If you are looking for MFC-002 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Tradition, Identity and Cultural Production, you have come to the right place. MFC-002 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in PGDFCS, MAFCS courses of IGNOU.
MFC-002 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MFC-002 / TMA-01 / 2022-23
Course Code: MFC-002
Assignment Name: Tradition, Identity and Cultural Production
Year: 2022 - 2023
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Attempt any five questions. All questions carry equal marks. (20x5)
Q 1. Write a critical note on Tradition and Innovation. Discuss the case study of Biswakarma festival as an ‘invented’ tradition.
Ans) Tradition and innovative ideas have a complicated and multifaceted relationship. On the one hand, traditions give people and groups a sense of stability and continuity and help them connect with their cultural and historical roots. On the other hand, innovation is important for cultural and social growth because it helps people and groups adapt to new situations and create new ways to express their culture. Traditions can change over time, and in a world that is always changing, even old ones may need to be updated from time to time so that they can still be followed. Some types of traditional Indian classical music, for example, have added new songs, dances, and instruments over time to fit the changing social and cultural norms of different times and places. Because of this, diverse types of music now sound more like they were pre-recorded and sold than they did before.
Again, some things have always been used for certain things because that is what they have always been used for. For example, a sword and a hookah, which is an oriental water pipe used for smoking, were two of the most traditional things from the feudal era. They don't serve the same purposes as they did in the past. But there are still some of them around today, and they are used as decorations. In the same way, traditional social and cultural spaces have been replaced by new ones. This has made it possible for ethnic clothes and jewellery to not only stay around but also grow. This helps them not only stay alive, but also grow and get stronger. When people found new ways to use old things or experimented with them, these old ways of doing things got a second chance to be important. There are a lot of other situations like this one.
Case Study of Biswakarma
The case study of the Biswakarma festival in Nepal shows how tradition and new ideas can come together to make what is sometimes called a "invented" tradition. Members of the Biswakarma community, who have traditionally worked in crafts and engineering, get together every year for the Biswakarma festival. People think that the festival began in the early 1900s, when India and Nepal were still under British colonial rule. At that time, there was a growing interest in promoting and celebrating local cultures and traditions as a way to fight against colonialism and to show cultural identity.
So, the Biswakarma festival was made to show off the skills and knowledge of the Biswakarma community and to show how important they are to Nepal's economic and social growth. Over time, the festival has become a widely known and celebrated tradition, with elaborate rituals, music, dance, and feasting. But while the Biswakarma festival has become an important part of Nepalese culture and religion, it is also an example of a "invented" tradition because it was made relatively recently and has been developed and promoted to show and promote a certain cultural identity.
When new cultural traditions are made, there are both good and bad things about them. On the one hand, traditions that people make up can help give people a sense of stability and continuity when society and culture change. They can also be a powerful way to assert cultural identity and promote cultural diversity, especially in the face of dominant or hegemonic cultures. On the other hand, made-up traditions can also be used to push political or ideological agendas, and they can sometimes be used to reinforce power structures and social hierarchies that are already in place. Also, when people make up new traditions, they can sometimes hide or get rid of older traditions that are more real. This can lead to the loss of cultural heritage and diversity.
The Biswakarma Puja is celebrated in different parts of north India, especially in the east. This is an example of a tradition that was made up. Biswakarma is the Hindu god who is connected to all kinds of broken things. But, unlike many other gods in the Hindu pantheon, there was no set time each year to worship him in the Hindu calendar. The Hindu scriptures also don't say anything about how he should be worshipped.
Even though it sounds strange, the British industrialists in India were the ones who started this trend. In the early colonial period, these industrialists who owned factories in and around Calcutta realised that religion had a big impact on the workers in their factories. They came up with a new way to clean the factories and their machines once a year. So, September 17 was chosen as the day for the event. The Gregorian calendar is used to set the date of Biswakarma Puja every year. This is different from the Hindu almanack, which is used to set the dates of all other annual Hindu rituals.
In conclusion, the connection between innovation and tradition is one that is convoluted and multi-faceted, and the establishment of new cultural traditions can have both positive and negative repercussions on people's lives. The Biswakarma festival is an intriguing illustration of how tradition and creativity can collaborate to create something that might be considered a "new" tradition. It also demonstrates how essential it is to understand cultural traditions and their function in fostering cultural variety and identity through the application of analytical thinking and critical reflection.
Q 2. Discuss folk medicines with special reference to Ayurveda and Unani, placing them in the contemporary research of folk narratives.
Ans) Folk medicines are traditional forms of medicine that have been used for hundreds of years by people from many different places and cultures. They are often based on the use of natural herbs, minerals, and animal products to prevent and treat diseases. They have been used for generations to keep people healthy and happy. Ayurveda and Unani are both well-known forms of traditional medicine that came from India and the Middle East, respectively. Ayurveda is an ancient form of medicine that has been used in India for more than 5,000 years. It is based on the idea that the body is made up of five elements: earth, water, fire, air, and space, and that keeping these elements in balance is important for good health.
Unani medicine, on the other hand, is an old form of medicine that has its roots in ancient Greek medicine and was developed in the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age. It is based on the idea of blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile as "humours," and it stresses how important it is to keep a balance between them. Both Ayurveda and Unani are whole person approaches to health care that stress the importance of diet, lifestyle, and mental and emotional health. They also use many different herbs, minerals, and animal products to prevent and treat diseases.
Folk medicines like Ayurveda and Unani are getting more and more attention from scientists in recent years. This research has focused on learning about the biological and chemical properties of the plants and other natural products used in these traditional medicines, as well as their possible therapeutic benefits. Studies have shown that many of the herbs and natural products used in Ayurveda and Unani have powerful medicinal properties and can be used to treat a wide range of diseases and conditions. For example, turmeric, which is a key ingredient in many Ayurvedic medicines, has been shown to have strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and may help treat conditions like arthritis, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease.
In the same way, black cumin, a common ingredient in Unani medicine, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties, and it may be useful in treating asthma, diabetes, and high blood pressure. Folk tales, like Ayurveda and Unani, have important social and cultural meanings that have been brought to light by recent research on folk tales. Folk narratives are stories and myths that have been told in a community for generations. They often include important cultural and historical information.
Research has shown that folk stories about health and medicine can tell us about the social, cultural, and economic conditions in which traditional systems of medicine were created and used. For example, the stories and myths about Ayurveda and Unani often show how close these medical systems are to the natural environment and how important it is to use natural resources in a way that is sustainable and moral. Folk stories can also tell us about the social and economic structures that affect how traditional medicines are used and how they are spread. For example, caste, gender, and economic status, as well as the rules and policies that govern the production and distribution of traditional medicines, can affect who can get them and how easy it is for them to get them.
Folk medicines like Ayurveda and Unani have helped people stay healthy and happy for generations. They are an important part of the cultural and social history of many communities around the world. Modern research on these traditional systems of medicine has given us important information about their biological and chemical properties as well as their social and cultural importance. This research shows how important it is to take a more holistic and integrated approach to health care that uses both traditional and modern biomedical methods to improve health and well-being for everyone. This approach recognises the importance of cultural diversity and respects the right of communities to use and keep their traditional medical knowledge and practises.
But it's also important to know that traditional medical systems, like Ayurveda and Unani, have their limits and may not always be right or effective for every person or condition. Modern biomedical methods, such as drugs and medical technology, have done a lot to improve healthcare and health outcomes, especially for serious and life-threatening illnesses. So, we need a balanced, evidence-based approach to health care that combines the best of both traditional and modern medical knowledge and practises. This approach should be based on the ideas of fairness, social justice, and human rights. It should also recognise the importance of cultural diversity and the need to keep traditional medical knowledge and practises alive.
In conclusion, the study of folk medicines, such as Ayurveda and Unani, is an important area of research that can teach us about the biological, chemical, and cultural properties of traditional medical knowledge and practises. This research shows how important it is to take a more holistic and integrated approach to health care that uses both traditional and modern biomedical methods to improve health and well-being for everyone.
Q 3. Does creativity affect tradition? Justify your answer with case studies.
Ans) Creativity and tradition have a complicated and multifaceted relationship. On the one hand, creativity can lead to new ways of expressing culture and new ideas, which can challenge and change old ways of doing things. On the other hand, creativity can also be used to bring traditional cultural practises back to life and keep them alive, keeping them alive and relevant in modern times. People often think of tradition as the way that cultural knowledge and practises are passed down from one generation to the next. Traditions do not stay the same, though. They can change and grow over time. Creativity can be a big part of this process because it can lead to new ways of expressing culture and innovative ideas that challenge and change old ways of doing things.
It makes sense that there would be tension between a creative artist and the traditions, since the artist wants to make something new that has never been done before, etc. But there is also a desire to learn from the genius of the past. An Arabic proverb says that one fig tree makes another one grow better. In other words, one great mind can inspire another, and this is how artists learn their craft and carry-on glorious traditions of art and craftsmanship. Some artists can easily keep this balance, but others do not want past influences to take away the uniqueness of their work, so they keep trying to push them away.
Creativity comes from the tension and fertile mix of individual expression and passed-down tradition, and the best way to do this kind of work is through the apprenticeship model of learning, in which the student or disciple learns from the master or guru. Many people think that the self and how it is expressed are at odds with culture and tradition, but they are not. In fact, they need each other. Neither a piece that was purely self-expressionist and had nothing to do with a living tradition nor one that was purely traditional and had nothing to do with an individual's feelings and experiences would be incredibly significant. If you tried to get rid of all traditions, your work would not make sense, and you would not have anything to say if you didn't include yourself.
In India, the rise of new kinds of visual art is another example of how creativity can change tradition. The Bengal School of Art was started by a group of artists at the beginning of the 20th century. They wanted to create a new visual language that was based on Indian traditions and aesthetics. They did not like the European academic style that was popular in Indian art at the time, so they looked to traditional Indian painting and sculpture for ideas instead. The Bengal School of Art was a crucial step in the development of modern Indian art because it showed that traditional art forms could be changed and adapted to meet the needs of a changing world. The work of these artists and the artists who came after them helped to start a new tradition of Indian art that looked to the past but also looked forward to the future.
Creativity can challenge and change traditional ways of doing things, but it can also be used to bring traditional cultural practises back to life and keep them alive. Many times, traditional ways of doing things fade away or are forgotten as new ways of expressing culture take their place. But creative people and communities can play a key role in keeping and reviving traditional practises, which is important for making sure they stay alive and relevant in modern times. Tradition is not a fixed idea, and it is important to realise that it can change and grow over time. Creativity can be a big part of how traditions change over time, but it is also important to keep in mind the cultural and historical settings in which traditions exist. To make cultural change that is meaningful and lasts, it is important to find a balance between creativity and an understanding of the cultural heritage and traditions that are being changed.
Also, creativity is often not just the work of a single artist or inventor but is the result of a group effort. Communities can have a significant impact on how traditions change over time. They can also use their shared cultural history to make new ways of expressing culture that are both new and rooted in tradition. In the end, the relationship between creativity and tradition is complicated and has many distinct parts. Creativity can shake up and change old ways of doing things, but it can also be used to bring them back to life and keep them alive. As the case studies in this essay show, creativity can lead to new forms of cultural expression and innovation that challenge established norms and conventions. It can also be used to adapt and change traditional practises to meet the needs of a changing world. Even though new ways of expressing culture can challenge established rules and norms, they can also be used to resurrect and keep traditional ways of doing things, making sure they stay alive and relevant in the modern world.
Q 6. What is the basic argument of the Frankfurt School of Art and Commodification?
Ans) The Frankfurt School was a collective of intellectuals and philosophers that came together in the 20th century with the intention of critiquing and challenging the preeminent ways of thinking and forms of social organisation. The relationship between art and commodification was one of the primary concerns of the Frankfurt School, as was the manner in which capitalist societies transform all aspects of life, including art, into commodities that can be bought and sold. This was one of the primary concerns of the Frankfurt School.
The fundamental premise upon which the arguments of the Frankfurt School were based was the concept that capitalism was not merely an economic system but rather a totalizing type of social organisation that was present in every facet of everyday life. This includes the field of art, which has historically been regarded as an area in which one can exercise their individuality and creativity. However, in accordance with the teachings of the Frankfurt School, the act of creating art was rapidly being appropriated by capitalist interests and was being reduced to the status of a mere commodity that could be purchased and resold on the open market.
According to the Frankfurt School, the act of commodification has a lot of unfavourable effects, not only on art but also on society in general. For one thing, it resulted in the standardisation of cultural production since artists and cultural producers were pressured to cater their work to the requirements of the market in order to maintain their livelihoods. Because of this, art became more formulaic and predictable, and innovation and experimentation were discouraged. As a result, art became more formulaic and predictable.
In addition, the Frankfurt School maintained that the monetization of art had a detrimental effect on the manner in which individuals experienced culture. People were encouraged to consume art as if it were just another product, something that could be bought and sold in the marketplace, rather than engaging with art on its own terms, as a means of exploring the human condition and gaining an understanding of the world in which we live. This was done so that art could continue to be produced. This meant that art was progressively relegated to a kind of amusement or distraction, rather than a method of challenging and deepening our understanding of both us and the world. This was a problem because art can be used to do all of these things.
In reaction to these developments, members of the Frankfurt School came up with a variety of various approaches that could be used to fight against the commercialization of art and culture. One strategy that was proposed was to place an emphasis on the production of what they referred to as "critical art," which they defined as artwork that was expressly aimed to challenge pre-existing ideologies and social institutions. This kind of art was intended to disrupt the normal functioning of society and to call attention to the ways in which capitalism and other oppressive systems were limiting our freedom and creativity. It was also meant to call attention to the ways in which art could be used to disrupt the normal functioning of society.
An additional strategy consisted of putting the emphasis on the development of alternate modes of cultural creation and distribution. This may involve developing autonomous art venues, organising alternative media sources, or finding other methods to get art and culture out into the world that were not bound to capitalist market institutions. Alternatively, it could mean finding other ways to get art and culture out into the world. Instead of allowing market forces to dictate how art is experienced and appreciated, the goal was to establish environments in which art could be experienced and enjoyed on its own terms.
In general, the core contention of the Frankfurt School regarding art and commodification was that capitalism was a totalizing social system that aimed to transform every facet of existence into a product that could be purchased and sold. This was the fundamental point of the argument. This includes the transformation of art into merely another commodity product for the general populace to buy and enjoy. This process of commodification led to the homogenization of cultural production, the reduction of art to a form of entertainment, and a reduction in our ability to use art as a means of exploring and understanding the world around us. These were the unintended consequences of the process, but they were the consequences, nonetheless. As a response to this, the Frankfurt School offered a number of various techniques for opposing the commodification of art and culture. Some of these efforts included the production of critical art as well as alternative modes of cultural production and distribution.
Q 7. What are some of the measures taken by the UN to preserve traditional culture?
Ans) In recognition of the value and importance of cultural variety and history in the process of constructing peaceful and sustainable communities, the United Nations (UN) has taken a number of steps to ensure the continuation of traditional cultures. The United Nations has taken a number of important actions, including the following:
Convention of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization for the Protection of the Intangible Cultural Heritage: This convention was approved by UNESCO in 2003 in order to safeguard intangible cultural heritage, which encompasses social practises, rituals, festive events, knowledge, and skills. It also covers traditions, oral expressions, performing arts, social practises, and knowledge. The purpose of the convention is to raise awareness about the significance of our culture's intangible legacy and to encourage its continuation from one generation to the next. States that are parties to the convention are expected to identify and defend their own intangible cultural heritage, as well as to collaborate with each other and other parties to the convention in order to promote the protection of this heritage.
The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples enumerates the following: This proclamation, which was approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations in the year 2007, affirms the right of indigenous peoples to preserve and advance their cultural heritage. This includes the right to practise and renew their cultural traditions and customs as well as the right to keep their languages, faiths, and other cultural practises. It also includes the right to practise and rejuvenate their cultural traditions and customs.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) ratified the Globe Legacy Convention in 1972 with the goal of preserving the natural and cultural heritage of the world. Through the establishment of a set of guidelines by the convention, cultural and natural areas of exceptional significance to all people would be better protected. There are currently 1,154 properties that have been inscribed on the World Heritage List as of the year 2021. These assets include cultural landscapes, archaeological sites, historic cities, and cultural practises.
The United Nations Development Agenda: The United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development acknowledges the significance of culture in the process of achieving sustainable development objectives. The agenda demands for the protection of cultural heritage against destruction, theft, and trafficking, as well as the promotion of cultural variety and history.
UNESCO stands for the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is a specialised body that is responsible for encouraging international collaboration in the fields of education, science, and culture. The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is an international organisation that strives to protect and preserve cultural history, promote cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue, and encourage the growth of creative industries. In addition to this, UNESCO aims to give states with aid in the form of technical assistance and support in the form of capacity building in their efforts to preserve their cultural heritage.
Traditional culture can be kept alive in a number of ways. The organisations try to save them in many different ways. One of them is to save artefacts, sound recordings, traditional folk stories, and other ways to store things. Many parts of traditional culture have been kept alive in archives all over the world, and you can buy recordings of music. Even though the objects are kept, their value is slightly lessened because there is not a community to recreate them or understand them. This is because they aren't part of a living process where audiences and folklore interact.
The second way is to encourage people to keep making works of art. Working with young people or educational systems to keep traditional knowledge alive is one way to do this. Knowing about traditional cultures is important for understanding our history, and folkways can help us figure out how to live in a certain place. To keep a traditional culture alive, you also have to protect the environment that it depends on. This includes tribal people who live in rain forests and coastal communities that can be used for tourism or raw materials.
In addition to these precautions, there are also a variety of other programmes and projects that have been established with the purpose of conserving traditional culture. For instance, many nations' governments have enacted national laws and guidelines in order to safeguard their cultural legacy, which typically entails preserving traditional knowledge as well as customs and practises. Some nations have also established museums and cultural centres in order to exhibit their traditional culture and educate the general public of the significance of doing so.
In conclusion, in recognition of the significance of cultural variety and heritage in the development of peaceful and sustainable communities, the United Nations has taken a number of steps to ensure the continuation of traditional cultures. Conventions, declarations, development agendas, specialised institutions such as UNESCO, and national laws and regulations are all examples of the kind of measures that fall under this category. The United Nations is doing its part to ensure that future generations will have access to the knowledge and creativity that are contained in our cultural legacy by encouraging the preservation and transmission of traditional cultures.
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