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MEG-12: A Survey Course in 20th Century Canadian Literature

MEG-12: A Survey Course in 20th Century Canadian Literature

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Assignment Code: MEG-12/TMA/2023-2024

Course Code: MEG-12

Assignment Name: Canadian Literature

Year: 2023-2024

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Q1) What are the different stages of Canadian history from the First Settlers to the present age? Elaborate on it.

Ans) Canada's history is characterized by a series of significant stages, from the arrival of the First Settlers to the present age. Each stage has been marked by key events and developments that have shaped the nation's identity and trajectory.

First Nations and Indigenous Peoples (Pre-Contact to 16th Century):

Indigenous peoples, including First Nations, Inuit, and Métis, have inhabited the land now known as Canada for thousands of years. Diverse cultures and societies thrived, with distinct languages, traditions, and economies.

European Exploration and Colonization (16th to 18th Century):

European explorers, including Jacques Cartier and Samuel de Champlain, arrived in Canada in the 16th century. The French established colonies in New France (Quebec) in the early 17th century, while the British established colonies in Newfoundland and Hudson Bay. The struggle for control between France and Britain culminated in the Seven Years' War, resulting in British dominance.

British North America (Late 18th to 19th Century):

The British North America Act of 1867 united the colonies of Canada (Ontario and Quebec), New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia into the Dominion of Canada. The westward expansion led to the purchase of Rupert's Land and the Northwest Territories. The completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1885 facilitated transcontinental trade and transportation.

World Wars and the Early 20th Century (20th Century):

Canada played a significant role in both World War I and World War II, contributing troops and resources. Post-World War II, Canada experienced economic growth and expansion of social programs.

Quiet Revolution and Constitutional Change (Mid-20th Century):

The 1960s saw the Quiet Revolution in Quebec, marked by secularization, political changes, and increased demands for French language rights. The patriation of the Canadian Constitution from the UK occurred in 1982, with the inclusion of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

Multiculturalism and Immigration (Late 20th Century):

Canada adopted a policy of official multiculturalism in 1971, celebrating diversity and cultural pluralism. Immigration policies were revised to promote a more inclusive and diverse society.

Indigenous Rights and Reconciliation (Late 20th Century to Present):

Efforts to address historical injustices and advance Indigenous rights gained momentum, leading to land claims settlements and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Issues related to Indigenous self-governance, land rights, and social disparities remain significant challenges.

Globalization and the 21st Century (21st Century):

Canada has embraced globalization and international partnerships, playing an active role in various global issues, such as climate change, peacekeeping, and humanitarian efforts. Economic sectors, including technology and natural resources, continue to evolve and shape the nation's economy.

Challenges and Opportunities (Present Age):

Canada faces contemporary challenges such as environmental sustainability, social inequality, and reconciliation with Indigenous peoples. Opportunities for innovation, growth, and diversity remain at the forefront of Canada's evolving identity.

Q2) What makes 1967 a key year in the development of indigenous Canadian drama? What gives George Ryga a special place in Canadian drama?

Ans) 1967 is a pivotal year in the development of Indigenous Canadian drama for several significant reasons:

Centennial Celebrations: Canada celebrated its centennial in 1967, marking 100 years since Confederation. This milestone prompted a revaluation of the country's history, identity, and cultural diversity. It also provided an opportunity for Indigenous voices to be heard on a national stage.

Founding of the National Indian Council of the Arts (NICA): In 1967, the National Indian Council of the Arts was established. NICA played a crucial role in promoting Indigenous arts and culture, including drama. It provided funding, resources, and support for Indigenous artists, allowing them to highlight their work to a wider audience.

Emergence of Indigenous Playwrights: During this period, Indigenous playwrights began to gain recognition and prominence in the Canadian theatre scene. Artists like Tomson Highway, Drew Hayden Taylor, and Marie Clements started to write and produce plays that reflected Indigenous stories, experiences, and perspectives.

Increased Cultural Awareness: The late 1960s saw a growing awareness of Indigenous rights and cultural heritage in Canada. This cultural awakening led to a greater appreciation of Indigenous storytelling and artistic expression, including drama.

George Ryga's Influence: George Ryga, a non-Indigenous playwright, played a significant role in advocating for Indigenous voices and issues in Canadian drama. His groundbreaking play "The Ecstasy of Rita Joe" (1967) addressed the experiences of Indigenous people in urban centres and drew attention to the challenges they faced. Ryga's work helped pave the way for the inclusion of Indigenous narratives in Canadian theatre.

George Ryga holds a special place in Canadian drama for several reasons:

"The Ecstasy of Rita Joe": Ryga's play "The Ecstasy of Rita Joe" is a seminal work that had a profound impact on Canadian theatre. It tells the story of Rita Joe, a young Indigenous woman who leaves her reserve for the city, only to face poverty, discrimination, and tragedy. The play's frank exploration of Indigenous issues and social injustice was groundbreaking and brought attention to the struggles of Indigenous people in urban settings.

Advocacy for Indigenous Voices: While Ryga was not Indigenous himself, he used his platform as a playwright to advocate for Indigenous voices and issues. He worked closely with Indigenous communities and collaborated with Indigenous artists, helping to create a space for their stories and perspectives in Canadian theatre.

Championing Social Justice: Ryga's commitment to social justice and his willingness to address difficult and uncomfortable topics in his work made him a trailblazer in Canadian drama. His plays often tackled issues of inequality, racism, and poverty, reflecting a deep concern for the marginalized and disenfranchised.

Legacy in Canadian Theatre: George Ryga's legacy endures in Canadian theatre, not only through his plays but also through the impact he had on the broader cultural landscape. He paved the way for future generations of Indigenous playwrights and contributed to the diversification and enrichment of Canadian drama.

Q3) What is the general Canadian attitude to 'Nature" especially in the early years of its existence as a nation?

Ans) In the early years of its existence as a nation, Canada's attitude toward nature was deeply influenced by a combination of factors, including Indigenous perspectives, European colonialism, and the vast, untamed wilderness that characterized the country. While it is essential to recognize the diversity of attitudes within Canadian society.

Indigenous Connection to Nature: Indigenous peoples in Canada had a profound and enduring connection to the natural world. Nature was not viewed as a separate entity but as an integral part of their cultural and spiritual identity. Indigenous communities respected and relied on the land for sustenance, medicine, and ceremony. This perspective emphasized a harmonious relationship with nature and a deep understanding of the environment.

European Colonial Influence: European settlers arriving in Canada brought with them a unique perspective on nature. Many early European colonists saw the Canadian wilderness as a formidable and challenging frontier to conquer. They viewed nature as a resource to be exploited for economic gain, leading to activities like fur trapping, logging, and mining. This utilitarian view often clashed with Indigenous perspectives.

National Identity and the Wilderness: In the early years of Canada as a nation, the vast wilderness played a significant role in shaping the country's identity. The Canadian landscape, characterized by pristine lakes, forests, and mountains, became a symbol of national pride and a source of inspiration for artists, writers, and explorers. The Group of Seven, a collective of Canadian artists, painted iconic landscapes that celebrated the natural beauty of Canada.

Conservation Movements: Over time, as the exploitation of natural resources intensified, conservation movements began to emerge. Concerns about the depletion of wildlife, deforestation, and environmental degradation led to the establishment of national parks and protected areas. These efforts reflected a growing awareness of the need to balance economic development with the preservation of nature.

Wilderness as a Challenge: For some Canadians, the wilderness represented a challenge and an opportunity for adventure. Explorers like Samuel Hearne, David Thompson, and Alexander Mackenzie undertook treacherous journeys to map and navigate the country's uncharted territories. Their expeditions contributed to the expansion of Canada's geographic knowledge and exploration heritage.

Spiritual and Transcendental Views: Some Canadians, influenced by Romanticism and transcendentalist philosophies, developed a spiritual connection to nature. They saw the wilderness as a place of contemplation, beauty, and spiritual renewal. This perspective resonated with authors like Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau and found echoes in the writings of Canadian nature poets and essayists.

Q4) What are the chief characteristics of 20" century Canadian poetry?

Ans) The 20th century saw significant developments in Canadian poetry, marked by a diverse range of styles, themes, and voices. While it is challenging to encapsulate the entirety of 20th-century, the chief characteristics are:

  1. Regionalism and Identity: Canadian poets of the 20th century often explored themes of regionalism and national identity. They grappled with questions of what it meant to be Canadian and how the country's vast and diverse geography influenced its cultural and social fabric. Poets like E.J. Pratt and Archibald Lampman celebrated the Canadian landscape and its impact on the national psyche.

  2. Urbanization and Modernization: As Canada underwent rapid urbanization and modernization during the 20th century, poets like Al Purdy and Milton Acorn captured the changing urban landscapes and the challenges and complexities of urban life. Their work reflected the evolving social and cultural dynamics of Canadian cities.

  3. Cultural Diversity and Multiculturalism: Canada's cultural landscape became increasingly diverse due to immigration and globalization. Poets such as Dionne Brand, George Elliott Clarke, and Rupi Kaur explored themes of cultural diversity, multiculturalism, and the experiences of marginalized communities. They celebrated the richness of Canada's multicultural tapestry.

  4. Social and Political Commentary: Canadian poets used their work to comment on pressing social and political issues of the 20th century. This included themes such as war, feminism, Indigenous rights, environmental conservation, and social justice. Poets like Margaret Atwood and Leonard Cohen engaged with these topics in their poetry.

  5. Experimentation and Innovation: Many Canadian poets in the 20th century embraced experimentation and innovation in their poetry. Influenced by modernist and postmodernist movements, they played with form, language, and structure. Poets like bpNichol and Anne Carson pushed the boundaries of traditional poetic expression.

  6. Nature and the Environment: Canada's natural landscapes continued to be a prominent theme in 20th-century poetry. Poets like P.K. Page and Don McKay explored the intricate relationship between humans and the environment, often highlighting the need for environmental conservation.

  7. Feminism and Gender Identity: Feminist poets like Margaret Atwood and Dorothy Livesay addressed issues of gender identity, women's rights, and the patriarchal structures of society. Their work contributed to the feminist literary canon in Canada.

  8. Narrative and Storytelling: Narrative poetry remained a significant mode of expression, with poets like Margaret Avison and Michael Ondaatje using storytelling techniques to convey personal and historical narratives.

  9. Indigenous Voices: In the latter half of the 20th century, Indigenous poets, including authors like E. Pauline Johnson and Katherena Vermette, began to gain recognition for their work. Their poetry often centred on Indigenous experiences, traditions, and challenges.

  10. Global Influences: Canadian poets drew inspiration from global literary and cultural movements, incorporating international perspectives into their work. This global outlook contributed to the richness and diversity of Canadian poetry.

Q5) Comment on the overall thematic thrust of Surfacing. Structurally, what are the three broad sections into which Surfacing can be divided?

Ans) "Surfacing" is a novel by Canadian author Margaret Atwood, first published in 1972. The novel explores a variety of complex themes while providing readers with a gripping narrative. Structurally, "Surfacing" can be divided into three broad sections, each with its thematic focus:

First Section: Journey to the Wilderness:

The initial section of the novel revolves around the protagonist, who remains unnamed throughout the story, returning to her childhood home in the remote wilderness of Quebec. This section sets the stage for the narrative and introduces several key themes:

Identity and Disconnection: The protagonist is disconnected from her own identity and is grappling with a sense of disconnection from her past, her family, and the society she left behind. Her journey to the wilderness is, in part, an attempt to find herself and reconnect with her roots.

Nature and Wilderness: The natural landscape plays a significant role in this section. The wilderness is depicted as both a place of beauty and a source of unease. The protagonist's interactions with nature reflect her inner turmoil and her evolving relationship with the environment.

Family and Relationships: Through the protagonist's interactions with her companions on the journey, including her boyfriend, Joe, and a married couple, Anna and David, the novel explores the complexities of familial and romantic relationships. It delves into themes of love, betrayal, and the breakdown of communication.

Second Section: Unearthing Secrets:

The narrative takes a darker turn as the protagonist and her companions stumble upon a mysterious and disturbing discovery. The thematic focus shifts to:

Past Trauma and Secrets: The discovery of a submerged car with disturbing contents forces the characters to confront the dark secrets of the past. These revelations unearth painful memories and highlight the impact of past trauma on the present.

Loss and Grief: Grief and loss become prominent themes as the characters grapple with the implications of the discovery. The protagonist's own past, including the loss of her parents, is explored in depth.

Isolation and Madness: The isolated wilderness setting begins to take its toll on the characters, particularly the protagonist. Her mental state deteriorates as she becomes increasingly isolated from her companions and reality. Themes of isolation, madness, and psychological disintegration come to the fore.

Third Section: Reconnection and Transformation:

The final section of the novel marks a turning point in the protagonist's journey as she undergoes a transformation and comes to terms with her past. The thematic focus shifts once again to:

Self-Discovery and Reconnection: The protagonist's journey of self-discovery reaches its climax as she begins to piece together her fragmented identity. She reconnects with her past and gains a deeper understanding of herself and her family.

Reconciliation with Nature: The protagonist's relationship with nature undergoes a transformation. She develops a newfound appreciation for the wilderness and its connection to her own identity.

Feminism and Liberation: "Surfacing" also explores themes of feminism and liberation, particularly in the context of the protagonist's evolving sense of self and her rejection of societal norms and expectations.

Q6) Comment on the thematic side of The Tin Flute.

Ans) "The Tin Flute" (French title: "Bonheur d'occasion") is a novel by Canadian author Gabrielle Roy, first published in 1945. The novel is set in the impoverished Saint-Henri district of Montreal during World War II and explores a variety of complex themes that resonate with the challenges faced by its working-class characters.

Poverty and Social Injustice: One of the central themes of the novel is poverty and the social injustices faced by the working-class residents of Saint-Henri. The Lacasse family, particularly the protagonist, Florentine, struggles to make ends meet. The novel vividly portrays the harsh living conditions, limited opportunities, and economic hardships that were prevalent during the war.

Family and Sacrifice: Family is at the heart of the novel. The Lacasse family is a close-knit unit, and their love and sacrifices for each other are a recurring theme. Florentine's unwavering dedication to her family, especially her younger brother Daniel, drives much of the narrative. The novel portrays the sacrifices that individuals make to support their loved ones in times of adversity.

Love and Relationships: "The Tin Flute" explores the complexities of romantic and familial relationships. Florentine's relationships with Jean, Emmanuel, and others reflect the desires, hopes, and challenges that people face in the pursuit of love and companionship. These relationships provide both comfort and conflict throughout the story.

War and Its Impact: The backdrop of World War II looms large in the novel. The war affects the characters directly and indirectly, shaping their lives and decisions. It highlights the contrast between the struggles of everyday life and the global events that were unfolding at the time.

Identity and Aspiration: Florentine's character represents the aspirations and dreams of the working class in Saint-Henri. She desires a better life, education, and escape from poverty. Her aspirations symbolize the yearnings of many individuals who sought to rise above their circumstances.

Gender Roles and Expectations: The novel portrays the traditional gender roles and expectations prevalent in the 1940s. Florentine's role as a caretaker and her limited options for self-fulfilment reflect the societal norms of the era. Her journey also underscores the challenges faced by women striving for independence and self-determination.

Hope and Resilience: Despite the hardships and setbacks faced by the characters, "The Tin Flute" carries an undercurrent of hope and resilience. The characters demonstrate their ability to endure and persevere in the face of adversity. This resilience is a testament to the human spirit.

Marginalization and Social Realism: The novel provides a realistic portrayal of marginalized communities and the working class. It sheds light on the struggles, dreams, and aspirations of individuals who often go unnoticed in society. Gabrielle Roy's commitment to social realism is evident throughout the narrative.

Q7) Who are the main characters in The English Patient. Give a brief account of their life together in the Italian Villa?

Ans) "The English Patient" is a novel by Canadian author Michael Ondaatje, which was also adapted into a film. The story is set in the final days of World War II and revolves around the lives of several characters who converge at an Italian villa.

The English Patient (Almásy): The titular character of the novel, the English patient is a severely burned and disfigured man who has lost his memory due to injuries sustained in a plane crash. He is a Hungarian count and explorer who was part of a desert mapping expedition in North Africa. He is cared for by Hana at the Italian villa. Over the course of the novel, his past is gradually revealed through fragmented memories.

Hana: Hana is a young Canadian nurse who tends to the English patient in the villa. She is deeply affected by the traumas of war and has suffered the loss of loved ones. She forms a close and intimate bond with the English patient as she cares for him. Their relationship is marked by tenderness and a shared sense of isolation.

Kip: Kirpal Singh, known as Kip, is an Indian sapper and bomb disposal expert who becomes a part of the villa's community. He develops a romantic relationship with Hana and plays a significant role in the novel. Kip is a complex character who grapples with questions of identity, loyalty, and the moral implications of his work during the war.

Caravaggio: Caravaggio is a Canadian thief and spy who was wounded during the war and is also cared for at the villa. He is a close friend of Hana's father and becomes involved in the lives of the other characters. He provides some insight into the English patient's past and his own motivations.

Together, these characters find themselves in the Italian villa, seeking refuge from the chaos and destruction of the war. Their lives intersect as they each grapple with their own personal traumas and the larger trauma of the war. The villa serves as a sanctuary where they attempt to heal both physically and emotionally.

Q8) Comment on the thematic side of The Ecstasy of Rita Joe.

Ans) "The Ecstasy of Rita Joe" is a renowned play by Canadian playwright and poet George Ryga, first performed in 1967. It explores a wide range of powerful themes that resonate with the experiences and challenges faced by Indigenous communities in Canada during the mid-20th century.

Indigenous Identity and Cultural Displacement: The play delves deeply into the theme of Indigenous identity and cultural displacement. Rita Joe, the titular character, is a young Mi'kmaq woman who leaves her reserve for the city in search of a better life. Her journey highlights the struggles of many Indigenous individuals who grapple with the loss of their cultural roots and the challenges of adapting to an unfamiliar urban environment.

Marginalization and Systemic Racism: The play confronts the harsh reality of systemic racism and marginalization faced by Indigenous people in Canada. Rita Joe and other Indigenous characters encounter prejudice, discrimination, and unequal treatment within the legal and social systems. Their experiences shed light on the pervasive injustices prevalent in Canadian society.

Loss and Grief: The theme of loss, both personal and cultural, runs throughout the play. Indigenous characters, including Rita Joe and her family, have experienced significant losses, from their traditional way of life to loved ones who have been affected by the harsh realities of poverty and addiction. Grief and mourning are central emotions in the narrative.

The Clash of Cultures: "The Ecstasy of Rita Joe" explores the clash of Indigenous and settler cultures. The play illustrates the stark contrast between the traditional values, customs, and spirituality of Indigenous communities and the dominant Euro-Canadian culture. This clash often leads to misunderstandings and conflict.

Violence and Victimization: The play does not shy away from addressing issues of violence and victimization within Indigenous communities. It portrays the vulnerability of Indigenous women, like Rita Joe, to exploitation and violence in the urban environment. The portrayal of violence serves as a critique of the societal structures that perpetuate harm.

Hope and Resilience: Despite the bleakness of many situations in the play, there is an undercurrent of hope and resilience. Characters like Rita Joe and her family members demonstrate strength and determination as they confront adversity. The play underscores the capacity for Indigenous individuals and communities to persevere in the face of immense challenges.

Advocacy and Social Change: "The Ecstasy of Rita Joe" can be seen as a call to action. It advocates for social change and justice for Indigenous peoples. The play raises awareness of the urgent need for improved living conditions, education, and opportunities for Indigenous communities, challenging the status quo.

Q9) Discuss the narrative technique Swimming Lessons."

Ans) "Swimming Lessons" is a novel by British author Claire Fuller, published in 2017. It employs a unique and intriguing narrative technique that alternates between two timelines and perspectives, creating a layered and emotionally resonant storytelling experience.

Dual Timelines: The novel unfolds through two distinct timelines that run parallel throughout the narrative. The first timeline is set in the past and is presented through a series of letters written by Ingrid Coleman, the wife of the central character, Gil Coleman. These letters are concealed within various books in the couple's home, a metaphorical treasure hunt that Gil embarks upon after Ingrid's mysterious disappearance. The letters span the duration of their marriage and reveal Ingrid's inner thoughts, feelings, and experiences, providing insight into her complex relationship with Gil.

Present-Day Perspective: The second timeline takes place in the present day and is narrated from the perspective of Flora, Ingrid, and Gil's daughter. Flora returns to her childhood home after her father's health deteriorates and begins sorting through her mother's letters in search of clues about Ingrid's whereabouts. Flora's narrative provides a contemporary context and emotional depth to the story as she grapples with her family's secrets and the impact of her parents' tumultuous marriage.

Interplay of Perspectives: The alternating timelines and perspectives create a dynamic interplay between Ingrid's voice from the past and Flora's voice in the present. Ingrid's letters reveal her innermost thoughts, her growing disillusionment with her marriage, and her aspirations as a writer. In contrast, Flora's narrative highlights her attempts to decipher her mother's words and uncover the truth about her disappearance. The two narratives complement and sometimes contradict each other, adding layers of complexity to the story.

Character Development: Through the dual timelines, "Swimming Lessons" effectively explores the depth of its characters. Ingrid emerges as a multifaceted character, whose desires and frustrations are unveiled through her intimate letters. Gil's character is seen through the lens of both Ingrid's letters and Flora's perspective, allowing readers to form a nuanced understanding of his role in Ingrid's disappearance and their troubled marriage.

Themes of Love and Loss: The narrative technique enhances the exploration of themes related to love, loss, betrayal, and the imperfections of human relationships. Ingrid's letters capture the essence of her enthusiastic yet troubled marriage, while Flora's narrative underscores the lasting impact of her mother's absence and the emotional scars left by her family's secrets.

Reader Engagement: The use of hidden letters as a narrative device creates an interactive and engaging reading experience. Readers join Flora in her quest to decipher Ingrid's messages and uncover the truth. This narrative technique encourages readers to actively participate in solving the mystery surrounding Ingrid's disappearance.

Q10) What are the various types of criticism that Frye talks about in Anatomy of Criticism?

Ans) In his influential work "Anatomy of Criticism," Northrop Frye, a Canadian literary critic and scholar, presents a comprehensive framework for the study of literature and literary criticism. Within this framework, Frye identifies and discusses several types of criticism.

Biographical Criticism: This kind of criticism concentrates on the author's personal life and the ways in which the author's experiences can provide light on how the author interpreted their own work. The discipline of biographical criticism investigates the ways in which the personal experiences of authors are reflected in their works of literature.

Historical Criticism: A literary work is placed within its historical context when historical criticism is performed on it. This type of criticism takes into account the social, cultural, and political elements that influenced both the author and the work itself. The purpose of this study is to get an understanding of the ways in which a work represents the historical period in which it was written as well as the topics that were prevalent during that time.

Archetypal Criticism: Archetypal critique, which Frye was a pioneer in developing, is one of Frye's most well-known contributions. This method involves recognising and analysing reoccurring literary archetypes or patterns that can be found in literature from a variety of different cultures and time periods. The study of archetypes, or archetype characters, ideas, and symbols that are prevalent throughout literature is known as archetypal critique.

Formalistic Criticism: Formalist criticism, which is sometimes known as "New Criticism," places more of an emphasis on the analysis of the text itself as opposed to aspects from the outside world. In order to determine meaning, it analyses a piece of literature in terms of its formal components, such as its structure, language, style, and literary devices. The aims of the author and the historical context are not taken into account by formalistic critics.

Rhetorical Criticism: Rhetorical criticism focuses on the use of language and rhetoric within a text. It analyses how the author employs persuasive techniques, figurative language, and rhetorical devices to convey their message and influence the reader. Rhetorical criticism is often applied to non-fiction and persuasive texts.

Mythological Criticism: Mythological criticism explores the presence of mythic elements and motifs in literature. It examines how literary works draw upon mythological stories, symbols, and archetypes to convey deeper meanings. This approach considers the mythic resonance of literature.

Reader-Response Criticism: Reader-response criticism shifts the focus from the text and author to the reader's interpretation and response. It explores how individual readers construct meaning from a text based on their own experiences, beliefs, and perspectives. This approach recognizes the active role of the reader in shaping the meaning of a work.

Psychological Criticism: Psychological criticism examines the psychological aspects of characters and their motivations, as well as the psychological impact of literature on readers. It may draw on theories of psychoanalysis and explore the subconscious elements within a text.

Sociological Criticism: Sociological criticism considers literature in the context of society and social structures. It examines how literature reflects and critiques social norms, values, and power dynamics. This approach often explores issues of class, gender, race, and ideology.

Ethical Criticism: Ethical criticism evaluates literature based on moral and ethical principles. It examines the moral choices made by characters, the ethical dilemmas presented in a work, and the broader ethical implications of the narrative.

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