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MES-083: Principles of Childhood Education

MES-083: Principles of Childhood Education

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MES-083 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Principles of Childhood Education, you have come to the right place. MES-083 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in PGDPPED courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MES-083/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MES-083

Assignment Name: Principles of Childhood Education

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Answer the following questions in about 500 words each.


1. Differentiate between structured and unstructured observation. Discuss the importance of observation as a method of child study.


Unstructured Observation

Unstructured observation involves seeing a youngster in their natural environment as they go about their regular activities in an unplanned way. For instance, a youngster might be watched as he engages in play with his pals.


Structured Observation

When conducting structured observation, the observer merely notes the frequency of occurrences while searching for one or more distinct and well-defined patterns of behaviour. For instance, a pre-school teacher might watch the child while they are eating lunch. Subjective and biassed judgments can be avoided and the approach can be improved by the use of various mechanical devices and audio-visual aids, such as a one-way vision screen, sound recorder, photographic dome, and motion picture camera.


The length of the observation may be broken up into various segments, with the length of each segment being increased in accordance with necessity and requirement. It is always preferable to make one child the focal point of a group observation so that you may examine what is happening around him and how he interacts with the other children. The observer always acts in a cordial manner toward the kids he is going to watch. The youngsters should be prompted to perform their duties as usual and should be watched in their natural environment.


The routine of an early childhood educator includes observations. Most childcare professionals are aware of the importance of observation, but are they also aware of its role? Early childhood education involves more than just teaching young children. It's about discovering new things and seeing children play. Teachers play a crucial role in assisting kids in reaching developmental milestones, and one of the best ways for teachers to get to know the kids they work with is through observation.


A method is referred to as a technique and describes the method used to take measurements or carry out monitoring. For instance, if we wanted to evaluate a particular child's behaviour both within and outside of the classroom, we may employ observational methods. A tool is a piece of equipment used to carry out the monitoring. Examples of instruments that can be used to gauge a child's progress include attitude scales, tests, inventories, and others that use commonly accepted units of measurement. They can also be used to evaluate children who are behind in school and other cases of difficulty, such as youngsters who are withdrawn, poorly adjusted, have learning disabilities, and so forth. One of the simplest yet most effective strategies for evaluating young children's development is frequently thought to be observation. When an early childhood educator observes a kid, they first take note of how they act, learn, respond to unfamiliar situations, and interact with others.


Using this knowledge, a teacher then develops activities to encourage skill development, track that development's progress, and then reflect and assess. Monitoring a child's behaviour over time is done through observation. An educator can acquire insight into a child's worldview, organise activities that are age-appropriate, identify patterns, and adjust the learning environment to support growth and development through meaningful and thorough documentation. An educator can better grasp a student's strengths or limitations if they take a step back and observe the student. Through observations, educational programmes can assist in enhancing the surroundings and promoting learning.


2. What are the various behavioural problems of Pre - school children and how can these be improved?

Ans) Every child develops by displaying some behavioural issues, as we all know. The basic human urges are to live and to grow, therefore when this urge is suppressed, checked, or dissatisfied, a child responds by asserting his independence, harbouring animosity toward the interfering party, or rebelling against the conditions. Children exhibit difficulties, irritation, or frustration in different ways than one another. For instance, a baby may cry in response to being irritated while playing with his toys and then crawl to his mother for support and safety. When a small child is irritated, we notice that his reaction will be quite different; he may strike, bite, kick, or use abusive language.


Eating Disorders

The pre-schoolers' attitude toward food is one of the frequent grievances made by parents. Most kids have a bad attitude about food, which could eventually cause them to completely reject it. The obtrusive and pointless rules that the parents impose are one of the key causes of this.

  1. Provide food in small amounts.

  2. The dishes used for providing food should be beautiful and attractive.

  3. Give them total freedom to choose and consume however much food they need. Never force someone to consume more food.

  4. If the child eats too less, then consult a paediatrician and .seek advice.

  5. Never provide sweets before and while the child is taking food.

Sleeping Disorders

Another behavioural issue affecting youngsters is sleep disruption, which can also have a negative impact on their health. The family environment, mosquitoes, other insects, etc., are some of the factors that disrupt sleep. Following are some suggestions for resolving this issue:

  1. Let the child sleep in such a place where he can sleep with ease.

  2. It is better to bathe them in slight hot water before going to sleep.

  3. Never tell frightening stories or show such movies in the TV before the child is going to sleep.



Bed wetting, also known as enuresis, is another behavioural issue that affects kids older than four. In the case of children younger than 3 to 4 years old, urinary control cannot be anticipated. However, it should be considered a significant issue if the same behaviour continues even after four years. 

  1. Emotional or physical factors account for the majority of enuresis causes. A doctor should be consulted by the parents if it is caused by physiological symptoms. If an emotional issue is to blame, we should work to identify the root of the child's frustration and offer solutions.

  2. Never scold or punish or criticize the child for such behaviour.


If problem behaviour is causing you or your child distress, or upsetting the rest of the family, it's important to deal with it.


Do what Feels Right

You must act in a way that is best for your family, yourself, and your child. If you act in a way that you don't feel is right or in which you don't have faith, it generally won't work. When you don't mean what you say, kids can tell.


Do not Give up

Once you've made a decision, follow through with it. Working solutions require time. Consult your partner, a friend, a child of a different parent, or your health visitor for support. It's beneficial to have someone with whom you can discuss your activities.


Be Consistent

Children require continuity. Children find it puzzling when you respond to their behaviour in one manner one day and another the next. It's crucial that your child's family members respond to their behaviour in the same way.


Try not to Overreact

This can be challenging. Your wrath and aggravation can increase when your child repeatedly performs something bothersome. Sometimes it's tough to hide your annoyance but try to maintain your composure. As soon as you can, move on to new activities that you can both like or feel good about.

3. List the various competencies required for a pre-school teacher. Suggest the ways through which these competencies can be enhanced.



Being able to communicate effectively is one of a preschool teacher's most crucial abilities. Communication with kids, parents, co-workers, and management all fall under this category. It's simple to understand a child better and respond appropriately when you have excellent communication skills. This ability can aid preschool teachers in simplifying the teaching of challenging ideas to young children. It also enables teachers to share information about a student's development with parents and other teachers so that a plan for improvement can be developed. This competency might be listed in your resume's section on your strengths.



Preschool teachers frequently work in groups to care for the children in a class. They might plan activities for kids including picnics, yearly gatherings, and competitions. Collaboration and teamwork skills can aid preschool teachers in fostering a positive atmosphere for the kids they are teaching. It's crucial for teachers to collaborate, develop schedules and plans together, and work toward a single objective. Preschool teachers may find it simpler to manage large classes of youngsters if they work together and support one another. Indicating this ability on your resume demonstrates to the hiring manager that you are a team player.



Preschool teachers can construct engaging lesson plans that encourage pupils to improve their creative abilities by using creativity. This ability can be used to create engaging activities for kids that are immersive. Teachers can utilise their imagination to come up with creative answers to issues that can occur in the classroom. This skill can be listed in your resume's skills section.


Here are some actions you may take to hone your abilities as a preschool instructor:


Get Qualified

Professional training is one of the best strategies to develop your teaching abilities. Since graduation is the only requirement for becoming a preschool teacher, it is crucial to pursue formal education. To become a preschool teacher, you can enrol in a one-year diploma programme in Nursery Teacher Training (NTT) following your graduation. You can acquire the abilities necessary to work as a preschool teacher by enrolling in one of the many other teacher training programmes available.


You can teach higher classes in the future if you obtain a Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.). You can learn about teaching strategies, child development, preschool subjects, and communication by taking these formal courses. You can acquire the skills and information you might need to work with kids as a preschool teacher through a controlled learning environment.

Practise your Skills

After receiving your certification, it's critical to put your abilities to use and continue to hone them. You can use what you've learned with the kids in your neighbourhood and family. It could be a good idea to schedule the kids' playtimes and make an effort to control them. Additionally, you can communicate with the parents, comprehend the behaviour of the kids, and discover what the parents anticipate from preschool teachers.


Learn from Observation

Watching other preschool instructors at work is a fantastic approach to develop your abilities and discover new ones. You might ask a preschool instructor you know for advice and pointers if you are familiar with them. If the preschool where they work permits, go to work with them and assist them with kid management. After completing your studies, you can also sign up for a brief internship to practise using your preschool teaching abilities under supervision.

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