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MEV-016: Environmental Impact Assessment

MEV-016: Environmental Impact Assessment

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for MEV-016 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Environmental Impact Assessment, you have come to the right place. MEV-016 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in MSCENV, MAEVS courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MEV-016/TMA-01/2021-22

Course Code: MEV-016

Assignment Name: Environmental Impact Assessment

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Note: This assignment is based on the entire course.

Answer any five questions. All question carries equal marks.

Q2. What is the role of capacity building in improving EIA?

Ans) Capacity building increases a country's ability to categorise and resolve concerns and hazards, maximising possibilities. It's a long-term, self-directed process. It entails the development, organising, and enhancement of institutional, human, and other resources. Environmental capacity building is critical for international cooperation and assistance during and after Rio. Capacity building was a major issue of "agenda 21" ("non-binding United Nations action plan on sustainable development; global plan of action to achieve sustainable development approved at the Earth Summit") in developing nations.

Capacity development is defined as "a multilateral structured process that is owned and directed by the community in which it is located."

Aims of Capacity Building

  1. In the development process, capacity building encourages a wide range of environmental considerations and conditions.

  2. Capacity building promotes civil society diversity.

Principles of Capacity Building

  1. It combines environmental and development issues.

  2. It takes into account gender issues across all aspects and phases of implementation and development.

  3. Capacity building aims to engage marginalised groups in society and provide appropriate approaches.

  4. Capacity development employs a variety of management approaches, incentives, analytical tools, and organisational structure to achieve a policy goal.

  5. It encompasses all areas of the process that touch and interest the general audience.

  6. Capacity building improves coordination between civil society and government institutions.

However, developing countries face clear limitations in terms of what they can do, such as a lack of social care for the environment, insufficient economic development, and limited financial resources. A minimal range of enabling conditions on which to build environmental capacity should be provided for successful environmental capacity building. As a result, it may be useful in determining the best strategy.

Natural resource depletion and disintegration in emerging countries due to a lack of environmental support and public concern for capacity building.

Environmental awareness can be promoted by some of the measures including:

  1. In the workplace and in the community, environmental awards are established.

  2. Conferences and gatherings should be held to address environmental challenges.

  3. It is appropriate to commemorate an environmental 'day,' 'week,' or event.

  4. Projects that have a negative impact on the environment should enlist public participation and support.

  5. NGOs, women, and local communities should all be encouraged to participate.

  6. Environmental policies and initiatives should be implemented, and community-based resource management should be promoted.

Because the public is more conscious of the environment, public participation is important for reducing and resolving environmental problems. Local residents should be involved and have the right to approach and offer information, as well as the ability to criticise decisions. Participation of the public in government policies can be simple.

Q3. Explain in detail about Cost Benefit Analysis.

Ans) It was created primarily to assess public projects. All potential profits and losses can be recognised and converted into monetary units using a cost benefit analysis of a proposed public project. The goal of a CBA is to determine the project proposal's efficiency from the perspective of society. For example, the feasibility of cleansing a region's contaminated water wells. All indirect and intangible costs and benefits must be accounted for by the cost benefit analyst. Other than labour and capital costs, a full examination of this project and its influence on humans and the surrounding environment will be evaluated. During the project's evaluation, future generations and socioeconomic groups' well-being will be taken into account.

A cost-benefit analysis is a thorough and meticulous procedure. CBA differs from other project evaluation formats in terms of methodology and analytical data, particularly in terms of financial and cost effectiveness. The cost-benefit analysis methodology is typically used to analyse public projects, and the project outcome is assessed in the public interest. CBA can be done at many points of the policy life cycle. As a result, CBA might be defined as "ex ante cost benefit analysis," which means "before." As a result, it is carried out prior to the project's implementation. Ex post or retrospective CBAs are another sort of CBA. This indicates that ex post CBA is done after the project has been implemented or completed. A CBA in the middle of a project, such as a motorway, is called an in medias res CBA.

Cost-Benefit Analysis Steps

Step 1: Define Your Goal or Purpose. The analyst explains why a CBA is needed. The CBA tries to figure out whether an existing policy or a new policy or programme is better for the project. The analyst should explain why the market or government failed, as this would give the study a purpose.

Alternative Project Specification: The analyst must specify a set of alternative projects in this step. The analyst should have two options to consider. CBA compares one or more potential projects to the project under consideration.

Decision on Whose Benefits and Expenditures Count: The analyst's next step is to determine which benefits and costs should be included and tallied. National governments typically account primarily for domestic costs and benefits, whereas critics argue that issues that have a substantial detrimental impact on citizens of other countries should be examined from a global viewpoint as well. Ozone depletion, acid rain, and global climate change are all environmental concerns that should be addressed.

Metrics for Impact Category Identification, Catalogue, and Sets: For each effect category, the impacts of proposed alternatives are quantified in terms of costs and benefits in monetary terms. The list of relevant impact categories is known as the impact inventory. The analyst will create an impact matrix to summarise the influence of each policy option on each impact category.

Project Life Qualitative Impact Prediction: Public initiatives have long-term consequences. The analyst's fifth responsibility is to forecast all of the impacts for each option on a yearly basis for the discount period. An analyst must establish a cause-and-effect relationship between the project's physical outcome and human use. For some impacts, such as the relationship between car usage and accidents, the expected cause effect is already established.

Impact Monetarization: The next stage for analysts is to monetise each impact. "The value of a benefit is judged in terms of willingness to pay," according to CBA. For example, if no one is willing to pay for any impact, the impact has no value in terms of CBA.

To Calculate Present Value, Use Benefit and Cost Discounts. Cost and benefit arise in different years of a project and are aggregated with implications throughout time. "Future benefits and costs are discounted relative to present benefits and costs in order to determine their present value (PV)" in cost benefit analysis.

Calculation of Net Present Value in Relation to Each Option: The difference between social benefit and social expenses is the project's net social benefit (NSB). "The differences between the PV of a policy alternative's social benefits and the PV of its social costs" is how "the net present value (NPV) of a policy alternative equals the differences between the PV of its social benefits and the PV of its social costs" is how "the net present value (NPV) of a policy alternative equals the differences between.

Perform a Sensitivity Analysis: Certain assumptions are made based on projected values, such as the predicted affects and the appropriate monetary valuation of each unit of each impact. To deal with these uncertainties, the analyst must perform a sensitivity analysis with single alternatives and display the parameter values that can shift the decision from "go" to "no go" or vice versa. The most important aspect is to comprehend the estimated NPV distribution.

Making a Recommendation: Assume there are two options A and B, with A having a larger projected NPV and lower risk than B. Under these circumstances, the analyst will unmistakably choose option A.

Q4. When can the public be involved in the EIA? What is the importance of public consultation during the EIA?

Ans) One of the essential factors for the success of the EIA process is public participation. The environmental clearance mechanism is open to public participation and allows anyone who will be impacted by the project to express their views on the project's social and environmental consequences.

EIA and the successful design, operation, execution, and administration of plans are aided by well-designed and conducted public involvement initiatives. Public participation is a vital source of information for determining effective mitigation actions, important impacts, and alternative identification. Public participation also guarantees that the EIA process is robust, open, and transparent, with justifiable analysis. In EJA, consultation is more essential than participation.

Various Public Rights

  1. Right to information access

  2. Decision can be challenged by public

  3. Contribution to information

Communication between the public and the assessment team is crucial to public participation. As a result, the evaluation team is encouraged to communicate with the majority of the people as soon as possible by all methods available. Participation in the public sphere entails an active and positive interchange of ideas, information, and meanings.

The roles of public are stated as follows:

  1. The public should give critical data and information for the assessment of social, environmental, and physical repercussions.

  2. Early detection of controversial problems reduces confrontations.

  3. Identification of local citizens and groups with specialised knowledge.

  4. The people can identify regional and local issues.

  5. The public can provide historical context to current environmental situations.

  6. Assist in the collection of field data.

  7. They can give criteria for the evaluation of substantial identified impacts.

  8. Suggestions and mechanisms for public participation were helpful.

  9. Assist with the scheduling of the overall assessment process and the definition of the scope of work.

  10. Make a connection between a team member and the assessment's primary organisation.

  11. It is possible to identify and assess potential mitigation methods.

  12. The public's trust in the EIA process is growing.

Objectives of Public Participation

  1. Having an impact on decisions

  2. Strengthening democratic institutions

  3. Learning through social interaction

  4. Individuals and groups who have been marginalised are being empowered and emancipated.

  5. Conflict resolution

  6. Creating credibility

  7. Testing the reliability of data from different sources

  8. Taking into account both experimental and value-based knowledge

  9. Using local knowledge and information

  10. Principle of Public Involvement

The goal of public involvement in EIA studies is to inform stakeholders about the plan and its expected consequences, as well as to express their opinions, concerns, and feedback about public information in EJA and decision-making.

The basic principles in public involvement techniques are stated as follows:

  1. Non-experts should be able to interpret easily understood and adequate relevant information.

  2. Stakeholders should be given adequate time to read and discuss the material and its implications.

  3. Stakeholders should be given enough time to present their points of view.

  4. Stakeholder comments on the issues should be addressed with appropriate responses.

  5. Maximum attendance should be promoted by choosing appropriate sites and times, as well as allowing for a free exchange of ideas among all stakeholders.

Q5. Explain the differences between old & new EIA Notification?

Ans) The differences between old & new EIA Notification are:

EIA Notification 1994 EIA Notification 2006


MoEF, Govt. of India a) MoEF, Govt. of India for Category A projects.

b) State Level environment Impact assessment authority for Category B.


A proponent who wishes to pursue a project specified in Schedule-1 must first obtain approval from the Central Government. The Projects in Schedule 1 were further divided as follows in the 1994 Notification:

c) Categorization A (Requiring preparation of EIA Report and clearance from MoEF)

d) Categorization B (Requiring clearance from State Government)

Projects in Category B were further divided into the following categories:

a) Bl (Requiring preparation of EIA Report)

b) B2 (Don’t require preparation of EIA Report)


Depending on the amount of money invested and the size/capacity of the facility.

During the screening process, the project proponent must determine whether the proposed activity/project is under the scope of Environmental Clearance, and then conduct the EJA study either directly or through the use of a consultant. Revisions to the timetable based on probable impacts, with A, BI, and B2 categories. For Category B projects, the proponent must submit Form-1 to the State Level Environment Impact Assessment Authority for classification into B1 or B2.

It has a unique screening method that divides proposals into two categories:

a) Categorization A (Requiring preparation of EIA Report and clearance from MoEF, Govt. of India)

b) Category B (Requiring State Government Approval) has two sub-types: BI and B2.


Scoping was of no use. The project proponent made all of the ToR decisions without consulting the public. Scoping has been established; nonetheless, the Expert Appraisal Committee is solely responsible for determining the ToR, as it was in the case of Category A and Category B1 projects.

The Expert Appraisal Committee will, however, finalise the ToR based on the information submitted by the project proponent. To determine the ToR, the Expert Appraisal Committee may visit the site, undertake a public consultation, and meet with experts. However, if the Expert Appraisal Committee fails to specify the ToR within 60 days, the proponent is free to develop their own. The final ToR will be posted on the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change's website, as well as the websites of the respective State/Union Territory Environment Impact Assessment Authorities (SEIAA).

For category A and B1 projects, the proponent must submit information using Form-1/Form1-A.


No provision. No provision, but site visit, if required.


No provision. Based on the information in Form-1 and the ToR presented by the project proponent, the clearance authority will determine the detailed ToR.


Before the EIA, a separate site clearance process had to be completed. The site clearance process is included in the scoping step.


Finalized before the public hearing. Before the public hearing, a draught EIA report is submitted, followed by a final EIA report based on public participation.


No provision. The executive summary is available on the State Pollution Control Board's website, and the draught EIA report is available for public inspection at a few locations.


After the EIA study, a public consultation was held, and the public's opinions were recorded but not made public.

To hold a public hearing, the project proponent must write to the SPCB. The State Boards were responsible for publishing notice of the environmental public hearing in at least two publications widely disseminated in the region surrounding the project, one of which must be in the locality's vernacular language. Publicly available visual/video documentation of public hearing proceedings. If the scenario is not favourable, the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, may decide to forego the public consultation.

Except for six activities (extension of roads and highways, modernization of irrigation projects, etc.) for which public consultation was excused, all Category A and Category B1 projects/activities were required to conduct public consultation.

The state PCBs are in charge of holding the public hearing. Within 30 days of receiving the draught Environmental Impact Assessment report, the Member Secretary of the concerned State/Union Territory Pollution Control Board must finalise the date, time, and location for a public hearing and advertise it in one major national daily and one regional vernacular daily.

The public was given a minimum of 30 days' notice before they had to respond. There were two main components to the public consultation:

a) A public hearing will be held to hear the opinions of local residents.

b) Obtaining written responses from those who are interested.

There are no explicit rules, as there were in the previous Notification, indicating the likely attendees of the public hearing. The participation of "local people" in the public hearing raises questions about whether the hearing can be attended by interested parties such as NGOs, professionals, and others, or if it is solely for locals.

The notification required the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, to post a summary of the draught Environment Impact Assessment report on its website, as well as make the full draught EIA available for reference in the Ministry's library.

There will be no rescheduling of the public hearing time or location unless an unexpected emergency circumstance arises, and then on the recommendation of the concerned District Magistrate. The Pollution Control Committee will arrange for the entire meeting to be video recorded.


Local people, environmental groups, etc. Only local residents are permitted to participate in the Public Consultation; others may only submit written comments or observations.


Obtaining NOC from SPCB as the compulsory prerequisite. NOC not mandatory.


Appraisal of final EIS is done by Expert Appraisal Committee, MoEF, Govt. of India. Expert Appraisal Committee, MoEF, Government of India appraises final EIS for category A and State Expert Appraisal Committee, SPCB appraises final EIS for category Bl.


Monitoring is carried out by the regional office of the Ministry of Environment and Forests of the Government of India; however, half-yearly compliance reports are not made public. Monitoring is carried out by the Regional Office of the Ministry of Environment and Forests of India, and half-yearly compliance reports are to be made public.


Appeal to Environment Appellate Authority. Not defined.


Existing projects that need to be modernised or expanded must follow the same approach as new projects. Modernization or expansion of existing projects must be reviewed by an Expert Appraisal Committee / State Expert Appraisal Committee to determine if an EIA or public consultation is required.


Not time bound. Time bound with consequences at each stage.

Q6. Explain briefly about structure and elements of EIA report?

Ans) The following sections make up the structure and elements of the EJA report:

Section I (Introduction): The title of the report, a list of contents, the organization(s) responsible for the study, and, preferably, a list of important investigator(s)/consultant(s) and their institutional affiliation are all included in this section of EIA reports.

Section II (Executive Summary) consists of the following sections: The executive summary is a concise review of the most important results and recommendations. The emphasis must be on the critical information that can aid in decision-making. The executive summary is only 7 to 8 pages long. The executive summary is usually the only section of the report that most people and decision makers read. Because the executive summary is intended to be distributed as an information pamphlet among stakeholders and project affected persons, it uses straightforward language. An executive summary includes:

  1. The project's blueprint; the EIA's Terms of Reference;

  2. The outcome of the public hearing;

  3. Alternatives have been considered;

  4. The project's major impacts and their significance;

  5. a brief description of the mitigation strategies that have been proposed;

A summary of the Environmental Management Plan; and any other relevant concerns that may aid in the decision-making process.

Section III (Proposal Needs and Goals): The EIA is a well-defined and clear statement that explains the proposal's necessity and goals. Typically, the project's requirement is backed up by a list of relevant regulations and plans. The proposal highlights the anticipated advantages of the project's actions.

Section IV (Legal and Policy Framework): In this section of the EIA, the legal and policy framework that applies to the proposal is briefly described. Other needs or concerns are mentioned alongside related aspects of the EIA procedure. This chapter summarises the EIA's ToR, as well as the reasons for any deviations from it. This section of the report may include a copy of the ToR.

Section V (Project explanation and alternatives): The elements and primary activities envisioned during the project's construction, operation, and decommissioning stages are listed in this section of the EIA.

This section compares and contrasts the various alternatives, including the no-action option and information on:

  1. The project's location (on-site and off-site topographies)

  2. Roads, electricity, and water are all available.

  3. Patterns of resource use, raw material inputs, and emissions and waste outputs;

  4. Features, methods, and products related to operations;

  5. Assessment of alternatives and options about the size, location, technology to be employed, design, energy sources, and source of raw materials; and Relationship of technical, socioeconomic, and environmental elements of project.

This data is useful for assessing the impact and predicting mitigation strategies. This information is accompanied by appropriate maps, flow charts, and visual drawings.

Section VI (Affected Environment Description): This portion of the report offers a summary of:

Laboratory systems and field studies (biophysical and socioeconomic settings)

  1. Baseline data (socioeconomic background) with predicted changes prior to the start of the project

  2. Pattern of land use currently in place

  3. Policies and programmes that are currently in place

  4. The main trends and the condition that will be expected in the future

  5. Eco-sensitive places and abundant natural resources.

One of the most essential components of the EIA report is Section VII (Public Hearing and Feedback), which contains a brief but thorough summary of the nature, scope, and outcome of the public hearing process.

This section of the report contains the following points:

  1. Identifying key stakeholders and those who are likely to be impacted;

  2. Stakeholder analysis was carried out using the following methodology:

  3. Evaluation of expressed concerns and ideas;

  4. Procedure for dealing with expressed ideas and concerns; and

  5. Concerns that haven't been addressed and issues that need to be handled.

Portion VIII (Assessment of Environmental Implications): For each environmental component mentioned in the ToR, this section of the EIA report examines the likely positive and negative impacts of both the plan and its alternates. Impact is measured in terms of degree, severity, frequency, duration, and so on.

The lingering effects that cannot be mitigated are also explicitly stated. This section contains the following information:

  1. Projection of a big impact, its characteristics, and likely consequences;

  2. Deliberation on whether or not they agree with environmental standards and policy objectives;

  3. Methods for evading, decreasing, and relieving the damage were proposed.

  4. determining the degree of residual effects; and

  5. Limitations associated with effect prediction and evaluation, as defined by the assumptions made, information gaps, and doubts encountered.

The section describes the methodological framework used to collect the data, as well as the forecasting methodologies and standards used to evaluate the outcome. This data is usually tabulated for the reader's and stakeholders' benefit.

Section IX (Comparative assessment of alternates): The proposal is thoroughly compared to the alternates in this section, and the scrutinising methods are also mentioned. The eco-friendly preferable solutions are identified and quantified, as well as the purpose for which they are to be used.

A comparison analysis is carried out in the following areas:

  1. Impacts that are harmful and those that are beneficial; efficacy of mitigation strategies; cost-benefit analysis; and any other opportunities for community and environmental development.

Section X (Environmental Management Plan): This section of the EIA report is 'action oriented,' summarising the mitigation measures indicated. It also specifies the process for putting the measures into effect. An EMP describes the activities that will be carried out to monitor and manage the project's impacts during its development and operation.

The plan includes:

  1. Mitigation strategies suggested; EMP execution liabilities; Assumed activities timeline; Schedule monitoring in relation to targets

  2. An Impact Management Plan to mitigate the effects of anticipated changes;

  3. Plans for emergency response (if necessary); and

  4. Processes for reporting, evaluating, and reviewing.

The EMP plan specifies the strengthening of local institutions, capacity building, and training needs that must be met in order for the EMP to be implemented.

Part XI (Appendices): This section contains information that technical professionals will need for reference or review. Appendices are typically used to include baseline data, technical information, and a description of methods. These are necessary for a professional to understand the EJA report's foundation, but they may not be useful in the main text.

The appendices could include:

  1. Glossary

  2. Abbreviations list;

  3. Individuals and organisations who were consulted during the impact assessment are listed below.

  4. Data and information sources

  5. List/particulars of EIA team members and other contributions List/particulars of EIA team members and other contributors.

Despite the fact that an ideal report should be comprehensive, easily comprehensible, impartial, accurate, and consistent, achieving these goals is challenging due to various constraints. As a result, in order to meet the higher criteria, any limits or disparities must be resolved in order to ensure that the decision-making process is fair.

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