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MEDS-044: Monitoring and Evaluation of Projects and Programmes

MEDS-044: Monitoring and Evaluation of Projects and Programmes

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

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Assignment Code: MEDS-044/TMA/2021-22

Course Code: MEDS-044

Assignment Name: Monitoring and Evaluation of Projects and Programmes

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Marks: 100

Q1) What are basic elements of project management? Explain various technique of project management.

Ans) Basic Elements of Project Management

Cost, time, scope, and quality are the four essential factors of project management that a project manager must consider. All four parts are intertwined and must be effectively handled in order for the project to be completed successfully.

Cost Management: An effective project manager is judged on his or her ability to finish the project on time and on budget. The costs are divided into three categories: expected cost, actual cost, and variable cost. In addition, there is a contingency cost that accounts for weather, supplier, and design allowances.

Time Management: One of the most critical abilities for any successful project manager is time management. The majority of projects fail owing to project managers' inadequate time management. A project must be broken down into a number of tasks that must be completed within a specific time range in order to effectively manage time. To create the project schedule, the project manager must first determine what tasks need to be completed, how long they will take, what resources they will require, and in what sequence they should be completed.

Scope Management: The project manager must explicitly define the project's scope from the start. The project manager will be able to plan the required resources and manpower for the project based on the scope of the project. The scope of the project must be adequately structured within these limits because the project is time and cost constrained. Authorizing the job, producing a scope statement that defines the project's boundaries, subdividing the work into manageable components with deliverables, confirming that the amount of work has been completed, and providing scope change control processes are all part of scope management.

Quality Management: The final but not least component of project management is quality management. The project's success is determined by the grade of work it has created. A good project manager strikes a balance between price, quantity, and quality. Quality management, according to Levis, comprises both quality assurance and quality control. The former refers to the measures that must be taken to ensure that quality criteria are met, while the latter refers to the activities that must be done to monitor results to ensure that they fulfil the requirements.

Project Management Techniques

The project management strategies assist the project manager in successfully completing project activities and achieving the project goal and goals within the time frame and budget allotted. In general, there are two types of project management techniques:

Bar Chart: Bar charts are a visual representation of the numerous tasks that must be completed in order to meet the project's objectives. There are two types of bar charts:

Gantt Chart: In 1917, Henry L Gantt created a bar chart technique for project scheduling and reporting. Gantt Charts were the name for these charts. On a horizontal time scale, it is a visual representation specifying the start and finish time for specific tasks to be accomplished in a project. The Gantt chart is used as a tool to:

  1. To plan time scale of a project

  2. To estimate resources required for a project

  3. For graphical illustration of schedule of tasks to be completed

  4. Helps to plan coordinate and track specific tasks for project

  5. Good for small projects when the number of tasks or activities is small and not complex i.e. good for simple projects.

Milestone Chart: The Milestone Chart is a variation on the Gantt Chart that incorporates milestones. The milestone is represented as a circle over a taste in the bar chart, indicating that a specific step of the work has been completed. This was done since a basic bar chart could not be utilised to track the progress of a task. In a milestone chart a task is broken down in to specific

activities and after accomplishment of the specific activity a milestone is reached or in other words an event occurs.

Milestones are represented by circles in this bar chart. In Task A, for example, milestone two cannot be achieved until milestone one has been completed and the activity between milestones one and two has ended. For example, in order to conduct a socioeconomic study in an urban slum, questionnaires must first be produced. The following are some of the milestone chart's flaws:

  1. It does not show interdependence between tasks.

  2. It does not indicate critical activities.

  3. It does not consider the uncertainties associated with accomplishment of a certain task.

  4. It will be always cumbersome to draw the chart for large projects.



The most well-known network analysis technique is the Programme Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT), which was developed between 1956 and 1958. The PERT was created for the US Navy to schedule the Polaris Missiles Program's research and development efforts. A network of tasks needed to finish a project is at the centre of any PERT chart, demonstrating the sequence in which they must be done and the dependencies between them. The following are some of the key characteristics of a network:

  1. It's a graphical representation of project tasks and their connections.

  2. The ordering of Tasks is indicated by connecting them to their predecessor and successor tasks, which is a key component of the network diagram.

  3. A Critical Path Scheduling Technique used for resource control is network diagramming.

  4. Critical Path Scheduling is a technique in which the order and duration of task activities have a direct impact on the project's completion date.

A few steps to be followed in network analysis are:

  1. Specify the individual activities:- All of the project's activities are listed, and this list can be used to provide sequence and duration information in the next steps.

  2. Determine the sequence of those activities:- Because some activities are contingent on the completion of others, sequencing is crucial.

  3. Estimate the completion time for each activity: - Past experience can be used to estimate the time required to accomplish each activity.

  4. Draw a network diagram:- The network diagram can be drawn when the activities and their sequences have been defined.

  5. Identify the Critical path:- The Critical Path is the network path with the longest duration. The critical path is significant because the activities that sit on it cannot be postponed without causing the project to be delayed. Critical path analysis is an important part of project planning because of its impact on the entire project.

  6. Update the diagram as it progress:-The actual job completion times will be known as the project progresses, and the network diagram can be updated to accommodate this information. It's possible that a new critical path may develop, and structural changes will be undertaken.

Some actions will be dependent on the accomplishment of others during the project implementation phase. For example, survey personnel training is contingent on the completion of personnel hiring, questionnaire design, and questionnaire printing. All of these actions must be accomplished in order to meet the personnel training milestone. The following symbols should be used to make a network diagram:

  1. Each activity or task to complete is represented by an arrow, and the duration of the activity is recorded beneath the arrow, in hours, days, or months.

  2. Each activity or task that occurs has a previous event (circle), and each circle is pre-numbered, such as circle '5' above, which represents the 5th occurrence.

  3. Given the dependency of other actions that would be finished beforehand, the earliest event time (EET) depicts the earliest time an activity (represented by an arrow) can begin.

  4. The most recent event time (LET) for an activity is noted in the circle following the activity (arrow), e.g., the most recent time an activity must be finished by in order to meet the project's elapsed time.

  5. When a task or activity (represented by an arrow) follows more than one prior activity, such as when the arrow might be formed from more than one potential circle in the diagram, a dummy activity is employed.

The following are some of the advantages of network technique:

  1. It provides a graphical view of the project;

  2. It predicts the time required completing the project;

  3. It shows which the activities to be started simultaneous and the activities critical to the project;

  4. It highlights ‘float times’ for all activities;

Definitions of a few terms required in Network analysis are given below:

  1. Activity – Normally, an activity takes up time and resources. It could include things like preparing a project proposal on paper, conducting a survey, and so on.

  2. Critical Path – A key action or event is one that must be completed within a specified amount of time. The critical path is the longest path through a network that determines when project work should be completed.

  3. Events – Beginning and ending points of activities are known as events.

  4. Milestone – This is an occasion that marks a significant turning point in a project. It is usually the end of a key phase of the project.

  5. Network – Arrow diagrams are used to represent networks. They show the relationships between the activities in a graphical depiction of a project plan.

Q2) Explain meaning and features of evaluation. Describe two important approaches to evaluation.

Ans) Meaning

The process of systematically and objectively establishing the relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, and impact of project operations in light of their stated objectives is known as evaluation. Because objectives and fair assessment of project outcomes are crucial components of an evaluation, the task of evaluation is usually entrusted to an independent organisation. It's also a management tool for improving ongoing activities and assisting management with future planning, programming, and decision-making. Evaluation gives data about past or present operations that can be used to improve or rethink future tactics.

Shapiro claims that "Evaluation is the process of comparing actual project impacts to agreed-upon strategic plans. It examines what you set out to do, what you achieved, and how you achieved it." "Evaluation means reviewing an ongoing or completed project, programme, or policy as methodically and objectively as feasible," according to PSO. The goal is to be able to make claims about their relevance, efficacy, efficiency, impact, and long-term viability."


Some of the basic features of evaluation are as follows:

  1. It is always with reference to stated criteria

  2. It is always with reference to a point of time

  3. It starts where progress reporting/monitoring/estimation surveys end

  4. It establishes relationship between policies/methods and results

  5. It investigates and find out factors for success/failure and suggest remedies

  6. More qualitative in approach and emphasis is on variability than standardization

  7. More purposive and less aggregative

  8. Policy concerns, problem formulation, organisational forms, administrative practises, and extension of technical contents of programmes, as well as people cooperation, attitude, and impact are all addressed.


One of the most crucial aspects of any project or programme is monitoring and evaluation. The funding agencies always want the money they give to a project and the purpose for which it is spent to be used for what it was meant to be used for. The World Bank (2004) uses the following methods and approaches for project evaluation:

Logical Framework Approach

The Logical Framework is nothing more than a tool that provides a structure for identifying the components of any activity, as well as the logical links between a set of means and a set of outcomes. It situates the initiative within the program's larger framework of objectives. It can be used to define inputs, timelines, success assumptions, outputs, and indicators for monitoring and evaluating performance. The Log Frame has a deceptively simple structure. It is a 4 4 matrix in which the rows represent the levels of project objectives, including the means required to attain them (vertical logic), and the columns show how these objectives can be validated (horizontal logic). The following are some of the benefits of using a logical framework:

  1. It forces the project analyst to start by tracing out the project's interlocking components in a logical manner. The focus is shifted away from the project's inputs and results and toward the project's goals.

  2. It encourages the project analyst to ask himself, "How can I check whether or not progress is being made toward achieving objectives?" from the start.

  3. It forces the project analyst to keep track of all of the risks and assumptions that come with the project. Assists in reducing risk and ensuring that assumptions are being met.

  4. It is simple to hand over to others.

  5. Monitor and Evaluator's intellectual baggage is the Logical Framework.

Formal Survey Methods

During the project or programme implementation period, formal surveys might be done at any moment. The survey shall attempt to obtain data from a properly selected sample of persons or homes using a standardised methodology. Surveys are frequently used to acquire comparative data for a big group of individuals in certain target groups in a project region. The survey will be used for the following purposes:

  1. Providing baseline data against which the plan, programme, or project's performance can be measured.

  2. At any given time, it consists of many groupings.

  3. Comparing changes in the same group across time.

  4. Actual conditions are compared to the changing condition of the target set in a programme or project design.

  5. Describe the current state of affairs in a specific community or organisation.

Some of the advantages of this method are:

  1. Its findings can be applied to longer group

  2. quantitative establishments can be made for the distribution of impacts.

Rapid Appraisal Methods

Rapid Appraisal Methods are a low-cost and quick way to acquire information from project beneficiaries or other stakeholders in order to provide it to decision-makers. The fast assessment approach is a hybrid of relatively informal methods like casual discussions or brief site visits and highly formal procedures like censuses, sample surveys, or experiments. The following are a few examples of common rapid appraisal techniques:

  1. Key information interview

  2. Focus group discussion

  3. Community group interview

  4. Direct observation

  5. Mini-survey

Rapid appraisal methods have the advantages of being low cost, quick to conduct, and flexible in exploring new concepts. Rapid assessment approaches provide neither good survey data nor in-depth comprehension of the survey because they are short-term.

Q3) Distinguish between monitoring and evaluation. Explain various tools and techniques of monitoring.

Ans) Monitoring and Evaluation: The monitoring mechanism should be explicitly stated in the project. It will have to specify the monitoring and evaluation procedures to be used for the project.



Continuous: Starts and ends with a programme.

One shot operation: At a point of time (usually at completion or mid-way of programme)

Required for immediate use and mid-course correction

Used for future planning/ replication/ expansion

Done by implementing personnel

Usually by outside agency

Quick but covers all units

In-depth; covers a sample

Correcting / managing

Learning process

Symptomatic, early warning system


Tools of Monitoring

Regular progress report

Field personnel should produce progress reports and keep records at the District and Block levels that include physical and financial progress, coverage by blocks, group composition (SC/ST/Other), activities, and so on. It is often easy to make a quick assessment of whether and to what extent the scheme's initial activities have been accomplished, and whether it is running successfully within the assigned budget, using the financial and physical status report. Funds disbursed for the plan can be compared to other data/schemes.

Monitoring staff performance (review)

Monitoring employee performance can help guarantee that people are being used effectively to complete tasks. All project participants should meet on a regular basis to discuss their progress, compare it to aims and objectives, and discuss difficulties and potential modifications.

Tour reports by field staff

The most helpful information about the qualitative features of a programme is frequently gathered through tour reports given by field employees; this is especially true when the project is small and the participants have limited education and literacy.

Participant observation

The field personnel may choose to stay in the communities and closely watch the groups in order to gain sensitive, first-hand information.

Reports from visitors

All visitors to the project area (Project Director, State Level Officials, Researchers, etc.) are required to provide a brief report on their impressions of the schemes by the project team. These can provide insight/information on new developments, allow for the sharing of ideas, and aid in the development of the programme.


Members of the group and community leaders should be asked about their attitudes regarding the plan and the behavioural changes that have resulted as a result of it.

Participatory Monitoring

Beneficiaries are become partners in monitoring and evaluation in this most recent technique. Project personnel and beneficiaries discuss and evaluate their performance together in order to better understand how they performed, what issues they faced, and what their future holds. The project staff mostly serves as a guide in formulating acceptable questions and generating responses. For example, the group could be asked to make inferences from bank records, savings books, and so on.

Key informants

We must endeavour to interact with other people who may be good sources of knowledge, such as teachers, postmasters, Kirana Shops, SHGs, and so on, in addition to our normal interactions.

Complaints / grievances

Many times, complaints and grievances from the general public and the target group in particular might shed information on the scheme's actual performance. As part of the monitoring process, every project should include such a source of information.

Techniques of Monitoring

Broadly following two techniques are used in monitoring:

Earned Value Analysis: Is a method of assessing overall performance through the use of an aggregate performance metric. Multiplying the projected percent physical completion of work for each job by the intended cost for those tasks yields the earned value of work accomplished for those tasks in progress. The money that should be spent on the assignment so far is the result. This can be compared to the real expenditure. The following are the most common estimating methods:

  1. The 50/50 prediction. After the task is started, 50% is assumed, and the remaining 50% is assumed when the work is finished.

  2. The 0-100% rule is as follows: This rule states that no credit will be given to work until the task is done. This is a very conservative rule that causes delays in project completion.

Proportional rule: This rule divides planned time-to-date by total scheduled time to calculate percent complete. This is commonly used rule.

Critical Ratio Technique: is applied in large projects, in which critical ratio is calculated for all project activities. The formula used for the calculation of critical ratio is:

If ratio is 1, everything is probably on target and if the ratio is further away from 1 it requires more investigation.

Q4) Define sampling? Discuss two methods of probability sampling with suitable examples.

Ans) According to Levin and Rubin, statisticians use the term population to refer to all elements that have been chosen for study, not only humans. They use the term "sample" to refer to a subset of the population. A sample, according to Croach and Housden, is a small number of people drawn from a large group for testing and analysis, with the premise that the sample is representative of the entire group. According to Boyce, sampling provides an estimate of some of a population's characteristics. To sample something means to make a judgement or a choice about it after just experiencing a little portion of it.

Probability Sampling

Simple Random Sample: A random sample means that each and every person in a population has an equal probability of being included in the sample, and that one person's selection is not influenced by the selection of another.

The two most commonly used random sampling methods are

  1. Draw of lottery

  2. Using a random number table.

  3. If we need to select a sample of 25 students from a total of 600 students in a college, for example, we make individual slips of paper for each of the 600 students, place them in a box, and thoroughly mix them.

Following that, a person is instructed to select one of the slips. The likelihood of each student being chosen in the sample is 1/600 in this case. This process is repeated until the sample size is determined.

  • Another basic random sampling method is to use a random number table to select 25 students from a group of 600. The following is the technique for using a random number table:

  • From 001 to 600, number each element in the sample frame.

  • In the table, choose a random beginning point. Any point will suffice. In the second column, say the second row (Appendix 1).

  • Look at the first three digits at that point, because 600 has three.

  • If the number is less than 600, include it in the sample; if not, look for a number with less than 600 in the first three digits.

  • You can move in any direction from there. Choose only three-digit numbers less than 600 until you get a total of 25.

If we start from the second row in the third column, the random numbers are: 31684; 09865; 14491; 34691, and so on, until 25 samples are chosen.

Systematic Random Sample Systematic Random Sample, like Simple Random Sample, uses a list of all members of the population in its sampling frame since designing a Systematic Random Sample can be complicated and time intensive. Instead of selecting the sample elements using random numbers, the researcher applies a skip interval to the list to produce

K = N/n

K = skip interval

N = Universe size

n = Sample size

For example, if we had to choose a sample of 100 people from a population of 1000, the skip is 10. In this scenario, you must choose a number between 1 and 10. If the number 5 is chosen, the first sample will be the fifth, followed by the fifteenth, twenty-fifth, thirty-fifth, forty-fifth, and so on. One of the advantages of this strategy is that it is more convenient and straightforward to develop than other methods. It is employed with very big populations once again.

Q5) What are various types of data? Explain process of tabulation and interpretation of data.

Ans) Data is usually classified into two types:

Primary data and Secondary data: Primary data is first-hand information about a situation acquired by an investigator or observer. The researcher gathers primary data while keeping the issues in mind. There are two sorts of primary data sources, according to P.V. Young: direct primary sources and indirect primary sources. Researchers have direct engagement with first-hand filed work observation using interview schedules and questionnaires in direct primary sources. In indirect primary sources, he gathers information through radio broadcasting, television appeals, and other useful materials. Secondary information is gleaned from personal or public papers. Secondary data can be found in books, journals, reports, letters, and diaries, among other places.

Discrete Data and Continuous Data: Only a discrete value may be assigned to discrete data, which can be separated into categories or groups like male and female, white and black, boys and girls, and so on. Continuous data, on the other hand, can have any value, including decimal. This is a type of data that is frequently linked to a physical measurement. A nursery's tree height is an example of continuous data. Continuous data, on the other hand, can have any value, including decimal. This is a type of data that is frequently linked to a physical measurement. A nursery's tree height is an example of continuous data.

Tabulation and Interpretation of Data

The following operations need to be done to bring data into a presentable form:

Data Coding, Editing and Feeding

After the data has been obtained, the researcher considers how the data will be processed and analysed. This is a critical stage in the research process. In this case, the researcher must reference the guide as well as other academics who have conducted research in the same topic. As a result, it is recommended that data processing be planned ahead of time, and ideally, during the questionnaire development and data collection phases. Researchers may believe that, with the arrival of the computer, this is the duty of a computer assistant, but this is not the case. A number of tasks must be accomplished before providing it to the computer aid or doing it manually:

Editing of the data: The first step in data processing and analysis is data editing. You must edit the data after you have collected it, whether through a questionnaire or a timetable. You must thoroughly check for missing or incorrectly submitted data. As a result, in large-scale surveys and research, the company conducting the study assigns supervisors, or editors, to ensure that the data is properly checked.

Coding of the data: The survey must be coded correctly. The coding of data is required before either delivering it to the computer or inserting it in the master chart. Data coding will make data entry much easier. Data coding entails assigning a numerical symbol to each query response. Giving numerical symbols has the goal of converting raw input into numerical data that can be tallied and tabulated.

Entering data in the Master Chart: If you're manually tabulating data, you should always enter it into a master chart. The master chart is a huge page on which you can enter all of the codes for various variables. It will make it simple for you to create tables.

Entering Data into the Computer: For data analysis, computers are commonly employed. It speeds up the calculation considerably. In social science research, the excel sheet and the SPSS package can be employed. The processes for using the SPSS package to analyse data are as follows:

  1. Entering of data in the SPSS statistical package

  2. Selection of procedure from the menu

  3. Selection of variables for analysis

  4. Examination of the output.

Presentation of Statistical Data: Statistical data is gathered for a specific reason. As a result, data can be presented in such a way that it is simply understood and a conclusion can be reached quickly. For the most part, the following three ways are utilised to present statistical data.

Textual Presentation: Statistical data is provided in text format in this method. This style of presentation is usually done in a descriptive manner. It is necessary to read the material carefully in order to appreciate the meaning and significance of the facts and data presented. However, for the vast majority of individuals, this is not an appropriate or successful technique of presenting statistical data because it is difficult for the reader to distinguish between particular facts and figures. The benefit of this strategy is that it allows a layperson to prepare and present the content, as well as read and comprehend it.

Tabular Presentation: Statistical data is displayed in the form of a table in this manner. Tables are made up of facts and numbers that have been gathered. This style of presentation is typically created in a tabular format with rows and columns. Tables present statistical information in a logical and organised fashion. The key benefit of this strategy is that tables are short and succinct, with only important figures. Tables also make it easier to compare figures. The sole disadvantage of this strategy is that it necessitates some abilities and strategies for table presentation and data interpretation.

Graphical Presentation: Graphs and charts are used to display statistical information in this scenario. Facts and numbers are obtained first, and then graphs and charts are used to illustrate them. Figures, diagrams, charts, and graphs are commonly used in this sort of presentation. The fundamental benefit of this approach is that the data and figures become more appealing to the eye. The fact that facts cannot be shown in detail and accurately is a disadvantage of this method.

Data Tabulation: Tabulation is the presentation of numerical data in rows and columns in an ordered and systematic manner for the purposes of information, comparison, and interpretation. As a result, a statistical table is a logical organisation of statistical data into rows and columns. For the purposes of presentation, comparison, and understanding, it organises and summarises the data in a logical and orderly manner. Tabulation is thus a scientific procedure and method for systematically and methodically recording statistical data. The five sections of a statistics table are as follows:

  1. Title: Each table must have a title that describes the table's contents. It should be simple, straightforward, and self-explanatory. It needs to be inscribed on the table's top.

  2. Stub: This is a column where the items and their headings are mentioned. It is the table's left-most column. A stub is usually divided into rows, with an object stated in each row. The stub should be simple and straightforward.

  3. Caption: Except for the stub, this is the heading for columns. It's the part of the Table that's on top. The caption should be correctly formatted and phrased in columns. A box head is the area below the caption that includes the units of measurement and column numbers.

  4. Body: the most important portion of the table It contains the information shown in the table. There should be different figures inserted therein.

  5. Source & Footnote: the final section of a table If the data was obtained from a secondary source, the researcher must disclose the source of the data. If you're quoting data from the Indian Census, for example, you'll need to include the year, the department, and the state. The researcher must include a footnote after mentioning the sources, for example, in the same cell if you are giving the figure, and in parentheses, the percentage to the total, and then it must be indicated in the footnote.

Types of Tabulation

The data is used to tabulate the results. Tables are often built in the following ways.

Construction of Frequency Distribution Table: A frequency distribution table can be of two types:

  1. Simple frequency distribution

  2. Grouped frequency distribution

The observations are not separated into groups or classes when creating a simple frequency distribution. The individual frequency distribution just shows individual values, but the grouped frequency distribution divides data into groups or classes. The following points must be taken into account while creating group frequency distributions.

  1. If the groups overlap, it will be difficult to determine which group a measurement belongs to.

  2. There must be no gaps in the flow of information from one group to the next. Some measurements may not fit in a group if this is not done.

  3. The groups must be arranged in ascending order from the smallest to the largest measurement, so that each measurement can be allocated to a group.

  4. Normally, the groups should be of identical width so that the counts in different groups may be easily compared.

Construction of Cross Tabulation: So far, in order to partially characterise our data, we've created tables with frequency distributions for one variable at a time. Depending on the goals of our research and the sort of study, we may need to look at the link between numerous variables at the same time. It is appropriate to create a cross tabulation of data for this purpose. Different types of cross tabulations may be necessary depending on the aims and type of investigation. The following are some cross tabulation examples. Three different methods of data cross tabulation are presented below. Tips for building tables in general:

  1. Check that all of the categories of the variables in the tables have been described, that they are mutually exclusive (i.e., no overlaps or gaps), and that they are exhaustive.

  2. Check that the column and row counts in cross-tabulations correspond to the frequency counts for each variable.

  3. Also, double-check that the table's grand total matches the number of participants in the sample. If this is not the case, an explanation is requested. As a footnote, this may be supplied. (Take, for example, missing data.)

  4. Consider a distinct title for each table. Also, make certain that the row and column headings leave no opportunity for misunderstanding.

  5. Your tables and graphs should be numbered, and they should be kept together with the objectives to which they are linked. This will help you organise your report and prevent work from being duplicated.

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