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MDV-110: Training and Development

MDV-110: Training and Development

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MDV-110 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Training and Development, you have come to the right place. MDV-110 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MADVS, MACSR courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MDV-110 / TMA / July 2022 – January 2023

Course Code: MDV-110

Assignment Name: Training and Development

Year: 2022 – 2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Answer all the questions. Each question carries 20 marks.


Q c1. Classify the types of training. Discuss the training types based on context with suitable examples.

Ans) The main types of training can be broken down into the following:

1) Based on structure

a) Structured training

b) Semi-structured training

c) Unstructured training.

2) Based on context

a) Orientation training

b) Induction training

c) Refresher training.

3) Other categories of training.

a) Direct contact and distance training

b) Formal and non-formal training

c) Centralized and dispersed organization of training.


Training Types based on Context:

Orientation training, Induction training, and Refresher training are three different types of training that have unique purposes and goals. Understanding the context of these types of training can help individuals and organizations make the most of their training initiatives.


Orientation Training: Orientation training is designed to introduce new employees to an organization and its culture, policies, procedures, and expectations. This type of training typically takes place on an employee's first day of work and is designed to help the employee feel welcomed and prepared for their new role. Orientation training may include an overview of the company's history and mission, a tour of the facilities, and an introduction to key personnel.

For example, a new employee at a financial services company might receive orientation training that includes a review of the company's code of conduct, a walk-through of the office, and a review of the employee's role and responsibilities.


Induction Training: Induction training is similar to orientation training but focuses more on specific job-related skills and knowledge. This type of training typically takes place over a period of time, such as several days or weeks, and is designed to help new employees learn the skills they need to be successful in their new roles. Induction training may include hands-on training, presentations, and the use of instructional materials such as videos and manuals. For example, a new salesperson at a technology company might receive induction training that includes product demonstrations, role-playing exercises, and a review of the sales process.


Refresher Training: Refresher training is designed for employees who have been with an organization for a period of time and need to update their skills or knowledge. This type of training may take place in response to changes in the industry or in response to changes within the organization. Refresher training is designed to help employees maintain their skills and remain competitive in the job market. For example, a customer service representative at a telecommunications company might receive refresher training in response to changes in the company's call Center software. The training would include hands-on instruction in the new software and a review of best practices for using the software to provide effective customer service.


In conclusion, orientation training, induction training, and refresher training are three different types of training that have unique purposes and goals. Understanding the context of these types of training can help individuals and organizations make the most of their training initiatives and ensure that employees have the skills and knowledge they need to be successful in their roles.


Q 2. Discuss the major approaches in training needs analysis with examples.

Ans) Training Needs Analysis (TNA) is a crucial step in the training process that helps organizations identify the skills and knowledge their employees need in order to perform their jobs effectively. TNA helps organizations ensure that the training they provide is relevant and meets the needs of their employees.


There are several major approaches to conducting a TNA, including:


Task Analysis: This approach involves analysing the tasks and responsibilities of individual jobs to identify the skills and knowledge employees need to perform those tasks effectively. Task analysis considers the job duties, the equipment and tools used, and the procedures followed to perform the tasks. For example, a task analysis of a customer service representative might include an evaluation of the customer service skills required to handle customer inquiries, resolve customer complaints, and provide effective customer support.


Competency Analysis: This approach involves evaluating the skills, knowledge, and behaviours required for employees to perform their jobs effectively. Competency analysis considers the organizational goals, the employees' responsibilities, and the industry standards and best practices. For example, a competency analysis of a human resources professional might include an evaluation of the human resources management skills required to recruit and retain employees, manage employee benefits, and resolve employee relations issues.


Performance Analysis: This approach involves evaluating the performance of employees in their current roles to identify areas for improvement. Performance analysis may include feedback from supervisors, customers, and colleagues, as well as performance metrics such as sales figures, customer satisfaction scores, and efficiency measures. For example, a performance analysis of a marketing team might include an evaluation of the marketing campaigns they have developed and implemented, looking at metrics such as click-through rates, conversion rates, and engagement metrics.


Training Needs Survey: The Training Needs Survey approach is a method of conducting a Training Needs Analysis (TNA) that involves surveying employees to gather information about their training and development needs. This approach typically involves distributing a survey questionnaire to employees and asking them to provide feedback on their current skills, knowledge, and training needs. The survey results are then analysed to identify the training needs of the organization as a whole and of individual employees. The Training Needs Survey approach is useful because it allows organizations to gather information directly from employees, rather than relying on management's assumptions or observations. This approach can provide valuable insights into the training needs of employees and can help organizations develop training programs that meet the needs of their employees and support the organization's goals.


For example, an organization that provides customer service might conduct a Training Needs Survey to gather information about the training needs of its customer service representatives. The survey questionnaire might include questions about the customer service skills the representatives currently have, their knowledge of the company's products and services, and the types of training they would like to receive to improve their customer service skills.


In conclusion, there are several major approaches to conducting a Training Needs Analysis, including Task Analysis, Competency Analysis, Performance Analysis and Training Needs Survey. Each of these approaches provides valuable information that organizations can use to identify the training and development needs of their employees. Organizations should choose the approach that best fits their specific needs and goals and use the information they gather to develop effective training programs that help their employees meet the demands of their jobs.


Q 3. Explain different types and roles of trainers with suitable examples.

Ans) Trainers are especially important to organisations because they help employees improve their skills and knowledge. They are in charge of making and giving training programmes that help employees do their jobs better, make more money, and reach the organization's goals. Trainers can do many different things and can be put into different types based on what they do and what kind of training they give.


Types of Trainers

  1. Regular Staff: These people work full-time at a training centre and run training programmes on a regular basis. Most of the time, they are in charge of coordinating different training programmes based on their knowledge of the subject.

  2. Ad hoc Staff: They are hired on an as-needed basis to help with extra work.

  3. Part-time Staff: They have been put in charge of certain tasks. Their job is only for a short time.

  4. Guest Faculty: Guest professors are brought in to teach in areas where the regular staff doesn't know enough. Guest professors are hired from specialised institutions and paid a fixed honorarium for their trainings. Guest instructors and regular instructors break up the monotony of training programmes.

  5. Consultants: Consultants help regular faculty members plan and set up training programmes. They also help regular faculty prepare background documents for training and keep training sessions running smoothly by talking with guest faculty.


Roles of Trainer: 

  1. Explainer: Trainers must clearly explain the program's goals, objectives, and practises to trainees. He or she must encourage trainee participation and involvement. Communication and involvement are the best ways to change. To benefit most participants, the trainer must value participatory training management. The trainer must manage training democratically.

  2. Clarifier: Trainers answer trainees' questions. Sometimes trainees cannot immediately state their goals. The trainer can help trainees who are stuck or confused with group work or individual assignments. Without answers, trainees may lose trust.

  3. Supporter: The training group helps trainees work through their issues. Trainees may not speak up for fear of a "negative halo effect" or being seen as stupid. Trainer’s support and befriend trainees here. Thus, the trainer must consider the trainee a friend.

  4. Confronter: The trainer must be able to talk to people. Confrontations are things like statements or questions that make you think about yourself. "A trainer must work with an apparent paradox," Friedman and Yarbrough say. On the one hand, they have to take everyone as they are. On the other hand, they have to face them, which means they have to push them to grow.

  5. Role Model: The trainer should show the trainees how to do things right. S/he must be friendly with trainees, be honest about his or her flaws, get feedback from trainees, and then change. Trainers should try to fix their flaws by having open and honest conversations with their trainees.

  6. Linker: The trainer makes connections with the trainees and the people who can help them, both inside and outside of the training institution, so that the training programme can start off well. A trainer also helps the trainees get to know each other and work together. Trainers are known for and expected to be able to make connections between people.

  7. Motivator: The trainer inspires trainees to follow the programme. The trainer should try to keep people's attention no matter the topic. The trainer can ask the group what they need before the session. If this isn't possible, the trainer should talk to the trainees for a few minutes at the start of the session to find out what they need and how the session can meet those needs.

  8. Translator or Interpreter: Trainers translate during training. They translate what the trainees say into the local language. Some trainees cannot communicate in their native language or share their thoughts. The trainer can then share the trainee's thoughts. Trainers must translate and interpret in India, where many people speak multiple languages.

  9. Change Agent: As a change agent, the trainer prepares trainees for internal and external change. Trainers are change agents who care about their trainees and their company. The change agent prioritises people over tasks.


Q 4. What is meant by training impact? Discuss various indicators of training impact assessment.

Ans) Training impact refers to the measurable results of a training program, specifically in terms of how it has positively affected the performance and productivity of employees. It evaluates the effectiveness of the training and its overall impact on the organization. Training impact can be evaluated in a variety of ways, such as by tracking changes in employee behavior, knowledge, and skills; by monitoring changes in job performance; and by measuring changes in productivity and efficiency. These evaluations can be conducted through pre- and post-training assessments, surveys, and other data-gathering methods. It is important to measure training impact because it provides valuable information about the return on investment (ROI) of the training program. It helps organizations determine if the time and resources invested in training have resulted in meaningful changes in employee performance and productivity. The data gathered from training impact evaluations can also be used to make improvements to future training programs, ensuring that they are more effective and better meet the needs of employees.


Various Indicators of Training Impact Assessment

An indicator is a measure that is used to demonstrate changes in a situation, or the progress in, or results of an activity, project, or programme. In other words, indicators are measures used to demonstrate changes over time point to the results are essential instruments for monitoring and evaluation.


Different types of indicators are given below:


1. Direct indicators

At any level of performance, direct indicators match the results exactly. For example, a training programme is meant to improve the efficiency of irrigation by creating an effective plan for running canals. In this case, the number of field engineers or farmer leaders of different irrigation projects who got this technique from a training is a direct measure of output. The number of irrigation projects in which such canal operation plans are implemented is a direct measure of training intervention outcome, and an increase in efficiency confirmed in so many (number or percentage) irrigation projects is a direct measure of training intervention impact.


2. Indirect or “proxy” indicators

When direct measures of change or results are not possible, indirect or "proxy" indicators are used to show the change or results. Some goals, especially impact goals, are hard to keep track of. Often, evaluators have to choose indirect or proxy indicators that are easier to measure.

For example, the case for more qualitative topics like changing behaviour, living conditions, good governance, etc. Some goals of analysis can be measured directly and quantitatively, but it would be too risky to do so. For example, level of income or, in the context of an HIV/AIDS intervention, safe sex, etc., are too sensitive to measure directly and quantitatively. In these situations, indirect or substitute indicators are used. It can be less expensive to use an indirect indicator than a direct one. In this way, indirect indicators are often used in management. Most of the time, managers are not looking for scientifically reliable data, but rather management information. An indirect indicator may be the best way to find the right balance between how reliable the information is and how much work it takes to get it.


3. Quantitative indicators

Quantitative indicators are given in terms of percentages, shares, rates of change, and ratios. For example, a drop in the death rate of babies and mothers is a quantitative sign of health.


4. Qualitative indicators

People's thoughts and feelings about a subject can be thought of as qualitative indicators. Quantitative indicators include, for example, the number or percentage of people in a village who have adopted farm mechanisation after receiving training. A quality indicator is how much faith these people have in farm equipment as a way to improve their economy. Note that quality of life indicators, like those that measure changes in a community programme on health, education, or employment, are often confused with qualitative indicators, since they both have to do with quality. In fact, health, education, or any other subject can be measured by either qualitative or quantitative indicators.


5. Result chain

The result chain shows the order of the indicators that an intervention change.


Q 5. Differentiate between different e-training courses. Write any five benefits and constraints of e-training in the context of Covid-19 pandemic.

Ans) E-training refers to training that is delivered through electronic means, such as online courses, webinars, and e-learning modules. E-training offers many benefits, including convenience, flexibility, cost-effectiveness, and the ability to reach a large audience. There are several types of e-training courses that organizations can choose from, each with its own advantages and disadvantages.


Some of the most common types of e-training courses include:

  1. Online Courses: Online courses are self-paced, interactive learning experiences that can be accessed through a computer or mobile device. They typically include multimedia elements, such as videos, graphics, and interactive quizzes.

  2. Webinars: Webinars are live, interactive training sessions that are conducted over the internet. They allow participants to interact with trainers and other attendees in real-time and can be used to deliver training on a wide range of topics.

  3. E-Learning Modules: E-learning modules are self-paced training programs that are designed to be completed on a computer or mobile device. They typically include a combination of text, multimedia elements, and interactive activities.

  4. Virtual Classrooms: Virtual classrooms are live, interactive training sessions that are conducted over the internet. They allow participants to attend training from their own location and to interact with trainers and other attendees in real-time.

  5. Microlearning: Microlearning refers to short, focused training sessions that are designed to be completed in a short amount of time. Microlearning can take the form of short videos, interactive games, or other multimedia elements.


Each of these types of e-training courses has its own strengths and weaknesses, and organizations should choose the type of e-training course that best meets their needs. For example, online courses and e-learning modules may be ideal for organizations that need to provide training to a large number of employees who are spread out across different locations. On the other hand, webinars and virtual classrooms may be a better choice for organizations that need to deliver interactive, real-time training sessions.


Benefits of e-training in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic:

  1. Flexibility: E-training allows employees to access training from their own homes or remote locations, which is especially important during the pandemic when many people are working from home. This flexibility also makes it easier for employees to fit training into their schedules.

  2. Cost-effectiveness: E-training is typically less expensive than traditional in-person training, as it eliminates the need for travel, lodging, and other expenses associated with in-person training.

  3. Convenience: E-training can be accessed from a computer or mobile device, making it easy for employees to participate in training even if they are not in the office.4)     Improved Accessibility: E-training can

  4. Improved Accessibility: E-training can reach a larger audience, as it can be accessed by people with disabilities or those who may not be able to attend in-person training due to the pandemic.

  5. Safety: E-training eliminates the need for in-person contact, reducing the risk of transmission of the Covid-19 virus.


Constraints of e-training in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic:

  1. Technical Issues: E-training relies on technology, and technical problems such as internet connectivity issues can disrupt the training experience.

  2. Lack of Interaction: E-training may lack the interactive element of in-person training, which can be important for building relationships and enhancing learning.

  3. Lack of Engagement: E-training may not be as engaging as in-person training, as it can be difficult to keep participants focused and motivated.

  4. Limited Feedback: E-training may provide limited opportunities for feedback and interaction between trainers and participants, which can impact the effectiveness of the training.

  5. Limited Hands-On Experience: E-training may not provide the hands-on experience that is important for certain types of training, such as technical or hands-on training.

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