If you are looking for MDV-109 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Development in India - An Overview, you have come to the right place. MDV-109 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MADVS, PGDDVS, MACSR courses of IGNOU.
MDV-109 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MDV-109 / TMA / July 2022 – January 2023
Course Code: MDV-109
Assignment Name: Development in India - An Overview
Year: 2022 - 2023
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Answer all the questions. Each question carries 20 marks.
Q 1. Discuss the important reasons of migration from rural to urban areas? How have urban slums become a major challenge in urbanization?
Ans) Migration from rural to urban areas is a common phenomenon that has been occurring for many decades. There are several important reasons for this migration, which include economic opportunities, better standard of living, access to education and healthcare facilities, and improved infrastructure.
One of the major reasons for migration from rural to urban areas is the availability of economic opportunities. In cities, there is a greater variety of employment opportunities in industries such as manufacturing, retail, and service sectors, which provide better job security and higher wages compared to rural areas. This attracts people from rural areas in search of a better standard of living.
Another reason for migration is the better standard of living in urban areas. Cities offer better amenities such as access to clean drinking water, electricity, and improved housing facilities. Additionally, urban areas provide better education and healthcare facilities, which are essential for a decent quality of life. This makes cities a more attractive place for families to settle down and raise their children.
The development of transportation and communication infrastructure has also made it easier for people to move from rural to urban areas. Improved roads, railways, and airways have made it easier to travel between rural and urban areas, while the widespread availability of mobile phones and the internet has made it possible to stay connected with friends and family.
Urban Slums a Major Challenge in Urbanization
Urban slums in India have become a major challenge in the country's process of urbanization. Slums are defined as informal settlements that are characterized by poor living conditions, lack of access to basic services, and overcrowding. In India, urban slums are home to a significant portion of the country's urban population, and the numbers are growing rapidly.
One of the primary reasons for the growth of urban slums in India is the rapid pace of urbanization, which has resulted in a large influx of people moving from rural to urban areas in search of better economic opportunities. However, many of these migrants are unable to access affordable housing in formal urban areas and end up living in informal settlements.
Slums in India are characterized by poor living conditions, including inadequate housing, lack of access to clean water and sanitation facilities, and poor hygiene. This results in a range of health problems, including diseases like tuberculosis and dengue, and also exacerbates poverty and inequality.
Another major challenge posed by urban slums in India is their impact on the environment. Slums often occupy land that is not fit for human habitation, such as riverbanks, wetlands, and hazardous areas. The lack of basic services and overcrowding in slums also results in environmental degradation, including water pollution, solid waste management problems, and air pollution.
In conclusion, urban slums in India have become a major challenge in the country's process of urbanization. The growth of slums is driven by factors such as rapid urbanization and a lack of affordable housing and is characterized by poor living conditions and environmental degradation. Addressing the issue of urban slums in India requires a multi-faceted approach, including investment in affordable housing, provision of basic services, and the development of sustainable urban planning policies.
Q 2. What do you mean by economic drain in pre-independence India? What were the causes of economic drain?
Ans) Economic drain in pre-independence India refers to the process by which the wealth and resources of India were transferred to the British Empire during the period of colonial rule. This process resulted in a large outflow of wealth from India, which had a negative impact on the country's economy and development.
The economic drain took many forms, including the transfer of wealth through trade policies that favoured British merchants, the export of raw materials from India to Britain, and the payment of tribute and taxes to the British government. The British also imposed high tariffs on Indian goods, which made it difficult for Indian producers to compete in the global market.
One of the most significant examples of economic drain was the drain of wealth through the land revenue system. The British government imposed high taxes on Indian farmers, which resulted in the transfer of wealth from India to Britain. The taxes were so high that many Indian farmers were unable to make a living, and this contributed to widespread poverty and economic hardship in India.
The economic drain had far-reaching effects on India's economy and development. It resulted in a large transfer of wealth from India to Britain, which weakened the Indian economy and made it difficult for the country to invest in its own development. The drain also had a negative impact on India's infrastructure and contributed to a lack of investment in industries, which made it difficult for the country to compete in the global market.
Causes of Economic Drain
The economic drain in pre-independence India was caused by a combination of factors, including trade policies, taxes, and tariffs, and the transfer of wealth through the land revenue system. These policies and practices resulted in a large outflow of wealth from India, which had a negative impact on the country's economy and development.
One of the main causes of the economic drain was the trade policies imposed by the British government, which favoured British merchants over Indian producers. The British imposed high tariffs on Indian goods, making it difficult for Indian producers to compete in the global market. This resulted in the transfer of wealth from India to Britain, as British merchants were able to sell their goods at a higher price in India.
Another cause of the economic drain was the land revenue system, which was imposed by the British government. The land revenue system involved the collection of taxes on agricultural land, and the taxes were so high that many Indian farmers were unable to make a living. This resulted in the transfer of wealth from India to Britain, as the taxes were paid to the British government.
The British also imposed taxes on other areas of the Indian economy, including trade and commerce. These taxes were levied on Indian merchants, which made it difficult for them to compete in the global market and resulted in the transfer of wealth from India to Britain.
The British also controlled India's monetary policy, which made it difficult for India to invest in its own development. The British government controlled the printing of money, which resulted in the depreciation of the Indian rupee. This made it difficult for India to invest in infrastructure, industries, and other areas of development.
In conclusion, the economic drain in pre-independence India was caused by a combination of factors, including trade policies, taxes, and tariffs, and the transfer of wealth through the land revenue system. These policies and practices resulted in a large outflow of wealth from India, which had a negative impact on the country's economy and development. The economic drain played a significant role in shaping the Indian economy and contributed to the challenges that India faced in the post-independence era.
Q 3. What do you understand by service sector? What is the importance of service sector in development of India?
Ans) The service sector, also known as the tertiary sector, refers to the portion of an economy that is focused on providing services to consumers and businesses, rather than producing goods. The service sector is considered to be the fastest growing and most dynamic sector of the global economy, and includes a wide range of industries, including finance, health care, education, hospitality, retail, and information technology.
Importance of Service Sector in Development
The service industry in India has experienced rapid expansion over the past few years, positioning itself to become one of the primary contributors to the country's gross domestic product (GDP) (GDP). It has been reported by the Reserve Bank of India that the service sector in India is responsible for more than 55 percent of the country's GDP, and it is anticipated that this percentage will continue to rise in the years to come.
The ready availability of a large pool of skilled labour is one of the primary factors that has contributed to the expansion of the service sector in India. India has a population that is highly educated, with a significant number of people trained in various fields such as engineering, information technology, and other areas. This has made it possible for the country to become a centre for outsourcing and offshoring, which has resulted in a large number of multinational corporations setting up operations in India in order to take advantage of the large pool of skilled labour available in the country.
The rapidly expanding middle class in India is yet another factor that has contributed to the expansion of the service sector in that country. As a result of the growth of the middle class, there has been an uptick in the demand for a variety of services, including those in the fields of finance, medicine, and education. Because of this, opportunities for expansion in the service sector have been made available, which has helped to drive economic development across the country.
Additionally, the development of other parts of the economy is significantly impacted by the contributions of the service sector. For instance, the expansion of the information technology sector has resulted in the birth of a wide variety of additional businesses, such as those specialising in the production of hardware, the creation of software, and the provision of telecommunications services. This has helped to drive economic development across the country and has led to the creation of opportunities for growth and job creation across a wide range of industries.
In addition, a significant contribution to the process of generating new job opportunities is made by the service sector. The service industry employs a large number of people, including professionals with high levels of education and training as well as workers with lower levels of education and training. This helps to reduce poverty as well as the rate of unemployment, and it contributes to the overall growth and development of the economy.
In conclusion, the service sector plays a crucial role in the development of India's economy. The sector has grown significantly in recent years and has become one of the largest contributors to the country's GDP. The growth of the service sector has been driven by a number of factors, including the availability of a large pool of skilled labour, the expansion of the middle class, and the development of other areas of the economy. The service sector also plays an important role in creating employment opportunities and reducing poverty and is an important driver of economic growth in India.
Q 4. What is Globalization? Discuss the impact of globalization on development of India with special reference agriculture sector.
Ans) Globalization refers to the increasing interconnectedness and interdependence of the world's economies, societies, and cultures. It is a process that has been ongoing for several centuries but has accelerated in recent decades with the rise of technology and the growth of international trade and investment.
Globalization has many different dimensions, including economic, political, and cultural. On the economic front, globalization has led to the integration of national economies into a global economy, with goods, services, and capital flowing more freely across borders. On the political front, globalization has led to the rise of international organizations, such as the United Nations and the World Trade Organization, which play an important role in shaping global governance and shaping the world's political and economic landscape.
On the cultural front, globalization has led to the spread of popular culture, with movies, music, and fashion having a global reach. It has also led to the growth of international tourism and the exchange of ideas, practices, and values across borders.
Overall, globalization has brought about many benefits, including increased economic growth, improved living standards, and greater access to information and culture. However, it has also created new challenges, including income inequality, the displacement of workers, and environmental degradation. The impact of globalization is a subject of much debate and is a complex issue that requires careful consideration of its benefits and costs.
Impact of Globalization on Development
Globalization has had a significant impact on the development of India, with both positive and negative effects. One of the most important sectors that has been affected by globalization is the agriculture sector. In this sector, the impact of globalization has been both far-reaching and complex.
On the positive side, globalization has brought increased investment into the agriculture sector in India, leading to the growth of new technologies and the development of new markets. This has helped to improve the efficiency of the sector and increase productivity, leading to higher yields and higher incomes for farmers. In addition, globalization has also brought greater access to international markets for Indian agricultural products, providing new opportunities for export and generating new sources of income for farmers.
However, globalization has also brought significant challenges to the agriculture sector in India. One of the biggest challenges is the increased competition from imported products, which has led to a decline in the prices of many Indian agricultural products. This has put pressure on farmers, who are struggling to make a profit in the face of declining prices and increased competition. In addition, globalization has also brought new risks, such as the spread of plant and animal diseases, which can have a devastating impact on agricultural production.
Another challenge posed by globalization is the increasing consolidation of the food industry, with a few large corporations controlling a substantial portion of the global food supply. This has led to a decline in the bargaining power of farmers and has made it difficult for them to negotiate favourable prices for their products. In addition, the concentration of power in the hands of a few corporations has also led to the spread of monoculture, which is having a negative impact on biodiversity and the environment.
Despite these challenges, the agriculture sector in India continues to play a crucial role in the country's economy, providing employment and income for millions of people and contributing significantly to the country's GDP. To address the challenges posed by globalization, it is important for India to continue to invest in the sector, promoting sustainable agricultural practices and improving the competitiveness of the country's farmers. This will require a coordinated effort by the government, farmers, and the private sector, working together to promote the growth and development of the agriculture sector in India.
Q 5. Explain various programmes undertaken by government of India for the development of Scheduled Tribes since independence.
Ans) Since India gained independence from British rule in 1947, the Indian government has implemented a number of programs and policies aimed at promoting the development of Scheduled Tribes, who are often marginalized and face socio-economic challenges due to poverty, illiteracy, and exclusion from mainstream society.
The Five-Year Plans are a series of economic development plans implemented by the government of India, aimed at promoting economic growth and reducing poverty. The plans are formulated by the Planning Commission and are implemented by the government over a five-year period. India has implemented a total of 12 Five-Year Plans since the launch of the first plan in 1951.
The Five-Year Plans are based on the principles of a mixed economy, where the government plays an active role in promoting economic development while also encouraging private investment and entrepreneurship. The plans focus on a range of sectors, including agriculture, industry, infrastructure, and human resource development, with the goal of promoting balanced regional development and reducing poverty.
With regards to the Scheduled Tribes (STs), the Five-Year Plans have specifically focused on promoting the development of these communities, who often face socio-economic challenges due to poverty, illiteracy, and exclusion from mainstream society. The plans have included provisions for allocating a portion of the budget to the development of STs and for promoting investment in tribal areas.
The government has also launched several programs to improve the education and employment opportunities for Scheduled Tribes. For example, the Pre-Matric Scholarship Scheme provides financial assistance to Scheduled Tribe students to cover the cost of school fees, uniforms, and books. The Post-Matric Scholarship Scheme provides similar assistance for students at the higher education level. Additionally, the government has implemented a number of employment programs, such as the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), which provides guaranteed employment to rural workers, including Scheduled Tribes.
Another key program for the development of Scheduled Tribes is the Vanbandhu Kalyan Yojana, launched in 2007. This program aims to improve the livelihoods of Scheduled Tribes through the development of infrastructure, health care, and education services in tribal areas. The government has also launched the Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana, which aims to develop model villages for Scheduled Tribes and provide basic amenities like water, electricity, and health care.
The Tribal Sub Plan (TSP) is a government program in India aimed at promoting the socio-economic development of Scheduled Tribes, who are often marginalized and face socio-economic challenges due to poverty, illiteracy, and exclusion from mainstream society. The TSP was introduced in the 1970s as a response to the growing recognition of the need to address the disparities faced by Scheduled Tribes and to promote their development.
Under the TSP, a portion of the central and state government's development budget is earmarked specifically for the benefit of Scheduled Tribes. This budget is then used to fund a range of programs and initiatives aimed at improving the living standards of Scheduled Tribes, including health care, education, employment, and housing.
The TSP is considered an important tool for promoting the development of Scheduled Tribes, as it ensures that a portion of the government's development budget is specifically dedicated to addressing the needs and challenges faced by these communities. This has helped to promote greater investment in tribal areas and has helped to ensure that the benefits of economic growth are shared more equitably across different groups and communities.
Despite these efforts, however, Scheduled Tribes continue to face significant challenges, including poverty, illiteracy, and exclusion from mainstream society. To address these challenges, it is important for the government to continue to invest in programs and policies aimed at promoting the development of Scheduled Tribes, and to engage in a more comprehensive and holistic approach that addresses the root causes of poverty and exclusion. This will require a concerted effort by the government, civil society, and the private sector, working together to promote the rights and well-being of Scheduled Tribes and to ensure that they have the opportunity to participate fully in the economic, social, and political life of the country.
100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40 written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery
Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!
Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!
Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!
Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!