amartya Sen “Human development is about creating an environment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests. People are the real wealth of nations. Development is thus about expanding the choices people have to lead lives that they value. And it is thus about much more than economic growth, which is only a means-if a very important one-of enlarging people’s choices”.


On the other hand, the exclusion of individuals and groups can become a major threat to social cohesion and dangerously affect the humanity. Today the world is witnessing severe ethnic problem, insurgencies, caste violence and various other forms of social unrest, unemployment, poverty, malnutrition etc. which are severely affecting the peaceful existence of the human being. These exclusions are not a simple rather a complex phenomenon.


Inclusive development is a counter force to such kind of undesirable and unequal development. Inclusive development promotes human wellbeing through sense of belonging and feeling respected, building capability, enhancing choices and freedom. It is based on the premises of equity. Thus, it is desirable for development of every society

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