If you are looking for MEV-025 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Climate Change and Society, you have come to the right place. MEV-025 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in PGCCC, MASS, MAEVS courses of IGNOU.
MEV-025 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MEV-025/TMA/2022-23
Course Code: MEV-025
Assignment Name: Climate Change and Society
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Answer any five questions. All question carries equal marks. The marks for each question are indicated against it within brackets on the right-hand side.
Please write all answers in your own words.
Q 1. Write short notes on the following: (20 marks)
Q 1. a. Social Vulnerability
Ans) Social Vulnerability refers to the characteristics of a community that have an impact on that community's ability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from the effects of climate-related hazards and disasters. The term can be defined in two ways: the first is "the differential capacity of groups and individuals to deal with hazards, based on their positions within physical and social worlds," and the second is "the inability to take effective measures to insure against losses." If we want to define the term in the simplest way possible, we can define it as "the differential capacity of groups and individuals to deal with hazards, based on their positions within physical and social worlds."
When looking at social vulnerability in relation to one's means of subsistence, the definition states that it is "the exposure of groups or individuals to stress as a result of social and environmental change, where stress refers to unexpected changes and disruption to one's means of subsistence." Observing this aspect of social vulnerability in relation to one's means of subsistence leads to the following: The concept of social vulnerability helps explain why certain communities are more severely affected by the risks than others, despite the fact that they are exposed to the same risks. This suggests that the nature of the social vulnerability is a "pre-existing condition" or an inherent property of the societies themselves, which is independent from the nature of the hazard.
The socioeconomic status, gender, age, special needs, employment status, geographical locations, occupational status, education, family structure, housing ownership patterns, access to emergency medical services, level of development, and geographical locations are the most common indicators used to measure social vulnerability. Other common indicators include occupational status, education, family structure, housing ownership patterns, and access to emergency medical services. The list may also be expanded with additional indicators in accordance with the specific demands of the context in which they are implemented.
These indicators have a different impact individually and in a combined way over the level of the vulnerability as it either increases or decreases the vulnerability. This can happen either because it increases or because it decreases the vulnerability. The Social Vulnerability Index measures social vulnerability. This scale-dependent, multidimensional index can be used across spatial units to measure socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability. It can also assess vulnerability. Each indicator's score can be aggregated to create a composite social vulnerability index for a specific area or unit. Once the results are obtained, the social vulnerability scores can be visualised using software and open-source GIS tools.
Q 1. b. Assessment of Social-ecological system
Ans) The study of ecological systems cannot be done in a vacuum, which led to the development of the idea of integrating the social system with the ecological system, which was later given the name "Social-Ecological System." The study of ecological systems cannot be done in a vacuum. Berkes and Folke are the ones who came up with the term "Social-Ecological System," and they defined it as a collection of interconnected frameworks in which humans and animals have close ties to one another.
The interactions that take place between the biophysical and social factors in these kinds of systems are robust and kind to the environment. A description of social-ecological systems has been provided by Petrosillo. These systems are distinguished by the interaction of various social, economic, ecological, and technological parameters. These parameters are in fact intertwined with one another, and they coevolve with nature in time as well as space.
Because of the importance of the Social-Ecological System (SES), a large number of studies have been carried out to gain an understanding of the SES from the point of view of multiple fields of study by utilising a variety of conceptual frameworks in order to assess the SES. These studies have been conducted in order to gain an appreciation for the significance of the SES. The examples that follow will illustrate this point:
Social-Ecological Systems Framework.
This is a comprehensive model that examines the resource tiers or cores that are already present in the Social Ecological Systems. This takes on the form of a multilevel hierarchical approach, in which the levels can be categorised as the governing system, users, resource units, and resource systems in that order, respectively. These levels have been further subdivided into variables; while each variable performs its function relatively independently, it is in constant dialogue with the others and contributes to the overall outcome of the SES.
This structure has its origins in the discipline of political science and is based on a variety of theories, including natural resource management and common pool management, amongst others. Its primary purpose is to conduct an analysis of the social enterprise sectors that are active in the fields of forestry, fishing, and water management.
Q 2. Write short notes on the following: (20 marks)
Q 2. a. Climate change and gender
Ans) In the article titled "Climate change and Gender," topics such as the social dimensions of gender, the ways in which gender is constructed in society, gender identity and inequity in society, climate change and gender inequity, the vulnerability of women and children to climate change, and the reasons for women's vulnerability to climate change are discussed.
The social construction of gender roles and how they relate to one another can provide insight into the different impacts that climate change will have on men and women. This insight can be gained by examining the relationship between climate change and gender as a means of doing so. The effects of climate change on women's social and political rights are generally negative; however, this is especially the case in economies that are heavily dependent on agriculture and where gender inequality is already a problem. In these economies, the effects of climate change on women's social and political rights are especially negative.
The negative effects of climate change include a worsening of gender inequality, which makes it more difficult for women to achieve economic autonomy, and an overall negative impact. In many different contexts, women are more vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change as a direct result of the gender inequality that exists in our society. This is due to gender roles, particularly in developing countries, which mean that women are frequently dependent on the natural environment for their means of subsistence as well as their income.
Developing countries also have a higher prevalence of gender roles that make women dependent on natural environments. The effects of climate change, which tend to fall disproportionately harder on women than they do on men, can exacerbate gender disparities that already exist. This is due to the fact that women's already limited access to a variety of resources, including physical, social, political, and financial ones, is further restricted by climate change.
In addition, there are disparities between men and women in terms of their awareness of climate change, the factors that contribute to it, and the actions they take in response to it. As a direct consequence of this, a significant number of countries have formulated gender-based climate change strategies and action plans, which they have also put into practise.
Q 2. b. Dimensions of human security
Ans) The concept of human security is a paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities. Proponents of this paradigm argue that the appropriate referent for security should be at the human level rather than the national level, which challenges the conventional idea that national security is achieved through military security. Human security reveals a people-centred and multi-disciplinary understanding of security that draws on a variety of research fields including development studies, international relations, strategic studies, and human rights.
This understanding of security is based on the idea that people are the most important aspect of any society's security. The Human Development Report that was published in 1994 by the United Nations Development Programme is considered to be a seminal publication in the field of human security. This report argues that the most effective way to address the issue of global insecurity is to ensure that all people have "freedom from want" and "freedom from fear."
Climate change will have an impact on seven dimensions of human security. They are as follows:
Economic security-basic income for individuals.
Food security-access to basic foods.
Health security-protection from diseases.
Environment security-protection from natural disasters and other events due to climate change and anthropogenic threats.
Personal- protection from violence and other domestic conflicts.
Community- protect the loss of culture, traditional relationship, and ethnic values; and
Political security- states/governments must provide the basic human rights and freedom for their people via their policy and constitutional rights.
Both the economy and the way people choose to live their lives are susceptible to the negative effects of climate change. The idea of having a secure livelihood involves ensuring that one has access to a safe place to live, sufficient food and water, gainful employment, and adequate medical care. Changes in climate have the potential to have a negative effect on water, food, health, and employment, all of which are closely related to the weather and climate of a particular region. The risks that are posed by climate change are significant in a number of different areas, including those that are affected by economic considerations, cultural shifts, migration, and fundamental human needs.
Q 3. Explain the impacts of climate change on population security. (20 marks)
Ans) Due to the high population densities that characterise urban areas, these types of environments tend to be more hazardous when natural disasters strike. Cities with a high population density will be among the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change if it causes storms and floods to become more frequent and severe.
These climate-sensitive health risks are felt disproportionately by the most vulnerable and disadvantaged people, such as women, children, ethnic minorities, poor communities, migrants or displaced persons, older populations, and those with pre-existing health conditions. These groups include women, children, ethnic minorities, poor communities, migrants or displaced persons, and older populations.
The long-term effects of climate change, which include decreased availability of resources and deterioration of the environment, pose a significant threat to the safety of the world's population.
The following sectoral trends have a significant impact on population security due to climate change:
Water: The decreasing availability of water results in an increase in the level of competition between users. At the same time, traditional hydrological patterns will begin to break down, which will result in an increased possibility of a catastrophe.
Food and Rural Development: Food production is expected to decrease across a significant number of regions, which will likely result in decreased food security. This results in an increase in competition for land that is fertile. The severity of the agricultural crisis is driving an increase in the rate of uncontrolled migration to the cities, which may cause these areas to become more socially volatile. Infrastructure, power generation, and transportation: Important infrastructures, such as those responsible for the distribution of energy, will suffer damage, which will contribute to the socioeconomic destabilisation processes. At the same time, falling hydropower generation levels can further heighten competition over fossil fuel sources of energy.
People have always been driven to move, either temporarily or permanently, in response to a lack of available resources, whether in one location or another. Because of changes in the climate, there are fewer potential geographical areas that are open to migration of this kind, which is driven by the urbanisation and growth of populations.
Numerous villages in Iran, west India, and Pakistan, as well as those in the north and west of China, have lost their inhabitants as a result of a lack of accessible water resources. Migration is largely determined by the conditions that are already present in the regions of destination, including competition over resources and demographics, migration networks, ethnicity, governance capacities, the response of the nation of destination, and political stability and the history of conflict.
In addition to that, it has been a contributing factor in the movement of people from rural to urban areas. This has resulted in a divide between urban and rural areas. In addition to this, there has been a shortage of food as a result of the growing population, as well as a shortage of fodder for animals.
The following steps could be taken to address the population security:
The public governance system– both elected and non-elected need to reach out to farmers and youth and provide them with sustainable development and provide the schemes implemented to combat the climate change.
Bringing vast waste lands under vegetative cover, to absorb CO2 from atmosphere, can provide sustainable livelihood and provide required capacity to meet the challenges of food security.
More importantly, it has the potential to restore the equilibrium that had been lost in the interaction and interdependence of the five forces that make up nature – the sky, the earth, the sun, the water, and the vegetation – and to bring predictability back to the weather. The problem can be solved by restoring harmony to the natural world's components, specifically the atmosphere, the sun, the earth, the water, and the vegetation. The answer can be found at the community level. Our goal should be to come up with a solution that will allow us to turn this difficulty into an advantage.
Q 4. Explain the climate change impacts on critical infrastructure. (20 marks)
Ans) Climate change will have different effects on different types of infrastructure, depending on the function, location, construction, materials, age, and condition of the infrastructure. The climate change impacts on critical infrastructure are:
1. Water Supply Infrastructure
Climate change is having a significant impact on weather patterns and the world's ecosystem, posing significant challenges to the world's water supply, causing poor water quality and scarcity, and putting strain on water infrastructure. Scientists claim that even if humans limit global warming to two degrees Celsius, more than a quarter of the Earth's land will become significantly drier.
Drying Climate Causes
Flooding can also affect drinking water supplies
Reduction in flows to dams and groundwater aquifers
Increased evaporation from surface water storages
Saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers
Acidification of susceptible inland aquifers.
2. Impact on Agriculture Systems
Global warming is a major issue. About 2.6 billion people depend directly on agriculture, but 52% of farmland is affected by salinity and drought. In India, major symptoms include disruption of normal climate patterns over large areas, increasing drought and extreme temperatures, and salt stress in inland and coastal areas. Frequency and severity are increasing.
Global climate change is predicted to lead to extreme temperatures and prolonged drought in some parts of the world, which will have a dramatic impact on crop growth and productivity. These abiotic stresses (salinity, drought, high temperature) can cause agricultural economic losses. This causes over 50% of global crop yield losses. Temperature regimes affect plant growth duration, pattern, development at different growth stages, and productivity. Rice and other tropical crops will produce less as global temperatures rise, according to studies.
3. Public Health Systems
Climate change is already wreaking havoc on the environment and global health. Extreme weather events, rising temperatures, drought, and rising sea levels are all threatening our ability to grow food, access clean water, and work safely outside. Soon, the transformation will be so drastic and devastating in some areas that native populations will be displaced and forced to relocate as environmental refugees.
Climate change may increase vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne illnesses, malnutrition, respiratory and allergic disorders, heat-related disorders, collective violence, and mental health problems. Climate-caused illness will disproportionately affect the poor, minorities, women, children, and elderly. High-risk areas have scarce resources, environmental degradation, high infectious disease rates, weak infrastructure, and overpopulation. Climate change will alter human–pathogen interactions in tropical regions. Climate change will change the ecology of vector-borne diseases like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, kala-azar, and filariasis. Elderly, children, urban, and poor people are vulnerable.
Many zoonotic diseases are emerging as a result of environmental factors such as climate change, deforestation, changes in wildlife habitat, and other land use change; human population growth; and cross-border movement of humans and animals. Floods, cyclones, disease epidemics, drought, tsunami, tornado, heat wave, and lightning are examples of climate change disasters affecting the livestock and poultry sectors that require state-level response. Disasters caused by climate change have a disproportionate impact on the community's most vulnerable members.
4. Energy Production and Delivery
Climate change can have a wide range of effects on the energy sector. Although the most immediate impacts are on energy supply and demand, climate change can also affect various other aspects of the energy sector, such as energy transportation and infrastructure, as well as have indirect effects through other economic sectors. Its structure is organised along the stages of the energy chain, from energy resources to conversion and transportation to final use.
Changes in the frequency and severity of storms and other extreme events may also cause damage to energy infrastructure, leading to energy shortages that harm the economy and disrupt daily life. Railways and marine transportation in the state that transport large amounts of oil and gas are also vulnerable to climate change. Precipitation changes may have an impact on marine or water transportation of fuels by reducing the navigability of inland water bodies.
The mode and operation of transportation systems have an impact on the supply of goods and services such as food, energy, and so on. Climate change can have an impact on the transportation sector through infrastructure damage, changes in energy consumption, and changes in agricultural region and production. Impacts of climate change on the transportation sector:
Aviation: Flooding, sea-level rise, storm surge inundation, and rain may force the closure of entire airports or cause significant damage to facilities, including airstrips. Extreme heat may cause cargo restrictions, flight delays, and cancellations.
Marine: Higher tides, sea-level rise, and storm surges may require raising and hardening ports and infrastructure. High temperatures can cause rail tracks to expand and buckle, requiring speed restrictions and track repairs. Sea-level rise and storm surges can inundate coastal railways and subways. Heat waves and humidity can limit road construction, increasing costs. Flooding and extreme snow can shorten the life of roads, requiring more repairs and rebuilding. Climate change impacts must be accepted.
Q 5. Write short notes on the following: (20 marks)
Q 5. a. Climate refugees
Ans) People are considered to be climate refugees if they are forced to leave their homes, either immediately or in the near future, due to sudden or gradual changes in their natural environment that are related to at least one of the following impacts of climate change: rising sea levels, extreme weather events, drought, and water scarcity. Under the more general heading of "environmental refugees," the term "climate refugees" refers to the category that is included in that heading.
Migration, also known as the movement of people, can be caused by either a push or a pull factor. Pull factors are associated with the lucrative opportunities that are anticipated at the destination, in contrast to push factors, which are largely associated with the activities and occurrences that take place at the native place. It is important to note that the push factors appear to play an important role in the case of climate refugees.
The forced relocation of people as a result of the effects of climate change is of an unavoidable nature. The primary reason for this is that climate change has an effect not only on the health of people but also on their land, natural resources, and their means of subsistence. Because of the impact of the extreme weather event, the people are forced to migrate from their own land to a new destination.
There is a strong connection between the concepts of "Climate Refugees" and "Climate-Induced Migration." It is a phenomenon that can involve either the temporary or permanent relocation of people as a result of the adverse effects of changes in their natural environment. The displacement of people is greatly influenced by the extreme climatic conditions that are manifested in the form of increased frequency and magnitude of floods and droughts, etc. People who have been forced to relocate either temporarily or permanently as a direct result of the adverse effects of climate change are sometimes referred to as climate refugees. There has been a lot of discussion about how to classify people who have fled their homes because of the environment or the climate.
Climate migration is defined as "the movement of a person or groups of persons who, predominantly for reasons of sudden or progressive change in the environment due to climate change, are obliged to leave their habitual place of residence, or choose to do so, either temporarily or permanently, either within a State or across an international border," according to the IOM International Migration Law Glossary on Migration.
Q 5. b. Intended Nationally Determined Contributions
Ans) The Paris Agreement on Climate Change was signed in December 2015 at the conclusion of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris. It is, indeed, a watershed moment. Under a new international agreement known as the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, the countries have agreed to publicly outline what climate actions they intend to take after 2020. (INDCs).
India submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
The following are the eight INDC goals identified by India:
Sustainable Lifestyles: The goal in terms of lifestyle is to spread an energetic and healthy way of life that is sustainable and driven by age-old traditions and conservation virtues.
Cleaner Economic Development: Economic development is critical for population security, but the development path should also be cleaner, carbon neutral, climate sensitive, and climate friendly.
Reducing Emission Intensity of Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The goal in terms of emission intensity is to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33-35 percent by 2030 compared to 2005 levels.
Increasing the share of non-fossil fuel-based electricity: This is possibly an important goal, as it is planned to obtain approximately 40% of "cumulative electric power installed capacity" from non-fossil fuel-based resources by 2030 through the adoption of developed-country technologies and financial support from the "Green Climate Fund" (GCF).
Enhancing Carbon Sink (Forests): Forests act as carbon sinks by sequestering carbon from the atmosphere during their growth processes. It is planned to increase forest cover to create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 - 3 billion tonnes of CO2e by 2030.
Adaptation: Certain industries are climate-sensitive and vulnerable to climate change. Agriculture, health, disaster management, ecosystems such as coastal regions, and the Himalayan region all require proactive adaptation strategies, which can be achieved by increasing investments in vulnerable sector development programmes.
Mobilizing Finance: To achieve the INDC goals and effectively implement mitigation and adaptation measures, there is a need to mobilise finance both domestically and from developed countries and funding agencies.
Technology Transfer and Capacity Building: Mitigation and adaptation to climate change require capacity building and transfer of innovative technologies. This is indeed an important task so that green technologies which can immensely reduce GHG emissions can be transferred from developed countries.
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