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MES-016: Educational Research

MES-016: Educational Research

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

If you are looking for MES-016 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Educational Research, you have come to the right place. MES-016 solution on this page applies to 2023-24 session students studying in MAEDU, MAAE, PGDAE courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: MES-016/TMA/2023

Course Code: MES-016

Assignment Name: Educational Research

Year: 2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Q1) Explain the meaning and characteristics of qualitative research. Discuss how qualitative research is different from quantitative research.

Ans) Qualitative research is a method of inquiry that explores and seeks to understand social phenomena by examining the subjective experiences, behaviours, and perspectives of individuals or groups. It is characterized by its emphasis on the richness and depth of data, often collected through methods like interviews, observations, and content analysis. Qualitative research provides valuable insights into the "why" and "how" of human behaviour, allowing researchers to uncover underlying motivations and complex social processes.

Characteristics of Qualitative Research:

a) Exploratory Nature: It is common for qualitative research to be exploratory in character, with the objective of generating new insights, theories, or hypotheses rather than testing those that already exist.

b) Subjective Data: It focuses on subjective data, examining the lived experiences, beliefs, and feelings of participants.

c) Small Sample Sizes: Because qualitative research focuses on conducting in-depth analyses of a limited number of instances rather than generalising findings to a larger population, the sample sizes of qualitative studies are often lower.

d) Flexible and Open-Ended: In the process of data collection, researchers make use of open-ended inquiries and have the ability to modify their approaches as necessary. As a result, unforeseen and abundant discoveries can be made.

e) Contextual Understanding: Research that is qualitative takes into account the circumstances in which behaviours and experiences take place. This acknowledges the fact that social phenomena are moulded by the surroundings in which they occur.

f) Data Collection Methods: Techniques such as interviews, focus groups, participant observations, and content analysis are frequently used in the process of data collection. When conducting a single study, researchers frequently use a variety of different approaches.

g) Data Analysis: Qualitative data analysis involves coding, categorizing, and interpreting data to identify themes and patterns.

h) Rich Descriptions: In order to express the complexity of social processes, qualitative research places an emphasis on the construction of descriptions that are rich in detail and descriptive vocabulary.

Differences from Quantitative Research:

a) Nature of Data: Qualitative research deals with non-numeric data, focusing on the qualities of experiences and behaviours, whereas quantitative research deals with numeric data and quantifiable variables.

b) Purpose: Qualitative research aims to explore, understand, and describe phenomena, often generating hypotheses. Quantitative research aims to test hypotheses, establish patterns, and make statistical inferences.

c) Sample Size: Qualitative studies typically have smaller, purposefully selected samples, while quantitative research frequently uses larger, randomly selected samples to achieve statistical representativeness.

d) Data Collection: Qualitative data collection methods involve open-ended questions and the collection of textual or visual data, such as transcriptions, notes, or images. Quantitative research relies on structured questionnaires or surveys with closed-ended questions.

e) Analysis: Qualitative data analysis is subjective, involving interpretation and coding of data by the researcher. Quantitative research relies on statistical analysis with the goal of finding patterns and relationships.

f) Generalizability: Qualitative research does not seek to generalize findings to larger populations but aims to provide in-depth insights and understanding. Quantitative research emphasizes generalizability and making claims about a broader population.

g) Research Questions: Qualitative research often begins with broad, open-ended research questions and evolves as data is collected. Quantitative research typically starts with specific, testable hypotheses.

Q2) Explain the meaning and importance of review of related literature. Describe how you will carry out review of related literature for a research study in education.

Ans) Review of related literature, also known as a literature review, is an essential component of the research process. It involves a systematic examination of existing scholarly sources, including academic papers, books, articles, and other relevant materials, to gain an understanding of the current state of knowledge on a specific research topic. The importance of the literature review lies in its ability to inform and contextualize the research, identify gaps in current knowledge, and guide the research design and methodology.

Contextualizing Research: A literature review provides a background and context for the research study, helping readers and researchers understand the existing knowledge and research conducted in the field.

Identifying Research Gaps: By examining existing literature, researchers can identify areas where previous studies are insufficient, contradictory, or outdated, which can guide the formulation of research questions and objectives.

Theory Development: The review of related literature helps in the development of theoretical frameworks and conceptual models for the research, ensuring that the study is grounded in existing scholarship.

Methodological Guidance: Researchers can learn from previous studies' methodologies, strengths, and limitations, helping them design their research methods and approaches effectively.

Critical Thinking: Evaluating and analysing existing literature promotes critical thinking and a deeper understanding of the subject matter, which can enhance the quality of the research.

Preventing Duplication: A literature review helps researchers avoid duplicating previous work and ensures that the study contributes new and valuable insights to the field.

Carrying Out a Literature Review in Education:

a) Define the Scope: Clearly define the scope of the literature review by specifying the research topic, objectives, and key research questions.

b) Search for Relevant Sources: Utilize academic databases, libraries, online journals, and scholarly search engines to find peer-reviewed articles, books, reports, and theses related to your topic.

c) Select Sources: Carefully select relevant sources based on their quality, relevance, and credibility. Include seminal works, recent studies, and diverse perspectives.

d) Organize the Literature: Create an organized system for cataloguing and storing your sources, such as using citation management software or a reference list.

e) Analyse and Summarize: Analyse the content of each source, identifying key themes, concepts, and findings. Summarize each source, highlighting its main contributions and limitations.

f) Synthesize the Literature: Synthesize the findings of different sources to create a coherent narrative. Identify trends, gaps, and areas where researchers agree or disagree.

g) Establish a Theoretical Framework: Develop a theoretical framework or conceptual model based on the literature review's insights, helping to guide the research study.

h) Cite Sources Properly: Ensure that you properly cite all sources according to the required citation style (e.g., APA, MLA) throughout the literature review.

i) Provide Critical Analysis: Do not just summarize existing literature; critically evaluate the quality of the studies, their methodology, and their relevance to your research.

j) Write the Literature Review: Organize your findings into a coherent, well-structured literature review section in your research paper, thesis, or dissertation.

k) Keep the Review Current: Periodically update the literature review to incorporate the most recent research, ensuring that your study remains up-to-date and relevant.

Q3) Identify a problem you have experienced in school or higher education system in India. Prepare a detailed proposal for conducting research study on the same problem.

Ans) Problem Identified: One of the persistent issues in the Indian higher education system is the quality of student assessments and examinations.

The problem encompasses various aspects, including:

Lack of Standardization: There is a lack of standardized assessment methods and criteria across universities and colleges. This leads to disparities in the quality and rigor of assessments.

Overemphasis on Rote Learning: The existing examination system often prioritizes rote memorization over critical thinking and critical thinking skills. This does not adequately prepare students for real-world challenges.

High-Stakes Examinations: The heavy reliance on high-stakes, end-of-term examinations places immense stress on students and may not accurately reflect their overall understanding of the subject matter.

Limited Assessment Methods: The predominant use of written examinations neglects alternative assessment methods, such as project work, presentations, and practical assessments, which can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of students' abilities.

Lack of Timely Feedback: Students often receive limited or delayed feedback on their assessments, hindering their learning and improvement.

Research Proposal: Improving Student Assessments in Indian Higher Education.

Research Objectives:

a) To assess the current state of student assessments and examinations in Indian higher education.

b) To identify the challenges and limitations of the existing assessment methods and criteria.

c) To explore alternative and innovative assessment approaches that promote critical thinking and holistic skill development.

d) To investigate the impact of standardized assessments on the quality of education and learning outcomes.

e) To recommend evidence-based strategies for improving the assessment and examination system in higher education.


a) Literature Review: Conduct a comprehensive review of existing literature on the state of student assessments in Indian higher education, best practices worldwide, and their impact on learning outcomes.

b) Survey and Interviews: Collect data from students, educators, and administrators through surveys and interviews to understand their perspectives on the assessment system's challenges and limitations.

c) Case Studies: Examine the assessment practices in selected universities and colleges, analysing their strengths and weaknesses.

d) Comparative Analysis: Compare the Indian assessment system with international models to identify areas for improvement.

e) Pilot Programs: Implement pilot programs in select institutions to test alternative assessment methods and their impact on learning outcomes.

f) Data Analysis: Employ quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques to examine trends, patterns, and themes in the collected data.

Expected Outcomes:

a) An in-depth understanding of the challenges in the current assessment system.

b) Identification of alternative assessment methods that encourage holistic skill development.

c) Recommendations for standardizing assessment criteria and processes across universities and colleges.

d) Evidence-based strategies for implementing a more effective and student-centred assessment system.

e) The potential to reduce stress on students and promote a culture of critical thinking and problem-solving.

Significance of the Research:

This research study addresses a critical issue in Indian higher education by offering evidence-based recommendations for improving the assessment system. Implementing these recommendations can lead to more equitable, holistic, and effective assessments, enhancing the quality of education and better preparing students for the challenges of the 21st century.

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