If you are looking for MEDSE-046 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Development Issues and Perspectives, you have come to the right place. MEDSE-046 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MEC, PGDCSR, PDGUPDL, MAUS courses of IGNOU.
MEDSE-046 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MEDSE-046 / TMA / July 2022 – January 2023
Course Code: MEDSE-046
Assignment Name: Development: Issues and Perspectives
Year: 2022 - 2023
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Answer all the questions. Each question carries 20 marks.
Q 1. Explain the vicious circle of poverty? What measures have to be taken to control poverty in the developing countries?
Ans) The "vicious circle of poverty" is the way that different things that make people poor are linked to each other and reinforce each other. Because there are too many of them, they are poor. Because they are poor, there are too many of them. The cycle of poverty that affects many people and communities around the world is called the "vicious circle of poverty." The vicious circle of poverty are:
1. Supply Side Factors Poverty
The supply side of the vicious circle shows that in underdeveloped countries, productivity is so low that it is not enough to build up capital. Samuelson said, "The backward nations can't get out of the mud because their production is so low that they have no money left over for capital formation, which could raise their standard of living." Nurkse says that on the supply side, there isn't much room to save because the national income is low. Low productivity, which is mostly caused by a lack of capital, leads to low real income. Because people can't save much, they don't have enough money. This is a vicious circle.
2. Demand Side Factors
Nurkse says that poverty is caused by a number of things on the demand side. People in underdeveloped countries don't have much of a reason to invest because they don't have much money. This is because their real income is low. The main reason these countries are poor is that there aren't enough people who want to buy things. Because of this, the sizes of markets stay small. The small size of the market makes it hard to get people to invest in it.
3. Market Imperfections
Meier and Baldwin say that market imperfections stop natural resources from being allocated and used in the best way. This leads to underdevelopment, which in turn leads to poverty. Human resources have a big impact on how natural resources are used and developed. But because of a lack of skills and knowledge, natural resources aren't used as well as they could be.
Measures to Control Poverty
Poverty is a significant issue in developing countries, affecting millions of people, and hindering economic growth and development. While there is no single solution to poverty, there are several measures that can be taken to reduce poverty levels and promote sustainable development in developing countries. Some of the key measures taken to control poverty in developing countries:
Increase access to education: Education is one of the most critical factors in breaking the cycle of poverty. By improving access to education and ensuring that all children have the opportunity to attend school, individuals can gain the knowledge and skills needed to secure better-paying jobs and create economic opportunities for themselves and their families.
Invest in healthcare: Improving access to healthcare is another essential measure to control poverty in developing countries. By providing healthcare services, individuals can maintain their health and productivity, which is vital for economic growth and development.
Address inequality: Addressing inequality is an essential step in reducing poverty in developing countries. This can involve implementing policies to reduce income disparities and provide access to resources and opportunities to those who are marginalized or disadvantaged.
Encourage entrepreneurship: Encouraging entrepreneurship is another measure that can help control poverty in developing countries. By providing individuals with the necessary resources and support to start their own businesses, they can create new economic opportunities for themselves and others.
Promote sustainable development: Promoting sustainable development is essential to control poverty in developing countries. This can involve implementing policies and initiatives that promote economic growth and development while also protecting the environment and natural resources.
Provide social safety nets: Providing social safety nets, such as cash transfers, food subsidies, and other forms of assistance, can help alleviate poverty and reduce the impact of economic shocks on vulnerable populations.
Encourage foreign investment: Encouraging foreign investment is another measure that can help control poverty in developing countries. By attracting foreign investment, developing countries can create new economic opportunities, generate jobs, and promote sustainable economic growth.
In conclusion, controlling poverty in developing countries is a complex challenge that requires a multi-faceted approach. By implementing the measures outlined above, developing countries can promote sustainable development, reduce poverty levels, and improve the quality of life for millions of people.
Q 2. Discuss the role of infrastructure in development. Describe how to measure infrastructural development of a nation state.
Ans) Infrastructure development in a country makes it easier for any business to run smoothly and efficiently. Since cost is a fact and price are a possibility, and since high competition means that price is set by market forces, cost control is important and within a company's reach. Costs can be cut by running operations better and having a more sophisticated infrastructure. The way operations management is done in India is changing now. Customer demands for better services, the growing dominance of technology, the view of the individual enterprise as just one part of the total value system, the growing interconnectedness and globalisation of business and economics, and the growing number of stakeholders that need to be satisfied all contribute to the significant operational challenges.
Infrastructure projects have high start-up costs and take a long time to pay for themselves. If projects are done quickly, they can save a lot of money, since even a small delay can cost crores of rupees. Operations management is used to keep track of all the small projects that are happening in different places as part of these huge projects. The core of development strategy and work is making sure that both economic and social infrastructure is good, works well, and is affordable. Without infrastructure services, businesses have to look for alternatives that cost more, which hurts profits and production levels. Since India's economy became more open to industry, the need for infrastructure services has grown quickly. Infrastructure bottlenecks continue to be the biggest obstacle to industrial growth in the country. Infrastructure projects are high risk and require a lot of money up front. They also take a long time to finish. World Bank guidelines outline some ways to measure infrastructure development:
1. Implementation Completion Reports (ICR)
When a project is finished and closed at the end of the loan disbursement period, which can take anywhere from 1 to 10 years, the World Bank or funding agencies, as well as the borrower government or developer, write down the results, problems, lessons learned, and knowledge gained from doing the project. The operational staff at the World Bank made the report, which was sent to the Bank's Board of Executive Directors for information. The goal of this process for measuring project results is to help similar projects in the future.
2. Independent Evaluation Group (IEG)
A separate part of the World Bank or a funding agency works to make sure that the results of the Bank's work can be judged fairly. About one out of every four projects is reviewed by the IEG (about 70 projects a year). These project performance reports measure how well the project met its original goals, how long the results will last, and how they affect institutional development. The IEG also makes impact evaluation reports from time to time to figure out how much money projects are worth and what long-term effects they will have on people and the environment.
3. Quality Assurance Group (QAG)
The Quality Assurance Group looks at the operations work done by World Bank staff or funding agencies in developing countries and gives timely feedback that can help fix project design and improve project supervision. The QAG puts out an Annual Report on portfolio performance. This report gives the Bank's Board of Directors and Senior Management a strategic view of the Bank's lending portfolio and analytical research program's size, composition, and quality.
4. Results Measurement System (RMS)
The International Development Association, which is a fund of the World Bank for the poorest countries, keeps track of the results as a whole. Its Results Measurement System (RMS) is meant to help the IDA keep its activities more focused on development results and to let donors know how well the IDA is doing. On two levels, the system measures how well things work.
5. GIS Mapping
Many developing and developed countries are in desperate need of multisensory mobile mapping because they need to build new infrastructure and keep the infrastructure they already have in good condition. It is well known that changing from static mapping to dynamic mapping has sped up infrastructure development by a huge amount. There are many systems in use around the world right now, but there is no common standard for how well they work or how accurate they are. The most important things that will meet the needs of different parts of the infrastructure markets are automation, high accuracy, and budgets.
Q 3. How to formulate Gender Development Index? Describe various gender adversaries and what measures to be taken to overcome gender adversaries.
Ans) The Gender Development Index is a measure of gender-based inequalities in key areas of human development, including health, education, and income. It is a composite index that reflects the gap between men and women in these areas, and it is used to evaluate progress in achieving gender equality and development goals. Steps to formulate the Gender Development Index:
Determine the indicators: The GDI measures gender-based inequalities in three key areas: health, education, and income. The indicators used to measure these areas may vary, but some common indicators include life expectancy at birth, the number of years of education completed by adult men and women, and income per capita.
Calculate the values of the indicators: Once the indicators have been selected, data must be collected to calculate the values of the indicators for men and women. This can involve collecting data from various sources, such as surveys, censuses, and administrative records.
Normalize the indicators: To allow for comparison across different indicators, the values of the indicators for men and women must be normalized. This is typically done using a mathematical formula that scales the values of the indicators to a range of 0 to 1.
Calculate the GDI: The GDI is calculated by combining the normalized values of the indicators for men and women. The formula used to calculate the GDI varies, but it typically involves taking the geometric mean of the normalized values.
Interpret the results: The GDI value ranges from 0 to 1, with a value of 1 indicating perfect gender equality. A GDI value of less than 1 indicates that women are lagging behind men in one or more areas of human development.
The Gender Development Index is formulated by selecting key indicators that reflect gender-based inequalities in health, education, and income, collecting data on these indicators for men and women, normalizing the data, and calculating the GDI. The GDI is an essential tool for monitoring progress towards gender equality and development goals, and it can help to identify areas where interventions are needed to address gender-based inequalities.
Gender Adversaries and Measures to Overcome Them
Gender adversaries refer to various forms of discrimination, marginalization, and oppression that are based on gender identity or expression. These adversities can be experienced by both men and women, but they disproportionately affect women and other marginalized gender identities. Overcoming gender adversaries requires a multifaceted approach that involves addressing individual, social, cultural, and structural factors that perpetuate gender-based inequalities.
Some examples of gender adversaries and measures that can be taken to overcome them:
Gender-based violence: Gender-based violence, including domestic violence, sexual harassment, and sexual assault, is a significant gender adversary. To overcome gender-based violence, it is essential to address the root causes, including gender stereotypes, cultural norms, and power imbalances. Measures that can be taken include strengthening laws and policies to protect victims of gender-based violence, providing support services to survivors, educating communities about the impact of gender-based violence, and promoting gender equality and respect for human rights.
Missing Women: Missing women refer to the significant gender imbalance in some countries where there are fewer women than men due to various factors such as gender-based violence, infanticide, and neglect. These gender-based adversities are particularly prevalent in some developing countries, where they often stem from cultural and societal norms that perpetuate gender discrimination.
Unequal access to education: Unequal access to education is another significant gender adversary, particularly in developing countries. To overcome this adversary, measures such as providing free and compulsory education for all children, increasing the number of female teachers and mentors, and addressing cultural and social barriers that prevent girls from attending school, can be taken.
Unequal pay and job opportunities: Women often face unequal pay and job opportunities compared to men, despite being equally or more qualified. To overcome this adversary, measures that can be taken include implementing equal pay policies, promoting equal opportunity employment practices, addressing workplace discrimination, and providing training and support to women to access high-paying jobs and leadership roles.
In conclusion, gender adversaries refer to various forms of discrimination, marginalization, and oppression that are based on gender identity or expression. Overcoming gender adversaries requires a multifaceted approach that involves addressing individual, social, cultural, and structural factors that perpetuate gender-based inequalities. Measures that can be taken to overcome gender adversaries include promoting education and awareness, strengthening laws and policies, addressing cultural and social barriers, providing support services, and promoting equal opportunity and respect for human rights.
Q 4. Distinguish between sustainable agriculture and inclusive agriculture. Describe two important agricultural reforms undertaken in India for agricultural development.
Ans) Sustainable agriculture and inclusive agriculture are two related but distinct concepts in the field of agriculture.
Sustainable agriculture refers to a method of agriculture that aims to meet the needs of the present generation while ensuring that the natural resources and environment are not compromised for the needs of future generations. This approach recognizes the interdependence of economic, social, and environmental sustainability, and seeks to promote farming practices that are environmentally sound, economically viable, and socially responsible. Sustainable agriculture often involves the use of environmentally friendly practices such as crop rotation, organic farming, agroforestry, and conservation tillage, which aim to minimize the negative impacts of farming on the environment and promote soil health and fertility.
On the other hand, inclusive agriculture refers to a method of agriculture that seeks to promote inclusive growth and development in the agricultural sector, particularly in developing countries. This approach recognizes that the agricultural sector plays a critical role in rural development and poverty reduction and seeks to promote inclusive economic growth by creating opportunities for small-scale farmers, women, and marginalized communities. Inclusive agriculture often involves the use of inclusive policies and practices such as capacity building, access to credit and finance, access to markets, and improving infrastructure and services.
Reforms undertaken for Agriculture Development
Agriculture is a crucial sector of the Indian economy, accounting for over 17% of the country's GDP and employing over 50% of the workforce. Over the years, the Indian government has implemented several agricultural reforms to promote agricultural development and improve the lives of farmers. Here are two important agricultural reforms undertaken in India for agricultural development:
Green Revolution: The Green Revolution was a significant agricultural reform undertaken in India during the 1960s and 1970s. The Green Revolution aimed to increase agricultural productivity by introducing high-yielding varieties of crops, improving irrigation systems, and increasing the use of fertilizers and pesticides. The Green Revolution helped India achieve self-sufficiency in food production and made the country a net food exporter.
The Green Revolution had several positive impacts, including increasing crop yields and incomes for farmers, reducing food prices for consumers, and reducing the incidence of poverty and hunger. However, the Green Revolution also had some negative impacts, including environmental degradation, soil depletion, and health hazards associated with the use of pesticides.
Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY): The Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana is a crop insurance scheme launched by the Indian government in 2016. The scheme aims to provide insurance coverage and financial support to farmers in the event of crop failure due to natural calamities, pests, or diseases. The PMFBY is a comprehensive crop insurance scheme that covers all crops, including commercial and horticultural crops.
Under the scheme, farmers pay a nominal premium, and the government provides the remaining premium. The scheme is voluntary, and farmers can choose to opt-in or opt-out of the scheme based on their preferences. The PMFBY has several benefits, including providing financial protection to farmers in the event of crop failure, reducing the risk of debt traps, and promoting agricultural growth and development.
In conclusion, the Green Revolution and the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana are two important agricultural reforms undertaken in India to promote agricultural development and improve the lives of farmers. While the Green Revolution aimed to increase agricultural productivity and achieve self-sufficiency in food production, the PMFBY aims to provide insurance coverage and financial support to farmers in the event of crop failure. These two reforms highlight the government's commitment to promoting agriculture and improving the lives of farmers in India.
Q 5. What is social development and what are various indicators of social development? Discuss social dynamics of development.
Ans) Social development helps people and communities live better. It involves economic, political, cultural, and environmental factors. Social development improves access to education, healthcare, food, water, housing, and social security. It promotes social equity, inclusion, poverty reduction, human rights, and social justice. There are several indicators that can be used to measure social development, including:
Education: Education helps people improve their lives and contribute to their communities. Education indicators include literacy, enrolment, completion, quality, and resources.
Health: Good health is essential for social development, as it enables individuals to work, learn, and participate in their communities. Indicators of health include life expectancy, infant mortality rates, maternal mortality rates, access to healthcare services, and prevalence of infectious diseases.
Income and Poverty: Income and poverty are important indicators of social development, as they reflect the distribution of wealth and resources within a society. Indicators of income and poverty include the poverty rate, income inequality, and access to basic resources such as food, water, and shelter.
Gender Equality: Gender equality is an important aspect of social development, as it promotes social equity and inclusion. Indicators of gender equality include women's participation in the workforce, access to education and healthcare, and representation in political and decision-making processes.
Social Inclusion: Social inclusion refers to the extent to which people feel valued, respected, and included in their communities. Indicators of social inclusion include access to social services and resources, social cohesion, and the prevalence of discrimination and exclusion based on factors such as race, ethnicity, religion, or sexual orientation.
Social Dynamics of Development
Social development is the upward movement of society from lower to higher levels of energy, efficiency, quality, productivity, complexity, comprehension, creativity, choice, mastery, enjoyment, and accomplishment. Individuals and societies grow in freedom of choice and ability to act on their own.
Growth and development often occur together, but they follow different laws. Growth involves horizontal or quantitative expansion and multiplication of activities. Organizational growth is vertical or qualitative.
Society's subconscious desire for progress drives social development. The social will prioritise security of borders, law and order, self-sufficiency in food and shelter, organisation for peace and prosperity, expression of excess energy in entertainment, leisure and enjoyment, knowledge, and artistic creativity.
Society develops only where the collective will be strong and seeking expression. Development strategies work best when they identify mature social will and improve social energy expression. Only initiatives that align with this subconscious urge will grow and spread. Subconscious collective development. Physical experience precedes conscious understanding.
Society organises human interactions. Only a small portion of human activity is organised for social use, so only a small portion of development potential (technology, knowledge, information, skills, systems) is tapped.
Every society's organised foundations—cultural values, physical security, social beliefs, and political structures—absorb and hold a huge reservoir of potential human energy. During transitions, crises, and opportunities, those energies manifest. Policies, strategies, and programmes that tap this latent energy and channel it into constructive activities can galvanise a nation to action and rapid advancement.
Social organisation starts with acts. Social organisation is the fabric of more complex and productive activities woven together by people to form systems, organisations, institutions, and cultural values.
Social organisations and institutions that channel society's energy to higher achievement are essential to development. To achieve its goals, society organises its knowledge, energy, and resources.
Peace and physical security in society; physical activities and infrastructure; productive processes using skills and technology in agriculture, industry, and services; social processes we call systems, laws, institutions, and administrative agencies; and data as useful informant form organisations simultaneously. Every company can grow. These organisational levels are interdependent. Elevating the organisation at any level maximises resource use and development.
Development takes energy to change social norms. Development occurs when social energies outweigh needs. New opportunities or severe challenges can energise society. Cultures mix, social evolution explodes. Activity releases surplus energy and grows society quantitatively. Channelling excess energy into more complex and effective organised activity improves society's capabilities. The status quo doesn't hinder society's unorganised activities, so they improve first.
Social attitudes control social energy and development. Development strategies fail without supportive attitudes. Public education, demonstration, and encouraging successful pioneers should be prioritised to change social attitudes.
Where society recognises and embraces opportunities and challenges, development accelerates. Awareness accelerates.
Pioneers who seize new opportunities and change their habits advance society. Pioneers show collective subconscious readiness. Society develops when pioneering initiatives are copied, multiplied, and supported. Society organises new activity by creating supportive laws, systems, and institutions. It then incorporates the new activity into its education and other fields. Family traditions are fully assimilated into culture.
Development is a process. Society develops. Government policies, laws, and special programmes can stimulate, direct, or assist it, but administrative or external agencies cannot force it. Development should empower people, not replace it.
Minds create all resources. When people find a productive use for something, it becomes a resource. Human creativity and resourcefulness have no limits, so any resource can be productive. Humans drive development. People become aware of their creative potential and take steps to realise it. Society's response depends on awareness, aspiration, and attitudes. Humanity develops when it realises its power to influence outcomes.
Social organisations evolve as humanity's consciousness evolves from physical to vital to mental. This evolution is seen in a shift from material resources to technological and information resources; from land's social importance to money and knowledge; from elite hereditary rights to fundamental rights for all; and from physical authority to laws and shared values. Development becomes more conscious and faster as society progresses.
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