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MEG-13: Writing from the Margins

MEG-13: Writing from the Margins

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MEG-13 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Writing from the Margins, you have come to the right place. MEG-13 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MEG, PGDWM courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MEG-13 / TMA / 2022-23

Course Code: MEG-13

Assignment Name: Writings From the Margins

Year: 2022 - 2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


All questions are compulsory.


Q 1. Write short notes on: 10 x 2 = 20


Q1. a) Tribal Worldview

Ans) G.N. Devy differentiates the tribal section from all other categories of social life. For him, no scholar or observer has done this section justice, seeing it as it is. Its material existence and the objective methods it employs must be noted. In fact, the tribal defies all classifications and divisions that have been devised to describe it. The people in this section are original inhabitants of the area in which they now live, as the term "Adivasi" denotes—belonging to a stretch of forest land since time immemorial. They are a given, a concrete existence of humanity, like the majority of others bearing the name of a region, a time, a way of life, a deceitful system, or exemplifying a rigid community formation.


We incorrectly assume that the tribals' growth as human beings are stunted, and that if not pushed in what we consider the new direction, it will dry up and fall by the wayside. We do not realise that throughout history, tribal peoples have faced many ups and downs in every location where they have lived. Today, they, too, present issues to the mighty capitalist interests, and if pressed hard enough, they may have a resistance strategy built into the marrow of their own logic of existence. Capitalism is brutal and lethal. We all know that its violence operates on multiple levels. It can use ideology, politics, money power, and outright repression to force tribals out of their forests and into the market scenario as labour force. However, the tribal ethos stands out and may be an answer to modern-day capitalism's ills and evils.


Devy argues for a more positive and distinct view of tribal worldview. His point of view has the potential to sway public opinion in favour of the tribal community. Devy employs reversal as a strategy to make his point about the tribal section's ethos, in which influential groups among us are viewed through the eyes of a different group of people. This is a critical point he has made because it turns the world on its head by turning human endeavour into a commodity for purchase and sale in market conditions. It is one thing to label the tribal as ignorant and left behind in the process of change, and quite another to look critically at the existing world and see only vacuity.

Q1. b) Dalit Autobiography

Ans) Dalit autobiographies are unique. They do, in fact, challenge the mainstream politics of historical figures. Thus, it is possible to agree that Dalit auto biographers are not national heroes; rather, they are ordinary people who have suffered, failed, and then risen again. There is no romanticization of the self, as is common in mainstream autobiography, even if the writer may indulge in self-pity by highlighting the ordeals of the community. In any case, the language of Dalit autobiographies is often crude and abusive, because "it is incongruous to expect even a semi-entertainment work from them because they failed in every aspect of life." 'It is impossible to represent the never-ending torments of Dalit life in mellifluous poetic stanzas,' says Valmiki. Thus, the purpose of a Dalit auto biographer is to etch in words the painful life experiences of a community rather than to delight or amuse the reader.


Many Dalit writers’ credit B.R. Ambedkar's mantra: educate, organise, agitate. As Ambedkar, a lawyer, social reformer, and writer, is appropriated by Hindutva-espousing, upper-caste Hindu groups, the need to recapture and amplify the Dalit voice is greater than ever.


Pradnya Daya Pawar, poet and daughter of Daya Pawar, says Dalit autobiographies served two purposes. "It gave a Dalit hero legitimacy. It established Dalit history and dignity. No one thought the writing would free the Dalits, but it could give our socio-political system an ethical foundation.

Q 2. Analyse the plot of the play Budhan. 20

Ans) The use of alienation as a technique in Budhan gives the audience the opportunity to freely reflect on both the performance and the characters. It is not acceptable for the audience to get caught up in their feelings or to be swayed in a way that is not change-oriented. Instead, their intense feelings are tamed as they take a break to think rationally and take in the other actors' responses to the play. This allows them to view the performance with more objectivity. It is not expected of the actors that they will enter some sort of trance state in which they will put themselves in the roles of the characters. They are expected to deliver an objective presentation of the roles in the play.


This enables a more natural interaction between the audience and the actors. The actors come together to create a "police station." This goes against the principles of naturalistic theatre, which would stage an actual police station if we followed those principles. In this more experimental style, the actors can form a police station or simply refer to a space that can be called a police station by using a placard. Either way, the police station can be seen. This suggests that there is no requirement to place an emphasis on the authenticity of the viewpoint, but rather an objective interaction to consider the true causes of the problems that are occurring around us. In this particular instance, we are not even aware of the problems that affect the communities that have been denotified.

The action continues from where it left off in Scene IV. The actors who had previously played roles relating to the Inspector have resumed their respective responsibilities. The Inspector and the Constable coerce Budhan into admitting that he is responsible for all seventeen thefts that have occurred in the area. The second individual, on the other hand, asserts that he is merely a basket maker who provides his wares to the "co-operative." As was covered in the previous lesson, even though DNTs are making efforts to rehabilitate themselves, they are constantly monitored by the police, who also use them as a scapegoat in order to speed up the process of filling out paperwork. Shyamali persists in pleading her case to the authorities, but their requests are continually disregarded. The action in this scene comes to an end, and the actors remaining on stage become the chorus. They assert that the police are ravenously hungry for the blood of the Sabar people. Who will be the one to explain to them that we, too, are Native Americans? (Budhan p.267)


At the beginning of scene XI, the Assistant Superintendent and a Medical Superintendent arrive to check on Budhan. Unfortunately, they find that he has passed away. The Superintendent shares this information with Inspector Roy, letting him know that both of them might get into some trouble as a result. They decide to label it a "suicide." The following scene begins with Shyamali in a state of shock and distress. She is aware that the police are responsible for the death of her husband. They make the decision to undergo the cremation process right away. Shyamali hurls her curses at them over and over, but it has no effect. Ashish, a member of the Kheria Sabar Kalyan Samiti, is the one who delivers the message from Mahasweta Devi, which states that Budhan's body must not be cremated under any circumstances. Bury the body of Budhan so that no one will find out about it. Burning an effigy of Budhan in order to trick the police... Together with Mahasweta Devi, the Samiti and the villagers will seek vengeance for Budhan's death. (Budhan, page 283)


Actors in the play and the collective that wrote the play project the level of inequality that is pervasive in society by citing incidents that indicate the political turmoil that is occurring in the country. There was no involvement on the part of DNT in any scandal. On the other hand, they have been disciplined for the very fact that they exist. The cast members come out onto the stage and collectively declare, "We need respect." The show is brought to a close with a human chain of participants raising their hands.

Q 3. Discuss some of the important issues taken up in the novel Mother Forest: The Unfinished Story of C. K. Janu. 20

Ans) Feminism in its modern form in India is concerned with a wide range of issues pertaining to social justice, one of which is the living conditions of 'Adivasis,' which is the Indian word for tribal people. There is a significant body of literature on these peoples in India; however, the majority of it tends to romanticise them and does not treat them as residents of a contemporary, industrialised, and globalising India.


Important Issues in the Novel Mother Forest

1. The Personal is the Political

The life and struggle of Janu are illustrative of the saying "The personal is political." She is the epitome of a Native American woman who has transformed herself into a committed social activist. Janu is a fierce advocate for the rights of her community, despite not having any formal education and not having the support of any political party. She does this by challenging both the state and the mainstream. She has created her own path of political struggle by getting involved at the grassroots level and having one-on-one interactions with members of her community. She did this based on her life experiences and her observations of the society that she was surrounded by. It is no surprise that she has been called an "organic intellectual" because she is aware of social stratification and strives to raise awareness of this issue among her people in order to undermine the influence of dominant groups.

2. Ecocritical Perspectives

The importance of the forest in the lives of the Adivasis is a recurring theme throughout the book, as is the unsettling effect that the spread of civilization and modernization projects have had on the Adivasis' ability to maintain their traditional ways of life. Therefore, Mother Forest can be read through the lens of ecocriticism in order to investigate the pivotal part that land and ecosystem play in the culture and identity of Adivasi people. Land is more than just a geographical entity; it is inextricably linked to Adivasi life, indigenous knowledge systems, faith, cuisines, language, and so on; as a result, the loss of land is synonymous with the loss of culture and identity.


3. Being Othered

Mother Forest is significant because it assertively enunciates a community's silenced voice. Adivasis have been marginalised, 'othered,' and underrepresented in literature. Misrepresentations stereotype Adivasi cultures and lifestyles. Homogenizing the Adivasis means ignoring their diverse identities. Politics stereotyped as exotic or demonic. Representing the other as exotic involves romanticising and glorifying "primitiveness" and patronising or civilising them. Representing someone as demonic means criminalising them. Misrepresentations and homogenizations are symptoms of Adivasis being portrayed as "the other" The homogenization trend also reflects the mainstream's intolerance of difference and diversity. Modernization and emancipation erase traditional Adivasi ways of life. Without a constructive dialogue with Adivasis, assimilationist tendencies amount to a civilised onslaught.


4. Stylistics of the text

The translator commented on the text's stylistics, saying, "I wanted to retain the flavour of Janu's intonation and the sing-song manner of her speech," so he experimented with language and sentence construction. The sentences in the first sections of the text do not begin with capital letters; even the letter 'I' is written in lower case. When something from civil society is mentioned, such as "Motor Pump," "Shirts," and so on, the upper case is used.


For a very long time, representations of the Adivasi people as "other" have been common in both mainstream literature and media. However, Janu's presence in the mainstream socio-political environment, as well as the presence of her "autobiography" in the literary arena, challenge conventional representations and provide an insider's view, highlighting the Adivasi voice for survival. [Citation needed]

Q 4. Critically analyse the poem ‘Naked Truths.’ 20

Ans) The poem's first stanza has three lines, while the second, third, fourth, and fifth stanzas all have four lines. The difference in length appears to be for no particular reason, other than that the beginning is the point of entry, and the shorter the mention, the better.


The second stanza:

In the stillbirth of my firstborn

I realize your wrath.

Night creeps closer stifling the flame flickering in the wind.


"My firstborn's stillbirth" bolsters the poem's title. Few shocks are stronger than a stillborn baby. "Firstborn" boosts the effect. This is interpreted as divine wrath. The poet turns to night and "wind-flickering flame." "Creeps" suggests a slow death. Nothing seems right in the poet's world. This is a typical Dalit predicament because he cannot pass on his genes. The lines suggest deities, the night, and the wind are part of a plan to punish the poet for accepting this "truth." Less the dead child symbolise a deity-nature-colluded fate, the quoted lines reflect Dalits’ conditions since time immemorial. In India, lack of hygiene kills countless women and children. Especially Dalit women and children. The rebel poet reveals this aspect to highlight the plight of the poor. In the case of Dalit experience, which is man-made, "truths" are all social.


Two phrases stand out in the third and fourth stanzas: "lore of tears/ swelling in my eyes" and "never-ending debts/ lie strewn over life's lanes." Consider the word "lore." It refers to a series of stories that have evolved their own pattern over time. The Dalit community thrives on stories of destruction and misery, which present a tradition of suffering to it.


The last four (stanza 5 unanalysed) stanzas of the poem have five lines each. The first of these (the sixth in the poem) runs as follows:

Shivering fevers and father’s protracted last breath

a wedlock-broken sister’s tears, and the wedding night of a sibling,

all unfold in a single room.


The terms "shivering fevers" and "father's/prolonged last breath" refer to two different people, and they are linked with "sister's tears" and "a sibling" in the following two lines. It is essentially a family scene. You may well inquire: Is this a family scene? Yes, it accepts the traditional family structure of parents and children, marriage, mutuality, a sense of responsibility, and cohesion. It is based on principles such as being concerned about and looking after one or more members of the household. In the case of this stanza, we have a child, woman, or man who has become ill, in addition to the incident of father's death, a sister who has been thrown out of her husband's home and cries, and finally a brother who is initiating pleasure of intimacy with his bride within the confines of the "single room" this group occupies.


"Shivering," "protracted," "wedlock-broken," and "unfold" They're disapproving or angry. Why shiver at home if healthcare is available? Why did the old man breathe so deeply before dying? Sick family members would be transferred to a hospital and treated properly. "Wedlock-broken" also reveals that illiterate, unskilled women feel safe only when married and have a husband to feed and care for them. If the marriage fails, the woman must work to survive. The poem doesn't allow this. "Unfold" refers to dramas where connected events are shown in a predetermined order. The narrator compares the family to drama scenes and characters in the poem.


From here, we move on to the final two stanzas, in which a young mother works in the field while her child waits for breastfeeding, and the poet finally calls on black gods to "stop the sun a second time to/ recast everything." Overall, the poem condemns the current social system's practises of naked aggression against life. "Recast everything" is the result of the poet's critical exercise of observing patterns in the country's surroundings that deny minimal living.

Q 5. Discuss the novel Changia Rukh: Against the Night as a Bildungsroman. 20

Ans) It is impossible to overstate the importance of the character Changiya Rukh in the autobiography written by Balbir Madhopuri. It is a term that is used to describe a tree that has had its crown removed, its branches lopped off, and its overall height decreased. This phrase, in Madhopuri's interpretation, is a metaphor for the Dalit people of India, who are also known as the "untouchables," and whose potential for development has been "robbed by the Hindu social order." The fact that the tree continues to grow new branches and leaves despite being injured is significant evidence of the tree's innate and defiant resilience. The tree was cut down, but it is still growing new leaves and branches. The novel Changiya Rukh, which is set in the village of Madhopuri in the state of Punjab in India, investigates the social history of the Dalit community in Punjab and sheds light on caste relations that are founded on prejudice and inequality.


Changiya Rukh takes place in the Indian state of Punjab. In spite of this, Madhopuri's vision is capable of capturing and portraying in a nuanced manner the predicament of Dalits who live on the margins of society in other parts of the country. Madhopuri, writing with honesty and sincere objectivity, describes the hopelessness of life despite all of the constitutional and legislative measures that have been taken. This is despite the fact that Madhopuri acknowledges that these measures have been taken. This uplifting true storey depicts the feelings of deprivation, social exclusion, and humiliation that a Dalit experiences, along with their ability to fight back, achieve their goals, and have hope. The storey is based on a true event. In addition to that, this book includes an introduction written by Harish Puri that is extremely insightful.


Against the Night as a Bildungsroman

A bildungsroman, also known as a novel of education or a novel of educational formation, is distinguished from a social novel by the fact that its primary focus is on the development of an insightful understanding of who the protagonist is and his place in the world through the course of the protagonist's education. Other names for a bildungsroman include a novel of education, a novel of educational formation, or a novel of educational formation and formation. Other characters are obviously subordinated to this process, and oftentimes they are used as nothing more than stepping stones for the protagonist to advance.


This is a common theme in stories where the protagonist is the main character. His bildungsreise, which literally translates to "educational journey," presents him with a variety of obstacles and temptations that, if he is successful in overcoming them, will reveal his true character and capacities and, ultimately, bring him to a higher level of self-awareness. His bildungsreise literally translates to "educational journey" in English. A significant portion of his journey consists of little more than treading water or going in circles, but this is not a valid criticism of his ambition to advance because it is not an accurate representation of his journey. It is vitally important to keep in mind that the protagonist of a bildungsroman may make progress over the course of the storey, but this development might not always be quantifiable in absolute terms.


This definition is broad enough to include the mediaeval quest legend, which, according to the opinions of a number of commentators, is where the bildungsroman genre first got its start. In point of fact, it is possible that Parsifal, for example, was the first hero of the genre because he spent his entire life searching for knowledge and eventually found it in the form of the Holy Grail. This is due to the fact that he spent his entire life searching for knowledge. In a similar vein, it is not difficult to picture the Berghof as a kind of sinister Venusberg (Venus mountain), which looms over our contemporary Tannhauser, Hans Castorp. An address that Mann gave to Princeton in 1939 addressed, in some detail, the question of whether or not The Magic Mountain is in the tradition of the quest legend. Specifically, the question asked if The Magic Mountain is in the tradition of the quest legend.

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