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MDV-106: Research Methodology in Development Studies

MDV-106: Research Methodology in Development Studies

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

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Assignment Code: MDV-106/TMA/2021-22

Course Code: MDV-106

Assignment Name: Research Methodology in Development Studies

Year: 2021-22

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Marks: 100

Q1) What is development research? What are the different methods of development research? Discuss the focus group discussion method in detail.

Ans) A desirable transformation is what development entails. The purpose of growth is for everyone to be happy. Better living standards, access to fundamental services such as basic education and health care, excellent relationships with people, companionship, love, peace of mind, choice, creativity, fulfilment and enjoyment, and freedom from fear are all examples of well-being. The means of wellness are the security and capability of one's livelihood. A sufficient stock and flow of products and funds to meet fundamental necessities and support wellbeing might be characterised as livelihood.

Natural, human, physical, financial, and social capital or assets give secured rights and reliable access to food, income, and basic services, whereas security refers to reliable access to five forms of capital or assets: natural, human, physical, financial, and social capital, or assets. What humans are capable of doing and being is referred to as capability. Learning, practise, and training can all help to improve capabilities. They aid in the attainment of financial stability. The principles of equality and sustainability underpin the goal of wellness. Human rights and gender equity are often referred to as equity. Sustainability refers to development that meets current requirements without jeopardising future generations' ability to meet their own. The majority of development research focuses on themes such as livelihood security, capabilities, resources linked with livelihood security, and the principles that govern development's aims and means.

The goal of development research is to improve people's lives. It is important to highlight that this is not pure or fundamental research. It is research that is applied, application-oriented, and action-oriented. It is not intended to contribute to or expand knowledge in a certain sector. It does, however, have a proclivity to contribute to the body of knowledge in a certain profession or sector, resulting in better practise. It is knowledge that improves the way development is carried out. It opens up new channels for a better understanding of difficulties and complexities, which improves the effectiveness of development work.

Methods of Development Research

Development research methodologies function as inquiry or interaction systems. The innovation of the development researcher lies in the assemblage of approaches to meet the requirements that the environment or research topic necessitates - regardless of whether the type of development research undertaken is programme focused or issue focused. Development researchers employ a variety of approaches, most of which are adapted from other sources, such as traditional research methods and participatory research methods. Review of secondary materials, direct observation, semi-structured interviews, ranking and scoring, various sorts of diagrams, case studies, games and role plays, workshops, informal and official surveys, and so on are some of the approaches utilised by development researchers.

The approaches borrowed and used are mostly determined by the development researcher's perceived needs. The four most popular and extensively used methodologies of development research will be presented here. They really are.

  1. Direct Observation

  2. Interviewing

  3. Focus Group Discussion

  4. Case Study

Focus Group Discussion

Focus groups are essentially a form of group interviewing. The interview is guided by a moderator, while a small group discusses the issues raised by the interviewer. In focus groups, the most important data is what the participants say throughout their talks. The moderator is a well-trained development professional who asks questions from a predetermined set of discussion topics, also known as a focus group discussion (FGD) checklist. Typically, there are six to eight participants who come from similar backgrounds, and the moderator is a well-trained development professional who asks questions from a predetermined set of discussion topics, otherwise known as a focus group discussion (FGD) checklist.

The explicit use of group interaction to generate knowledge and ideas is a hallmark of focus group discussion. Listening and learning are the cornerstones of focus group discussions. The use of focus groups in development research is becoming more widely accepted. When qualitative data is extremely usable, focus group interviews are used. In most FGDs, a large amount of qualitative data is generated. The knowledge, facts, and insights gathered can be used to explain and comprehend particular scientific phenomena. The data gathered through focus groups is frequently utilised to enhance, complement, or strengthen the arguments made with quantitative data. In focus groups, David L Morgan identifies a three-part communication process.

  1. The members of the study team decide what they need to hear from the subjects.

  2. The focus groups encourage members to talk about the topics they've chosen.

  3. Members of the study team give a summary of what they learned throughout the discussion.

When it comes to the usage of FGD-based data, it's first used as a ‘stand-alone' approach in studies where it's the primary source of data. Second, they're employed as a backup source of information in research that rely on other methods, such as surveys. Finally, they're employed in multi-method studies that incorporate two or more methods of data collection, with no one major approach dictating how the others are used. One major application of FGD is that the results of a poorly understood survey can be properly explained. FGDs are employed in multi-method research to avoid missing some qualitative feature that might not be covered by other methods. The quality of focus group research is usually determined by the rigour of the investigation, the reliability of the results, and the relevance of the findings to the needs, just as it is in any other research. Where to use and where not to use Focus

Group Discussions

  • Appropriate Uses

i)  When looking at complex motivations and behaviour.

ii) When the research problem must be grasped and diverse analysis is required.

iii) When there is a disconnect between service providers and service recipients.

iv)  When acquiring data isn't enough and you need to get closer to individuals.

v) When quantitative data isn't enough to make inferences and reach judgments.

  • Inappropriate Uses

i)  Avoid employing the FGD if it will not result in useful developmental activity.

ii) If the people who will supply the information are uncomfortable sitting together or talking to each other, FGDs should be avoided.

iii)  The FGD result may not be enlightening if the topic of conversation or the problem to be discussed is not relevant to the group.

iv) When more statistical or quantitative data is required, and the type of analysis to be employed is mostly quantitative, FGD may not be of assistance.

Steps in Conducting Focus Group Discussion

The following steps are usually used for the conduct of FDGs:

Planning: Focus groups are usually semi-structured, allowing for the development of discussions while being moderated. As a result, meticulous planning is essential. If we have our focus group strategy correctly planned, we should be able to handle the complexity that may occur as a result of being optimally prepared. The following issues must be considered at the planning stage.

  1. conceptualising the study

  2. developing discussion topics

  3. determining the time required

  4. the composition of the interviewers’ team

  5. the type of informants we need to form as focus groups

  6. the venue for the FGD

  7. logistical arrangements

The capacity to write out the checklist and pick the participants and key informants comes with expertise.

Enlisting or selection of the group itself: A typical focus group consists of seven or eight people. The quality of the debate and the study outcomes will be determined by having the correct kind of informants in the focus group. To conduct the focus group discussion, you'll need enough of the suitable informants. The conclusions would be more enriching, realistic, and useful if the informants were people who are experiencing or had experienced the topic being described.

Moderating the focus group: With each subsequent focus group, this is a skill that can be honed. Focus group moderators that are talented or experienced know how to clarify the problem, word questions, sequence questions, categorise questions, and explore replies for validity. The complete path of questioning and response may be traced by a good moderator. The moderator should have a good concept of how to start the discussion, what to say in the introduction, how to transition from easy to challenging questions, how to move from simple to crucial questions, and how to close the chat. As a rule, competent moderators ask largely open-ended questions and steer clear of closed-ended ones.

Analysing and Reporting: For many researchers, and even competent practitioners, this is a difficult task. This necessitates impartiality, and one must ensure that personal biases and subjectivity are not included in the report. The descriptive nature of the data acquired makes it difficult to analyse and conceptualise the outcomes. Field notes, charts, recorded cassettes or digitally recorded, images, video graphs, and other types of data and information may be used.

It is necessary to plan how they will be reported. It's a good idea to get them all typed out in a computer first, with rudimentary segmentation and classification algorithms. The ensuing stages might gradually identify themes, sub-themes, patterns, and semantic relationships. Construction of charts, graphs, bar, and pie diagrams may be attempted if the data is suitable. By presenting the results to the same or similar group from which the data sets were acquired, we can confirm and validate the findings. They might corroborate it, or they might want to revise some of the principles that the researchers' team didn't grasp or misunderstood. Then it's turned into a focus group report.

Objectivity and high-level abilities are required for analysis and reporting. The process of analysis necessitates a variety of abilities. The use of words, the context, internal consistency, the frequency of comments made, the extent of the comments, the specificity of responses, and what was not said and why are all factors to consider. These are some of the things to think about when analysing and reporting focus groups. Finally, the report may be written with the report's goal in mind as well as the audience it is intended for.

Q2) Discuss the Steps in the formulation of a research project proposal.

Ans) Writing a research proposal is the initial stage in every research study. The research proposal outlines the research problem you'll investigate and the steps you'll take to complete the project. A research proposal's purpose is to persuade people that you have a valuable research idea and that you have the necessary skills and time to finish it.

A research proposal should, in general, comprise all of the important parts of the research process, as well as enough information for readers to evaluate the proposed study. The researcher must first identify a problem that he want to investigate. The natural next step is to use a methodical step-by-step strategy to find an answer or solution to the problem. A strong proposal increases the likelihood of receiving financing and is also required for effective research and reliable outcomes. A solid proposal includes a clear definition of the research topic, a review of relevant literature, study objectives, methodology, time frame, budget, and references. An outline of the proposal format is provided below.

  1. Title of research project

  2. General introduction/ Background/ Importance of Study/Statement of Problem

  3. Review of relevant literature

  4. Objectives

  5. Methodology

  6. Time Frame

  7. Budget

  8. References

A schematic table of steps in the formulation of a research project proposal is given below.



Important Elements

What is the problem? and why should it be studies?

Selection, analysis, and statement of the research problem

·       Problem identification

·       Prioritising problems

·       Analysis

·       Justification

What information is available?

Literature review

·       Literature and other

·       Available information

Why do we want to carry out the research? What do we hope to achieve?

Formulation of research objectives

·       General and specific

·       Objectives

·       Hypothesis

What additional data do we need to meet our research objectives? How are we going to collect this information?

Research methodology

·       Variables

·       Types of study

·       Data collection techniques

·       Sampling

·       Plan for data collecting

·       Plan for data processing

·       End analysis

·       Ethical considerations

·       Pre-test or pilot study

Who will do what and when?

Work plan

·       Human resources

·       Timetable

What resources do we need to carry out the study? What measures do we have?


·       Material support and

·       Equipment

·       Money

How will the project be administered? How will utilisation of results be ensured?

Plan for project administration and utilisation of results

·       Administration

·       Monitoring

·       Identification of potential users

How will we present our proposal to relevant authorities, community, and the funding agencies?

Proposal summary

·       Briefing sessions and lobbying

Q3) What is meant by reliability of a measuring instrument? What are the methods of determining the reliability?

Ans) Reliability of Measuring Instrument

The term "reliability" refers to the instrument's capacity to consistently produce similar results. The capacity of various researchers to make the same observations of a given phenomenon if and when they are conducted using the same method(s) and technique is referred to as reliability (s).

Equivalence and Stability Reliability's Aspects

Among the several dimensions of reliability, stability and equivalence need special emphasis.

  1. The stability component is focused with ensuring consistent results when the same researcher and instrument are used for multiple measurements. The degree of stability is usually determined by comparing the results of multiple measurements.

  2. The equivalency factor evaluates how much mistake might be introduced by different investigators or different samples of the things under investigation. Comparing two investigators' observations of the same occurrences is an excellent technique to see if their measures are equivalent.

Methods of Determining the Reliability

The following are the three fundamental approaches for determining the accuracy of empirical measurements:

Test - Retest Method

The test-retest approach, in which the same test is administered to the same persons after a period of time, is one of the simplest ways to determine the reliability of empirical measures. For many psychological exams, a two-week to one-month gap is typically thought to be appropriate. The correlation between the scores on the same test achieved at two points in time is the reliability. The test – retest reliability coefficient is 1.00 if the findings are the same on both administrations of the test. However, the correlation of measurements across time will almost always be imperfect. This is due to the inconsistency of measurements made at different times. Because the subject is already familiar with the test, anxiety, motivation, and interest may be decreased during the second administration.


  1. When only one type of test is available, this method might be utilised.

  2. Correlation between tests and retests is a process that is intuitively appealing.


  1. Often, researchers can only get a snapshot of a phenomenon at a single point in time.

  2. Conducting tests and retests is costly and in some cases unfeasible.

  3. Memory effects cause reliability estimates to be exaggerated. When the period between two measurements is short, the respondents will recall their first responses and appear more consistent than they are.

  4. Require a high level of engagement from respondents as well as honesty and dedication on the side of the research worker, as behavioural changes and personal qualities are likely to impact the re-test as they alter day to day.

  5. Differences in immediate elements such as anxiety, motivation, and so on may be amplified by the validity process of re-measurement.

  6. The interpretation of the test-retest correlation is not always simple. A poor correlation may not suggest a lack of trustworthiness, but rather that the underlying theoretical concept has changed.

  7. For example, a person's view toward the operation of a public hospital may be substantially different before and after their visit.

  8. In this case, the genuine change is regarded as measurement instability on the attitude scale.

  9. The larger the gap between measurements, the more likely it is that the concept has evolved.

  10. The act of measuring a phenomenon can cause the phenomenon to alter. This is referred to as reactivity. When measuring a person's attitude during a test, the subject under investigation can be sensitised, and the person's attitude can change on a retest. As a result, the correlation between the test and the retest will be minimal.

Alternative Form Method / Equivalent Form / Parallel Form

To measure the dependability of all sorts of measuring devices, the alternative form approach, also known as equivalent / parallel form, is widely used in education, extension, and development research. It also necessitates two testing settings with the same individuals, similar to the test-retest approach. However, it differs from the test-retest technique in one crucial respect: the second testing does not use the same test; instead, an alternate version of the same test is used.

As a result, two similar reading tests should have the identical reading passages and questions. However, the exact passages and questions should be distinct, implying a different approach. It is suggested that the two forms be given roughly two weeks apart, allowing for day-to-day changes in the individual. The dependability coefficient will be determined by the correlation between two forms.


  1. The employment of two parallel test forms gives a very solid foundation for measuring the precision of a psychological or educational test.

  2. It is superior to the test-retest method in that it lowers memory-related exaggerated reliability.


  1. The practical difficulty of developing different forms of two parallel tests is a major restriction.

  2. Each person's time is required twice.

  3. The administration of a second, distinct exam is generally viewed as a significant drain on available resources.

Split-Half Method

The split-half method is another popular approach for determining the internal consistency of a measuring instrument. A test is given and assessed separately in the split-half approach, then the score of one half of the test is compared to the score of the remaining half to test the reliability.

First, divide the test into halves using the split-half approach. The most typical method is to allocate odd-numbered objects to one side of the test and even-numbered items to the other, a method known as Odd-Even dependability. 2nd, using the Pearson r method, determine the correlation of scores between the two parts. 3rd, use the Spearman-Brown formula to adjust or revise the correlation, which improves the estimate reliability even more.

r = calculated correlation between two halves, according to the Spearman-Brown formula (Pearson r).


  1. Two test administrations with the same set of persons are required for both the test–retest and alternative form procedures. The split–half method, on the other hand, can be done just once.

  2. When assessing reliability with two tests or having two test administrations is impractical or undesirable due to time or money constraints, split-half reliability is a helpful measure.


  1. Even though the same items are delivered to the same individuals at the same time, different means of separating the items results in varied reliability estimates.

Q4) What are the different methods of quantitative data collection? Discuss in detail the questionnaire method of quantitative data collection.

Ans) Primary Data Collection

  1. Primary data is information gathered directly by investigators, whereas secondary data is information gathered from other sources. Primary data is, for example, information obtained from a student on his class, caste, family background, and other factors.

  2. Secondary data, on the other hand, is when the same information about a student is gathered from the student's school record and register. The distinction between primary and secondary data, on the other hand, is mostly a matter of degree, and there isn't much of a difference between them. In the hands of others, the data gathered through primary sources by one investigator may be secondary. For example, field data acquired by an investigator for the purpose of writing his thesis is primary to him, but when the same data is used for reference reasons by another investigator, it becomes secondary data. Let's talk about the ways for collecting primary and secondary data.

There are many different types of quantitative primary data collection tools, but the most essential ones are:

  1. The Questionnaire

  2. The Interview Schedule

Secondary Data Methods

Investigators obtain secondary data from sources other than primary respondents. Secondary data is gathered from a variety of sources, both published and unpublished. The most important secondary data sources are listed below:

  1. Census, NSSO Report, Human Development Report, SRS Report, and other official publications of the Central Government

  2. Research and study reports from bilateral and multilateral organisations such as the World Health Organization, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, UNESCO, and UNICEF, among others. The World Development Report, World Development Indicators, Human Development Report, and others are only a few examples.

  3. Committees and commissions have issued reports such as the Mandal Commission Report, the National Planning Commission Report, the Human Rights Commission Report, and the Population Commission Report, among others.

  4. National Population Policies, National Education Policies, National Health Policies, and other central and state government policy papers

  5. Publications from research institutes, universities, and non-profit organisations.

  6. Data sources have been published in a variety of national and international periodicals, including Economic and Political Weekly, Indian Economic Journal, and others.

  7. On a variety of topics, books and essays have been published.

  8. The Reserve Bank of India, the State Bank of India, the Association of Indian Banking, and others have official publications.

  9. Yearbooks and encyclopaedias are good sources of information.

  10. Both the federal and state governments provide statistical abstracts.

  11. Information from the Indian Council of Social Sciences Research, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, and other organisations' directories and bulletins.

  12. Reports and papers published by various research, teaching, and associated organisations are abstracted and indexed.

Questionnaire Method of Data Collection

  1. Questionnaires are a common way to collect data. A decent questionnaire is difficult to design, despite its appearance. The collecting of required facts and statistics depends on the careful design of a questionnaire.

  2. Any haphazard attempt at structuring a questionnaire will result in either a scarcity of data or the acquisition of irrelevant data, neither of which will be valuable to your research. The design of a questionnaire is determined by who needs to be informed and where they need to be informed, as well as what facts and numbers need to be collected and the grade of the informants.

The questionnaire can be divided into two categories:

  1. Structured questionnaires are prepared ahead of time They ask specific and specific queries. Closed-ended questions and open-ended responses may be included in the structured questionnaire. In a closed ended questionnaire, the question setter provides multiple options to which the respondent must choose one. The finest example of a closed ended questionnaire format is one that prompts respondents to respond with "Yes" or "No"/ "True" or "False" responses.

  2. Unstructured questionnaires are those that are not pre-structured, and investigators may adjust questions during an interview to meet their needs.

Methods of Data Collection Using Questionnaires

Questionnaires can be conducted in a variety of ways. Here are a few key approaches to consider.

  1. Personal Interview: In a personal interview, the interviewer or investigator approaches the interviewee and asks questions directly to them. This method is widely used in research and studies, and the data accuracy is excellent. It is, however, an expensive procedure.

  2. Mail Questionnaire: The investigator mails the questionnaire to the respondents, who are then asked to complete it and return it to the investigator. A self-addressed stamped envelope is frequently included with the questionnaire to allow prompt return of the questionnaire mail. When the respondents are many and the investigator has limited resources to approach them, this method is generally used. The success of this strategy is determined by the respondents' literacy level and the correctness of the address database. One of the disadvantages of this strategy is that respondents may not take the questionnaire seriously at times, resulting in inaccurate responses.

  3. Telephone: The investigator uses this strategy to conduct a questionnaire by soliciting responses from the respondent over the phone. It is primarily given to responders in cities where telephones are readily available. However, the success of this strategy is contingent on the respondents' ability to use the telephone. It's also a pricey way of distributing a questionnaire.

  4. E-Mail: With the advancement of technology, surveys are now attached to emails and distributed to respondents who respond via e-mail. This method's success is contingent on the availability of internet access.

Qualities of a Good Questionnaire

  1. The most difficult task in social science research is questionnaire framing.

  2. To gather trustworthy data, questionnaires must be carefully constructed. The following are some of the principles that should be considered when creating a questionnaire:

  3. It must be simple: The questions must be straightforward and simple.

  4. They must also be brief and simple to respond to.

  5. Begin with a covering letter: The investigator or organisation collecting data, as well as the objective of the quest, must be introduced on the front page of the questionnaire. If the questionnaires are to be returned by mail, the address where they should be sent must be specified.

  6. The number of questions must be kept to a minimum: The number of questions in the questionnaire should be maintained to a minimal and limited to the study's subject and issue. Any questions that aren't directly related to the situation should be avoided.

  7. Minimum use of Technical Terms: As far as possible, avoid using technical jargon. Abbreviations must be explained with illustrations, either separately or in the questionnaire itself, if they are used.

  8. The investigator, on the other hand, should be familiar with those technical phrases.

  9. Questions must be logically arranged: Herein lies the investigator's or question setter's skill. He or she must structure the questions in such a way that they flow organically from the prior question's response.

  10. Avoid asking controversial questions: Questions that are controversial in nature, or that are too personal or specific to community views, should be avoided. Hypothetical questions should be avoided as well.

  11. Pre testing of questionnaire: Before final distribution, the questionnaire should be pre-tested with a small group of people. This will allow the investigator the opportunity to correct any issues and, if necessary, add or remove questions.

Physical form of Questionnaire

The physical form of the questionnaire may be meticulously prepared while the questionnaire is being designed. The following aspects should be taken into account.

  1. Size: The size of the questionnaire is determined by the study's scope. There should be enough room for the responders' comments and suggestions to be recorded. For recording the response, however, only one space is required. The use of questionnaire coding will reduce the amount of space required. With all of these considerations in mind, the size of the questionnaire can be determined.

  2. Quality of the paper: The question should be written on high-quality paper to ensure that it lasts a long time. White sheets may be used on all pages except the front page. Covering Letter: A covering letter is required for every questionnaire. The questionnaire's purpose must be stated explicitly. It should be guaranteed that the information acquired will only be used for research purposes and will be treated confidentially.

Advantages of Questionnaires

The advantages of questionnaires are:

  1. They are less expensive than conducting interviews and can be used to survey a large number of people.

  2. They take less time to complete.

  3. Because the interviewer is not present while the questionnaire is administered, respondents may feel more at ease and confident in responding questions.

  4. One of the benefits of the questionnaire method is that once it is standardised, the data received from respondents becomes more consistent.

Disadvantages of Questionnaires

Some disadvantages of questionnaires are:

  1. Because there is no human interaction between the investigator and the respondents in a questionnaire, clarifications on responses cannot be asked if they are needed.

  2. When a spontaneous response is necessary, a questionnaire is not the best technique to use because it is probable that the investigator will not receive a response to all questions.

  3. There is a potential that information will be modified if the responses are imprecise or if erroneous information is provided.

Q5) What are the constituents of the preliminary pages of a research report? Discuss.

Ans) The following main components should be included in the research report's preliminary pages:

  1. Title and Cover page: The title, the names of the authors with their titles, the institution that is publishing the report with its logo (e.g., Health Systems Research Unit, Ministry of Health), the month, and the year of publication should all be included on the cover page. The title could be a provocative remark or question, followed by an instructive subtitle outlining the study's substance and noting the location where it was carried out. However, this is only a suggestion and should not be taken as gospel. It would be suitable if the cover page was developed by a computer graphics professional, who would recommend including an important photograph relating to the organization's identification or the topic under investigation, or from the field, in the background. It is possible to employ design software.

  2. Foreword: A foreword is a short piece of writing that appears before the introduction in a book or other piece of literature. This may or may not be authored by the work's main author. Often, a preface will describe an interaction between the foreword writer and the tale, or the storey writer and the foreword writer. Later versions of a work frequently include a foreword that discusses how the current edition differs from prior editions. A foreword, unlike a preamble, is always signed.

  3. Preface: A preface, on the other hand, is written by the book's author. The account of how the book came to be, or how the idea for the book was created, is usually told in the prologue, which is often followed by gratitude and acknowledgments to those who assisted the author during the writing process. A preface is an introduction written by the author of a book or other literary work.

  4. Acknowledgements: It is customary to express gratitude to people who assisted you with the design and implementation of your study, whether technically or monetarily. You should thank your research guide as well as your company for allowing you to devote time to the study; the respondents may also be acknowledged. It is important to recognise the contributions of computer specialists, library personnel, municipal leaders, and the general public who donated the data. Before the references, acknowledgements are normally included right after the title page or at the end of the report.

  5. Table of Contents: It is necessary to have a table of contents. It gives the reader a rapid overview of the chapters in your report, including major sections and sub sections, as well as page references, so that they can read the report in any order they like or skip particular sections. Each chapter's divisions and subsections may be assigned numbers that are unique to that chapter.

  6. List of Tables: If you have a lot of tables or figures, you should include a table of contents with structured page numbers. The first letters of the title's essential words are capitalised, and there is no terminal punctuation.

  7. List of Figures: The list of figures, named List of Figures, has the same format as the list of tables.

  8. List of Appendices: Any additional information gathered by the researcher throughout the study will be included in the appendices. It could be a survey, a thank-you letter, or a government notice, for example. The appendices list has the same format as the table list.

  9. List of Abbreviations (optional): If the report contains abbreviations or acronyms, they should be expressed in full in the text the first time they are used. If there are a lot of them, they should be listed alphabetically as well. The list might be placed before the report's opening chapter.

Only after the table of contents and listings of tables, figures, and abbreviations have been completed should you include the page numbers of all chapters, sections, and sub-sections in the table of contents. The numbering of figures and tables can then be finalised, as well as the inclusion of all abbreviations.

List of Abbreviations

  1. AI: Agreement Index

  2. CMIE: Centre for Monitoring of Indian Economy

  3. CV: Coefficient of Variation

  4. DEA: Data Envelopment Analysis

Executive Summary: Only after the first or even second draught of the report has been completed can the summary be drafted. It must include

  1. a very brief description of the problem (Why this study was needed)

  2. objectives (What has been studied)

  3. the place of study (Where)

  4. the type of study and methods used (How)

  5. the major findings and conclusions

  6. the major (or all) recommendations.

The summary will be reviewed first (and, for busy programme managers/decision makers, probably the only) part of your study. As a result, it necessitates in-depth reflection and is time intensive. It's possible that several revisions will be required, each of which will be debated by the entire study team.

Because you worked with several groups on the drafting and implementation of your research proposal, you might want to write different summaries for each of them. For example, you could provide distinct summaries for policymakers and programme administrators, lower-level implementation personnel, community members, and the general public (newspaper, TV). You may write articles for scientific journals later on.

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