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MEDS-041: Introduction to Urban Development

MEDS-041: Introduction to Urban Development

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MEDS-041 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Introduction to Urban Development, you have come to the right place. MEDS-041 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MADVS, PGDUPDL, MAUS courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MEDS-41/ASST/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MEDS-41

Assignment Name: Introduction to Urban Development

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Answer all the questions. All questions carry 20 marks each.


1. Explain the process of urbanization in north and south. How was the process of urbanization in the post-colonial era?


Process of Urbanization in North

Industrialization was the primary and fastest-moving element that contributed to urbanisation. Modern scientific discoveries paved the path for more structured factory manufacturing. In contrast to prior local and small-scale production facilities that required specialised job abilities, the factory was a centralised entity for mass manufacture of goods. Now, the machinery assisted in mass production. Plant production required labour, which made it possible for rural residents to travel to these factory locations in search of employment.


Urbanization began to accelerate alongside the industrial revolution. Cities served as both production and mass habitation centres. They required new ways of thinking about how to provide for these vast collectivities in terms of housing, services, recreation, and government, among other things. They were significant administrative territories. The renaissance and the rise of modernity had established the foundation for this. Thus, urbanisation in the North was a natural process that developed as a result of society's economic, social, and technological areas. These changes took place gradually. It was followed by the creation of organisations that went in the same direction.


Cities throughout Europe and the North showed how society developed to a specific level where all of these innovations came to fruition. In the global North, urbanisation was a process that was associated with wealth creation and the rise of this region as one of the world's major political and economic powers. Cities became the hubs of prosperity and areas where opportunities might be found.


Process of Urbanization in South

Several of these nations experienced colonisation by the northern nations beginning in the sixteenth century, for varying lengths of time. The colonisers' methods for colonisation and settlement were unique. However, the colonial period has left its impact on the urbanisation process in a few of these nations, but not consistently. A key component of the colonial policy was the development of cities that fundamentally altered the trajectory of traditional settlement.


In contrast to their traditional form, these new cities were distinctive in their physical form and served very different purposes. Some cities received special treatment and joined the colonisers' system of government. The colonisers also brought unique planning, governing, and service delivery systems. Each city had a unique function within the colonial system.


Urbanization was introduced through colonisation, which led to the emergence of several distinctive patterns in the Southern countries:

  1. Urbanization is forced by conquerors on a society that was not ready for it and is not the product of natural processes brought about by internal social and technological changes.

  2. Due to the imposition of form and function, cities now exhibit a divided form, with a colonial and an indigenous component. While the indigenous areas were underdeveloped, congested, and unplanned, the colonial area was organised and planned.

  3. Cities frequently exhibit economic structures that share this segmented nature. As a result, while some areas of the city benefited from the expansion of industry, many others who moved there in search of opportunity also did not find it.

  4. Due to their lack of alignment with regional reality, metropolitan government systems also have an alien quality. They placed a greater emphasis on management than development and were geared at serving the city's planned areas.


Urbanization In The Post-Colonial Era

Urban primacy, a phenomena, is seen in some of these nations. This indicates that in a settlement system, one city predominates over the others in terms of the population, economy, socio-political supremacy, and geographic concentration. For instance, 80 percent of people live in rural areas of Thailand. Out of the 20 percent of people who live in cities, 60 percent do so permanently, i.e., Bangkok.


Most migrants from the less developed north-eastern regions of the country—about two thirds—prefer to relocate 600–900 kilometres to Bangkok rather than any other nearby urban hub. This is as a result of the city's disproportionately high share of social and economic opportunities. As a result, in the midst of a sea of pervasive poverty, the city emerges as an island of opportunity. The imbalance in the settlement pattern and the fact that the effects of growth are not felt throughout the entire nation are two reasons why urban primacy is viewed as negative.


In the Northern Hemisphere, urbanisation was characterised and accompanied by changes in the general economy that resulted in a decrease in the labour force needed in agriculture, as well as changes in education, other facets of society, the creation of institutions, etc. As a result, it was more than just a process of urban population increase; it was also linked to societal, political, and economic transformation. However, it is frequently seen that urbanisation in less developed nations varies with increases in education, agricultural and industrial change, scientific thinking, and institution building. The term "excess urbanisation" refers to urbanisation that is out of step with other social, economic, and political indicators, and is used to describe some of the countries.


The cities are characterised by a large presence of migrants who are unprepared for the "urban" in terms of education, skills, etc. and in rates disproportional to the rate of economic opportunities accessible in the cities as a result of such overurbanization. As a result, division becomes a characteristic of cities.


2. Describe urban planning in India during different plan periods.

Ans) Urban planning in India during different plan periods is as follows:


The First Phase: 1951-56

The primary goals of the first five-year plan (1951–1966) were to house and rehabilitate refugees. To ensure prompt reintegration of refugees into their new homes and occupations, the Ministry of Works and Housing was established. In Delhi, Bombay, Ahmedabad, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, and Calcutta, numerous rehabilitation colonies and sub-towns were established. In the same time frame, Chandigarh was built as a representation of "modern" India. The First Five Year Plan also focused on industrial and employer housing as well as slums as two additional challenges. Slum clearance was explicitly called for in the Plan. It claimed that "it is better to pay for the cost of clearing than to...suffer their damaging effects upon human lives and property continuously" because slums are a "national concern" and a "disgrace to the country."


The 2nd Plan (1956–1961) noted that the majority of large towns and cities shared certain characteristics, including "increase in property values, speculative acquisition of lands in the vicinity of growing towns, high rentals, and the growth of slum regions." In the Third Plan (1961–1966), urban policy and development planning started to take on a coherent shape. Master Plans for various cities were created during this time, and it was realised that urban local governments needed to be strengthened, particularly in terms of their financial and administrative operations.


The Second Phase: 1969-1984

The main goal of the 4th Plan was to achieve balanced urban growth by spreading populations in smaller metropolitan centres (1969-74). This was done to avoid a population boom in major cities like Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras. It was emphasised that small towns should be established, and that economic activity should be distributed in a planned way that is consistent with the Plan's goals. The Plan outlined the necessity for a state-level urban land policy and offered detailed instructions for its creation. It suggested that the state level urban policies should focus on the best possible use of land; providing land to weaker sections of society; preventing land ownership concentration, rising land values, and land speculation; and allowing land to be used as a resource for financing the execution of city development plans.


The 5th Plan (1974–1979) focused on increasing basic services in cities and towns, introducing measures to control land prices in cities, providing a framework for the development of small and medium towns, addressing metropolitan city problems from a regional perspective, and assisting development projects with national significance in metropolitan cities. The 6th Plan (1980–1985) placed a considerable emphasis on the growth of small and medium-sized communities as well as the provision of essential services in urban slums. Although the Plan emphasised the need to improve drainage, sewerage, and sanitation in slums, the urban component of the 6th Plan is best remembered for the introduction of the Integrated Development of Small and Medium Towns (IDSMT), a centrally sponsored programme with the goal of fostering growth in towns with less than 100,000 residents through the provision of infrastructure and basic services.


The Third Phase: 1986 Onwards

By beginning a process of opening up options for private sector participation in urban development, the 7th Plan signalled a change in urban policy. The Plan mandated a radical (re)orientation of all housing-related policies and gave the private sector primary responsibility for housing building. With the express goal of preparing municipalities to use institutional finance and ultimately market instruments like municipal bonds for capital investment requirements, the Mega City Scheme was a centrally sponsored programme that was launched in five cities, namely Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, and Bangalore during the 8th Plan. The release of the India Infrastructure Report was one of the highlights of the 8th Plan period. The India Infrastructure Report was widely regarded as a key document in the drive to privatise and/or commercialise the development and administration of infrastructure, the supply of services, and regulatory and governance frameworks.


The India Infrastructure Report had a significant impact on the 9th Plan, which ran from 1997 to 2002. The Plan acknowledged the uneven nature of India's urban process, with urbanisation and economic growth primarily focused on some regions of the nation and in some regions of a state. Thus, it was acknowledged that the IDSMT, which was implemented as part of the sixth plan to lessen regional disparities, had mostly failed.


Current On-Going Programmes

When the Prime Minister established the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission in December 2005, the process of urban reforms, which hesitantly got under way in the 8th Plan, achieved its apex (JNNURM). The JNNURM is essentially a reform-related incentive programme for assisting state governments and urban local bodies (ULBs) in selected 63 cities, including all cities with a population of over one million, state capitals, and a few other cities of significant religious and tourist significance, with the goal of improving urban governance, facilitating urban infrastructure, and providing essential services to the urban poor.


3. What are different types of urban local bodies? Discuss municipal governance before and after 74th constitutional amendment?

Ans) The following types of urban local bodies are found in India:


Municipal Corporation: Municipal Corporations are constituted by both an Act of Parliament and an Act of State Government for major cities in Union Territories and States, respectively. Three powers are granted to corporations. The mayor and the deputy mayor serve as the leadership of the corporation council. The mayor and council members are chosen by popular vote. Council is the corporation's deliberative and legislative body. The standing committees, which deal with various activities like health, education, and public works and have the authority to make decisions in their respective domains, are the corporation's second organ.


Municipalities: For the management of small cities or towns, they were established by state legislature acts. There are three authorities as well. First, the municipal council serves as the municipality's legislative body. It is presided over by a Chairman, who is assisted by a Deputy Chairman. The operation of the municipality is facilitated by the standing committees in a number of areas, including finance, taxation, and health. The Chief Municipal Officer, who is chosen by the state government and in charge of the municipality's overall administration, is the third authority in the municipality.


Notified Area Committee: This could be established in a town that is rapidly growing or one that doesn't meet the requirements to become a municipality. Because it was established as a result of a state government notification that was published in the official gazette, it is known as the Notified Area Committee. It is not a formal body, and the government appoints all of its members, including its chairman. It carries out tasks that a municipality carries out similarly.


Town Area Committee: It was established under a unique state law for the management of small communities. It only accomplishes a few tasks, such as drainage and street lighting. It may be a fully elected, totally nominated, partially elected, or partially nominated body, as specified in the Act.


Cantonment Boards: They were created to carry out municipal duties for the civilian population residing in military or cantonment zones. Its distinguishing characteristic is that it was established and operates in accordance with the Central Act of 1924, which is governed by the Ministry of Defence. Depending on the amount of civilians living in the cantonment area, there are three different types of cantonment boards.


Townships: A public sector enterprise creates townships as its housing colony to provide civil facilities to its employees who live in townships. It has no elected representatives, and the public sector undertaking appoints the Town Administrator to run its activities.


Municipal Governance Before and After 74th Constitutional Amendment

Local governments in India did not have a constitutional standing prior to 1992; instead, they merely had a statutory status under state law. As a result, the state government actively oversaw how metropolitan areas were governed. The 1992 passage of the 74th Constitution Amendment Act brought about a change in this. Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) were given a constitutional place as the third tier of government for the first time in the history of urban governance. These organisations received a constitutional framework outlining their authority, functions, and financial devolution. The Amendment gave local bodies control over delivering fundamental services.

Depending on the population, Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) are divided into three categories:

  1. 'Rurban' areas have Nagar Panchayats.

  2. Municipal Councils: for more compact cities.

  3. Metropolitan areas should use municipal corporations.

"Local governments have lost strength and effectiveness in many States for a number of reasons, including as the failure to hold regular elections, protracted supersessions, and insufficient devolution of authorities and responsibilities. Urban Local Bodies cannot function as active democratic entities of self-government as a result.


Municipalities were established to include elected officials, professionals, and the Municipal Chairperson. They were given a five-year term, and an election was set for six months after diluting. A state-level election commission was established in order to do this.


The Directive Principle of decentralisation in the urban setting was another goal of the 74th Constitution Amendment Act. ULBs were given authority and responsibility for creating plans, carrying out development plans, and handling tax administration. To examine the financials of ULBs falling under its scope, a state Finance Commission was established.


The District Planning Committee and the Metropolitan Planning Committee are two other significant organisational structures established by the Constitution in addition to these three levels of local administration. The "Twelfth Schedule" was also included in the Constitution as a result of the 74th Constitution Amendment Act. The towns' intended functional tasks are listed in the Schedule (Article 243W).


4. Explain various types of municipal assets. Discuss the models of valuation of fixed municipal assets.

Ans) Following are the types of municipal assets:


Assets are divided into "Movable" and "Non-movable" categories according to the NMAM. When the goal is to physically check the assets, this difference is extremely helpful.


Land: Land comprises open spaces such as parks and playgrounds, as well as agricultural area, dumping grounds, tonga, parking spaces, and any undeveloped land. When land is used to create assets like buildings, roads, bridges, etc., the entire parcel should be listed under this heading.


Buildings (including structures): Buildings include lavatory blocks, urinals, dhalaos and dustbins and garbage vats, as well as office buildings, schools, public restrooms, hospitals, dispensaries, maternity and child welfare centres, shopping centres, town hall buildings, community centres, staff quarters, milk dairys, workshop buildings, fire stations, stores buildings, covered taxi stands, covered parking areas, public fountains, and others that cannot be classified as buildings. Under "land," land under buildings needs to be clearly differentiated from other land.


Roads & bridges: This comprises a variety of assets, such as causeways, flyovers, culverts, sidewalks, bridges, subways over bridges, and roadways.


Sewerage and drainage: This includes things like the sewerage network, roadside drains, and subterranean drains. Pumps and other station equipment, together with plant and machinery, would fall under this heading.


Water works: This covers all components used in the production of water, such as pipelines, overhead tanks, treatment facilities, reservoirs, bore wells, and other equipment.


Public lighting: This comprises electrical installations like transformers, wires, lamps and fittings, and poles as well as all lighting-related assets. Any electrical installations that are used for purposes other than public illumination would fall under the heading "furniture, fixture, fittings & electrical appliances" below.


Plant and machinery: The term "plant and machinery" refers to all engineering equipment, such as bulldozers and road rollers, as well as medical equipment used in hospitals, clinics, and maternity homes, as well as scientific equipment, such as generators and clock towers. Plant and equipment primarily utilised in waterworks, pumping stations, sewerage treatment plants, etc., which are already categorised under those areas, will not be included in this. However, this heading should also contain equipment used for other reasons.


Vehicles: All different kinds of trucks, water tankers, buses, jeeps, cars, two-wheelers, three-wheelers, loaders, etc. are considered vehicles. Bulldozers and other mobile machinery such as road rollers are not considered to be vehicles because their main function is not transportation.


Office & Other equipments: This heading would be used to record all goods used in offices, including computers, peripherals, photocopiers, typewriters, communication, and telecom equipment. Under this heading, other equipment should also be noted.


Furniture, fixture, fittings & electrical appliances: They consist of both wooden and metal seats, tables, racks, cabinets, water coolers, fans, air conditioners, refrigerators, TVs, and other household items. Office and other equipment-related items should be categorised first under that heading. Should be mentioned here if not.


All installation cables, lampposts, mercury vapour lamps, sodium vapour lamps, light fixtures, power outlets, and other items used in the buildings and other locations the ULB uses would also be included.


Other fixed assets: All other assets not mentioned in any of the other headings will be included in this. For instance, intangible assets like software will be included. Specific assets that fall under this topic yet have distinct standards for appraisal or reuse may also be divided into separate sub-groups.

Models of Valuation of Fixed Municipal Asset


The Cost Model:

According to the cost model, an item of property, plant, and equipment must be carried at cost less any accrued depreciation and any cumulative impairment losses after being recognised as an asset. This is the conventional "historical cost" model, which serves as the foundation for asset valuation for financial reporting in India.


Revaluation Model:

The valuation of assets is continuously assessed under the revaluation model to as closely approximate the fair market value as feasible. The following describes the model: The fair value at the date of the revaluation less any subsequent cumulative depreciation and any subsequent accrued impairment losses is the amount that must be carried for an item of property, plant, and equipment after it has been recognised as an asset.


Typically, an appraisal uses market-based data to estimate the fair worth of individual assets. However, due to the lack of a market for these assets, many ULBs have assets for which it may be challenging to determine a market value. In these situations, the item's fair market value may be determined by comparison to other products with comparable features, in comparable situations, and in the same place.


The following is the suggested fixed asset valuation model:

  1. Assets should be evaluated at their original (historical) acquisition cost;

  2. Periodically charging depreciation to reflect the asset's written-down value;

  3. Revaluation would be allowed, subject to certain limitations.


5. What are various principles and approaches to participatory development? Discuss measures to be taken for the promotion of participatory development.

Ans) Participatory Development: Principles and Approaches are as follows:

  1. By enabling groups, communities, and organisations to negotiate with organisations and bureaucracies, it strengthens civil society and the economy by influencing public policy and acting as a check on the power of the executive branch.

  2. It improves the effectiveness, sustainability, and efficiency of development programmes.


Participatory development, also known as popular involvement, is the process through which people actively and effectively influence choices that have an impact on their lives. Although it may entail challenging and drawn-out procedures, popular participation has many advantages, including the contribution of local expertise, a higher likelihood that objectives and outputs will be pertinent to actual needs, greater official and contractor efficiency and honesty because of public scrutiny, and "ownership" of the activity by community-based organisations. Participation can also result in changes in knowledge, abilities, and power dynamics within individuals and groups, enhancing social equity.


Participatory development is impossible without "empowerment." The capacity of members to take initiative on their own or negotiate with more powerful actors is strengthened when the organisations in which they engage are built on a democratic approach. By improving their access to resources and institutional power, especially that of previously marginalised groups like low-income people and women in particular, it increases people's ability to generate and influence development at multiple levels. Participatory development is not a "blueprint" approach to development; rather, it is a strategy that tailors its methods to the needs of the project context. What this strategy should be will be determined by a few fundamental ideas.


Key Principles to Participatory Development

The primacy of people: People's interests, wants, and wishes must be permitted to guide the project's major decisions and activities, regardless of the project's aim or final goal.


A project that does not try to employ local knowledge and abilities may not only be less productive but will also be wasting a valuable resource. People's knowledge and skills must be regarded as having the potential to benefit the project.


People’s Participation must empower women: By giving women the means to participate in decision-making, participatory development should aim to reduce gender inequities. Women's involvement must be transformative rather than merely symbolic.


Autonomy as opposed to control: Try to give the local community as much ownership of the project as you can, as far as it is practical to do so. This will prevent giving project workers total control.


Local actions as opposed to local responses: encouraging locals to participate in decision-making and action within the general framework of the project, as opposed to just passively accepting suggestions put forth by outsiders.


Allow for some spontaneity in project direction: Promoting community involvement means allowing the project to evolve in accordance with the local community's capacity to play a larger role and start taking on some responsibility, to the extent that is realistically achievable.


Measures for promotion of participatory development

The importance of involvement in project design is frequently acknowledged, and some projects even make participation its own goal. The degree to which various interest groups participate in the decision-making process should be used to evaluate the success of a project. Both the amount and the quality of involvement will be gauged in this. In the case of a water supply project, for instance, the creation of a village or urban water committee was a requirement for the project to support a village or an urban region, and one of the roles of the project manager was to assess the efficacy of these institutions. The following inquiries had to be addressed:

  1. What committees perform better, and why?

  2. The committees are they impartial?

  3. Are efficacy and representativeness mutually exclusive?

  4. Who is utilising the available water?

  5. Do any standpipes have issues?

  6. How well does the village/urban committee handle the standpipe repairs?


The project manager may use an institutional maturity index to assess the institutional health of the village water committees. This would include more than simply a list of the committees in the town or city. For example, it would detail each committee's membership, meeting frequency, degree of representation, and whether or not a record of the decisions made by the committee had been retained. This knowledge ought to make it possible to unravel the essentials of project progress and comprehend the causes of its success and failure.

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