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MFN-004: Advance Nutrition

MFN-004: Advance Nutrition

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

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Assignment Code: MFN-004/AST-1/TMA-1/2023-24

Course Code: MFN-004

Assignment Name: Advance Nutrition

Year: 2023-2024

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Section A - Descriptive Questions

Q1a) Enumerate several methods used for studying the nutrient requirements for an individual.

Ans) Nutrient requirements for individuals can vary based on factors such as age, sex, physical activity, and health status.

To determine these requirements, various methods and approaches are used:

a) Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): DRIs are a set of values that include the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for essential nutrients. These values provide guidance on nutrient intake for different population groups.

b) Food Records: Individuals maintain detailed records of their food intake over a specified period. These records are analysed to assess nutrient intake and deficiencies.

c) Biochemical Assessments: Blood, urine, or tissue samples are analysed to measure nutrient levels or specific markers related to nutrient status. For example, blood tests can measure vitamin and mineral concentrations.

d) Anthropometric Measurements: Physical measurements like height, weight, body composition, and waist circumference are used to assess nutritional status. This includes tools like Body Mass Index (BMI).

e) Clinical Assessments: Healthcare professionals perform clinical evaluations to detect signs of nutrient deficiencies or excesses. This includes examining symptoms, medical history, and physical examination.

f) Indirect Calorimetry: This method measures energy expenditure by analyzing the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide during respiration. It provides insights into an individual's resting metabolic rate (RMR).

Q1. b) Define energy requirement and energy expenditure. Enlist the factors which affect energy requirement and expenditure.

Ans) Energy Requirement and Energy Expenditure:

a) Energy Requirement: Energy requirement refers to the amount of energy (calories) an individual needs to maintain various bodily functions, perform daily activities, and support overall well-being. It includes the energy needed for basal metabolic rate (BMR), physical activity, thermic effect of food (TEF), and other physiological processes. Factors affecting energy requirements include age, sex, body size, physical activity level, and health status.

b) Energy Expenditure: Energy expenditure is the total amount of energy that an individual expends over a specific period. It is influenced by various factors, including BMR, physical activity, and TEF. Energy expenditure can be categorized as follows:

i) Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR): The energy expended at rest to maintain vital functions such as breathing and circulation.

ii) Physical Activity: The energy used during any form of physical movement or exercise.

iii) Thermic Effect of Food (TEF): The energy expended to digest, absorb, and metabolize food.

Q2. a) Define carbohydrates. Explain classification of carbohydrates based on degree of polymerization (DP).

Ans) Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are a primary source of energy for the human body and play various structural and functional roles. Carbohydrates can be classified based on their degree of polymerization (DP), which refers to the number of sugar (saccharide) units in the molecule.

The main categories of carbohydrates based on DP are:

a) Monosaccharides: Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates, consisting of a single sugar unit. Examples include glucose, fructose, and galactose. They are the building blocks of more complex carbohydrates.

b) Disaccharides: Disaccharides are composed of two monosaccharide units linked together. Common disaccharides include sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose), and maltose (glucose + glucose).

c) Oligosaccharides: Oligosaccharides are carbohydrates with a small number of monosaccharide units (typically 3-10). They include raffinose and stachyose, which are found in legumes.

d) Polysaccharides: Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates made up of many monosaccharide units.

They serve as storage forms of energy and structural components. Examples include:

e) Starch: A storage polysaccharide in plants, composed of glucose units.

f) Glycogen: A storage polysaccharide in animals, mainly found in the liver and muscles.

g) Cellulose: A structural polysaccharide in plant cell walls, also made of glucose units.

Q2.b) Comment on the statement by giving appropriate justification “Protein quality of our diet can be improved.”

Ans) Protein quality in the diet is essential because proteins are the building blocks for various tissues and perform critical functions in the body. The quality of dietary protein can be improved through various strategies, and the statement holds true. Here's how and why:

a) Protein Complementation: One way to enhance protein quality is by combining plant-based protein sources to create a complete amino acid profile. For example, legumes (like beans and lentils) are low in the amino acid methionine but rich in lysine, while grains are low in lysine but contain methionine. When combined, they provide a more balanced amino acid composition, improving protein quality.

b) Animal-Based Proteins: Animal-based proteins, such as those found in lean meats, poultry, fish, and dairy products, are considered high-quality proteins. Including these sources in the diet ensures a rich supply of essential amino acids.

c) Protein-Rich Plant Foods: Some plant foods are naturally high in protein and provide a good amino acid profile. Examples include quinoa, tofu, tempeh, and soy-based products.

d) Supplementation: In some cases, dietary protein quality can be improved through supplementation with essential amino acids or protein concentrates.

e) Balanced Diet: Consuming a balanced diet that includes a variety of protein sources, both plant and animal-based, helps ensure adequate protein quality.

f) Cooking and Processing: Proper cooking and processing methods can improve protein digestibility, making protein more available for absorption.

Q3. a) What are essential fatty acids? Give examples and explain their importance.

Ans) Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) and their Importance: Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) are polyunsaturated fats that are crucial for human health but cannot be synthesized by the body, so they must be obtained through the diet.

There are two main types of EFAs:

a) Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Examples include alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3s are found in fatty fish (salmon, mackerel), flaxseeds, chia seeds, and walnuts. They play a vital role in heart health, brain function, and reducing inflammation.

b) Omega-6 Fatty Acids: Examples include linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA). Omega-6s are found in vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower), nuts, and seeds. They are important for skin health, immune function, and blood clotting.

Importance of EFAs:

a) Cell Membrane Structure: EFAs are integral components of cell membranes, maintaining their fluidity and allowing proper cell signaling and function.

b) Brain Health: Omega-3s, particularly DHA, are essential for brain development and cognitive function. They are crucial during pregnancy and early childhood.

c) Heart Health: Omega-3s reduce the risk of heart disease by lowering triglycerides, reducing inflammation, and improving blood vessel function.

d) Anti-Inflammatory: EFAs have anti-inflammatory properties, helping alleviate symptoms of conditions like arthritis and inflammatory disorders.

e) Skin Health: Omega-6s are important for maintaining healthy skin and regulating hydration.

f) Hormone Production: EFAs are precursors to prostaglandins, hormone-like compounds that regulate various bodily functions.

Q3. b) What are the functions of water in our body? Explain.

Ans) Functions of Water in the Body:

a) Hydration: Water is the primary component of bodily fluids, maintaining proper hydrations for all cells and tissues.

b) Temperature Regulation: Water helps regulate body temperature by dissipating heat through sweating and increasing blood flow to the skin's surface.

c) Digestion: Water is essential for breaking down food, aiding in the absorption of nutrients in the digestive tract, and facilitating the movement of food through the gastrointestinal system.

d) Circulation: Blood is primarily composed of water. Adequate hydration ensures the efficient circulation of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products throughout the body.

e) Joint Lubrication: Synovial fluid, which lubricates joints, is composed mainly of water. Proper hydration helps maintain joint function.

f) Waste Removal: Water is necessary for the excretion of waste products, mainly through urine formation in the kidneys.

g) Electrolyte Balance: Water helps maintain the balance of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium) in and around cells, ensuring proper cell function.

Q3. c) Explain how electrolytes and plasma proteins control body water distribution.

Ans) Control of Body Water Distribution by Electrolytes and Plasma Proteins:

a) Electrolytes: Electrolytes are charged ions like sodium, potassium, and chloride. They help control the distribution of water in and around cells. The movement of these ions across cell membranes creates osmotic gradients, regulating the flow of water. For example, a high concentration of sodium outside a cell draws water out of the cell, and vice versa.

b) Plasma Proteins: Plasma proteins, especially albumin, create osmotic pressure in the blood vessels. They prevent excessive loss of water from the bloodstream into tissues. When plasma protein levels decrease (as in some liver or kidney diseases), water may shift from the bloodstream to the tissues, leading to edema.

Q4. a) Elaborate the role of vitamin A in visual perception. What are the factors which affects the bioavailability of vitamin A?

Ans) Role of Vitamin A in Visual Perception:

a) Photoreceptor Activation: When light enters the eye, it interacts with the photoreceptor cells in the retina called rods and cones. Retinal combines with the protein opsin to form a visual pigment called rhodopsin (in rods) or photopsin (in cones).

b) Phototransduction: When rhodopsin absorbs light, it undergoes a series of chemical changes. Retinal changes its shape, triggering a signal cascade that ultimately leads to nerve impulses being sent to the brain.

c) Nerve Impulses: These nerve impulses are interpreted by the brain as visual information, allowing us to perceive light and dark, shapes, colors, and details.

Factors Affecting Bioavailability of Vitamin A

a) Dietary Fat: Vitamin A is fat-soluble, so it is better absorbed when consumed with dietary fats. Including sources of healthy fats, such as oils or nuts, in the diet enhances vitamin A absorption.

b) Protein: Adequate dietary protein is necessary for the transport of vitamin A in the blood.

c) Gut Health: Vitamin A absorption occurs in the small intestine. Gut disorders or diseases that affect the absorption of nutrients can reduce vitamin A bioavailability.

d) Food Source: Preformed vitamin A (retinol) found in animal sources is readily absorbed by the body. Provitamin A carotenoids (such as beta-carotene) found in plant sources require conversion to retinol in the body, and this process varies among individuals.

e) Iron Deficiency: Iron-deficiency anaemia can affect the absorption and utilization of vitamin A.

f) Infections: Some infections, particularly parasitic infections, can interfere with vitamin A absorption and utilization.

g) Alcohol Consumption: Excessive alcohol intake can interfere with vitamin A metabolism and utilization.

Q4. b) Describe the role of thiamine as coenzyme in various enzyme catalyzed reactions. Also explain how decreased intake of thiamine in diet influences our health.

Ans) Role of Thiamine (Vitamin B1) as a Coenzyme: Thiamine serves as a coenzyme in various enzyme-catalyzed reactions, particularly those involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Thiamine is a key component of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), which acts as a coenzyme for several enzymes, including:

a) Pyruvate Dehydrogenase: Thiamine is essential for the conversion of pyruvate (a product of glycolysis) into acetyl-CoA, a critical step in the citric acid cycle.

b) α-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase: Thiamine is involved in the conversion of α-ketoglutarate into succinyl-CoA in the citric acid cycle.

c) Transketolase: Thiamine is necessary for the pentose phosphate pathway, which produces ribose-5-phosphate and NADPH, important for nucleotide and lipid synthesis.

Effects of Decreased Thiamine Intake:

A decreased intake of thiamine in the diet can lead to thiamine deficiency, known as beriberi. Beriberi can manifest in two main forms:

a) Wet Beriberi: Wet beriberi primarily affects the cardiovascular system. Symptoms may include heart failure, edema (swelling), and shortness of breath.

b) Dry Beriberi: Dry beriberi primarily affects the nervous system. Symptoms may include muscle weakness, tingling, numbness, and difficulty walking.

Prolonged thiamine deficiency can lead to serious health issues, including Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, which affects memory and cognitive function.

Q5. a) Discuss metabolic fate of folate giving its food sources.

Ans) Folate, also known as vitamin B9, plays a crucial role in several metabolic pathways, particularly in the synthesis of DNA, RNA, and amino acids. The metabolic fate of folate involves several steps:

a) Dietary Intake: Folate is obtained through the diet, with good sources including leafy green vegetables (e.g., spinach, broccoli), legumes (e.g., lentils, chickpeas), fortified cereals, and liver.

b) Absorption: Folate is absorbed in the small intestine. In the intestines, folate is converted into its active form, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF).

c) Transport: 5-MTHF is transported through the bloodstream to various tissues and cells in the body.

d) Cellular Uptake: Inside the cells, 5-MTHF serves as a coenzyme and is involved in one-carbon transfer reactions, essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids and amino acids.

e) Methylation Reactions: Folate is critical for methylation reactions, where it donates a methyl group for processes like DNA methylation and the conversion of homocysteine to methionine.

f) Regeneration: After participating in these reactions, 5-MTHF can be regenerated to continue its role as a coenzyme in subsequent reactions.

Q5. b) Describe causes and symptoms of pernicious anaemia. What recommendation you will give for preventing pernicious anaemia in vegans?

Ans) Causes of Pernicious Anaemia: Pernicious anaemia is primarily caused by a deficiency of vitamin B12 (cobalamin). It is often associated with the impaired absorption of vitamin B12 due to the autoimmune destruction of gastric parietal cells that produce intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the ileum of the small intestine.

Symptoms of Pernicious Anaemia:

a) Fatigue

b) Weakness

c) Pallor (pale skin)

d) Shortness of breath

e) Numbness and tingling in the extremities

f) Difficulty walking

g) Glossitis (inflammation of the tongue)

h) Cognitive and memory changes

Prevention of Pernicious Anaemia in Vegans:

a) Vegans are at a higher risk of developing pernicious anaemia because they do not consume animal-derived foods, which are the primary sources of vitamin B12. To prevent pernicious anaemia in vegans, the following recommendations are essential:

b) Vitamin B12 Supplements: Vegans should consider taking vitamin B12 supplements or consuming foods fortified with vitamin B12, such as fortified plant-based milk or breakfast cereals. Regular supplementation or fortified foods can provide an adequate intake of vitamin B12.

c) Regular Health Check-ups: Vegans should undergo regular health check-ups to monitor their vitamin B12 levels. Early detection of a deficiency can led to timely intervention and treatment.

d) Intramuscular B12 Injections: In severe cases of pernicious anaemia, where there is impaired absorption, healthcare professionals may recommend intramuscular injections of vitamin B12 to bypass the intestinal absorption process.

e) Dietary Diversification: Vegans can diversify their diets with foods rich in vitamin B12 analogs, although these analogs are less effective than true vitamin B12. Such foods include nori seaweed, certain mushrooms, and fermented foods.

Q6. a) Discuss various factors which affect bioavailability of calcium in our body.

Ans) Factors Affecting Calcium Bioavailability:

a) Calcium Source: The type of calcium-rich food or supplement can affect bioavailability. Calcium carbonate and calcium citrate are common dietary supplements, with calcium citrate being more bioavailable, especially when taken on an empty stomach.

b) Vitamin D: Vitamin D plays a crucial role in calcium absorption. It enhances the absorption of calcium in the small intestine. Inadequate vitamin D levels can impair calcium absorption.

c) Age: Calcium absorption tends to be more efficient in childhood and adolescence. As people age, the efficiency of calcium absorption decreases.

d) Dietary Factors: Dietary components can either enhance or inhibit calcium absorption. Phytates (found in some grains and cereals) and oxalates (found in foods like spinach and rhubarb) can bind to calcium, reducing its absorption. High dietary fibre can also limit calcium absorption to some extent.

e) Acidic Environment: Calcium absorption is enhanced in an acidic environment. Stomach acid aids in the solubilization of calcium salts, making them more available for absorption.

f) Calcium Intake: The amount of calcium consumed in a single serving can influence absorption. The body is more efficient at absorbing calcium when the intake is low, and less efficient when intake is high.

g) Dietary Calcium: The presence of calcium in the diet can affect calcium absorption. Consuming calcium-rich foods with other nutrients can enhance absorption. For example, consuming dairy products with lactose can improve calcium absorption.

h) Gender: Gender can influence calcium bioavailability. Women, especially during pregnancy and lactation, may have increased calcium needs and absorption.

Q6. b) Explain absorption of non-haem iron in our body. What are the various factors which affect absorption of dietary iron?

Ans) Absorption of Non-Haem Iron and Factors Affecting Dietary Iron Absorption:

a) Enhancers and Inhibitors: Several dietary factors can affect iron absorption. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) enhances non-haem iron absorption. In contrast, substances like tannins (found in tea and coffee) and phytates (found in grains and legumes) can inhibit absorption.

b) Phytates and Fiber: Phytates and fibre, while inhibiting iron absorption, are often present in plant-based diets. Therefore, individuals on vegetarian or vegan diets may need to pay special attention to enhancing iron absorption through dietary choices.

c) Calcium: Calcium supplements, when taken with meals, can inhibit the absorption of non-haem iron. This is a consideration for individuals who take both calcium and iron supplements.

d) Cooking Methods: Certain cooking methods, like soaking, fermenting, and leavening, can reduce the inhibitory effects of phytates and enhance non-haem iron absorption.

e) Iron Status: The body's iron status can also influence absorption. When the body's iron stores are low, absorption is typically increased to meet the body's needs.

f) Age and Gender: The iron requirements and absorption efficiency may vary with age and gender. For example, women of childbearing age and adolescents may have higher iron requirements and potentially more efficient absorption.

Q7. a) Give functions of any four copper containing enzymes.

Ans) The functions of four copper-containing enzymes:

a) Ceruloplasmin: Ceruloplasmin is a copper-containing enzyme that has multiple functions, including:

1) Facilitating the transport of iron in the blood by oxidizing ferrous iron (Fe²⁺) to ferric iron (Fe³⁺). This conversion allows iron to bind to transferrin for transport to tissues.

2) Playing a role in copper transport and regulation within the body.

b) Cytochrome c Oxidase: Cytochrome c oxidase is a crucial enzyme in the electron transport chain, which is part of cellular respiration. Its functions include:

1) Catalysing the transfer of electrons from cytochrome c to molecular oxygen (O₂) during the electron transport chain.

2) This process generates adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell's primary energy source.

c) Superoxide Dismutase (SOD): Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) is an antioxidant enzyme that helps protect cells from oxidative stress by converting superoxide radicals (O₂⁻) into less harmful species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). Its functions include:

1) Acting as a crucial defense mechanism against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage.

2) Maintaining the redox balance within cells.

d) Dopamine β-Monooxygenase: This enzyme contains copper and is involved in the biosynthesis of norepinephrine from dopamine. Its functions include:

1) Catalysing the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine as part of the biosynthesis pathway.

Q7. b) Elaborate the role of selenium in antioxidant defense system in our body.

Ans) Selenium is an essential trace element that plays a significant role in the antioxidant defense system in the body. Its primary function is linked to selenoproteins, which are a group of proteins that contain selenium in the form of the amino acid selenocysteine.

These selenoproteins include:

a) Glutathione Peroxidases (GPx): These enzymes, with selenium at their active site, catalyze the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and lipid hydroperoxides to water and corresponding alcohols, respectively. By doing so, they protect cells and tissues from oxidative damage.

b) Thioredoxin Reductases (TrxR): These enzymes play a role in maintaining the cellular redox balance by recycling and reducing oxidized thioredoxin. This process is essential for the proper functioning of various cellular processes.

c) Iodothyronine Deiodinases: These selenoproteins are involved in the conversion of the inactive thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) to the active triiodothyronine (T3). This conversion is crucial for regulating metabolism and energy expenditure.

d) Selenoproteins P: This protein is involved in the distribution of selenium throughout the body and may play a role in protecting tissues from oxidative damage.

Q7. c) Differentiate between probiotics and prebiotics giving their food sources.

Ans) Comparison between probiotics and prebiotics:

Q8. a) Define antinutritional factors. How saponins and lectins exhibits antinutritional property?

Ans) Antinutritional factors are naturally occurring compounds found in various foods, particularly in plant-based foods, which interfere with the absorption, utilization, or metabolism of nutrients by the body. They can have adverse effects on nutritional and health status when consumed in large quantities. Two examples of antinutritional factors are saponins and lectins:

a) Saponins: Saponins are glycosides found in various plant foods, such as legumes (e.g., beans and lentils) and some grains. They exhibit antinutritional properties by:

1) Interfering with the absorption of essential minerals, particularly calcium, iron, and zinc. Saponins can form complexes with these minerals, making them less available for absorption in the digestive tract.

2) Disrupting the integrity of cell membranes in the gut, potentially leading to increased permeability and malabsorption of nutrients.

3) Inducing gastrointestinal discomfort in some individuals, which can affect food intake and nutrient utilization.

b) Lectins: Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins found in a wide range of plant foods, including grains, legumes, and certain vegetables. They exhibit antinutritional properties by:

1) Binding to specific sugar molecules on the surface of cells in the digestive tract. This can disrupt the structure of the intestinal lining, potentially leading to increased intestinal permeability and malabsorption of nutrients.

2) Causing agglutination (clumping) of red blood cells, which can affect blood circulation and overall health.

3) Inducing gastrointestinal symptoms and discomfort in some individuals.

Q8. b) Explain in brief about various physiological changes which takes place during pregnancy.

Ans) Physiological changes during pregnancy include:

a) Hormonal Changes: Hormones like human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), progesterone, and estrogen increase to maintain the uterine lining and support pregnancy. These hormones also lead to various pregnancy symptoms and changes in the maternal body.

b) Cardiovascular Changes: Blood volume increases, and the heart rate rises to supply oxygen and nutrients to the developing foetus. Blood pressure may decrease in early pregnancy but return to near pre-pregnancy levels later on.

c) Respiratory Changes: An increase in respiratory rate and tidal volume ensures that more oxygen is delivered to the foetus. The diaphragm rises as the uterus expands, causing shortness of breath in some pregnant individuals.

d) Gastrointestinal Changes: Hormonal changes can lead to morning sickness, constipation, and heartburn. The growing uterus can also displace the stomach and intestines, affecting digestion. Metabolic Changes: Increased nutrient needs lead to changes in metabolism and nutrient utilization. The body becomes more insulin-resistant, allowing glucose to be available for the foetus.

e) Musculoskeletal Changes: The body produces relaxin, which loosens ligaments to prepare for childbirth. Weight gain and changes in the center of gravity can affect posture and musculoskeletal health.

f) Renal Changes: Increased blood flow to the kidneys and changes in the filtration rate help eliminate waste products more efficiently. This can lead to increased urination.

g) Immune System Changes: Maternal immune function is altered to tolerate the developing foetus, which carries foreign antigens. This allows the pregnancy to proceed without immune rejection.

Q9. a) Briefly discuss various nutritional problems of infants and preschoolers.

Ans) Nutritional Problems of Infants and Preschoolers:

a) Failure to Thrive: Some infants and preschoolers may not gain weight and grow as expected, often due to inadequate nutrition, feeding difficulties, or underlying medical conditions.

b) Iron-Deficiency Anaemia: Iron is crucial for the development of the brain and body. Inadequate iron intake can lead to anaemia, which may impair cognitive and physical development.

c) Food Allergies: Allergies to common foods like milk, eggs, peanuts, and soy can cause allergic reactions and impact nutritional intake.

d) Constipation: Insufficient fibre intake or insufficient fluid consumption can lead to constipation, causing discomfort and affecting appetite.

e) Inadequate Calcium Intake: Inadequate calcium can lead to poor bone development and an increased risk of rickets.

f) Excessive Sugar and Processed Food Consumption: High consumption of sugary and processed foods can displace more nutritious options and contribute to dental problems and obesity.

Q9. b) Explain growth chart and its uses.

Ans) A growth chart is a standardized tool used to monitor a child's physical growth and development over time. It typically includes measurements of weight, height or length, and head circumference for infants and young children. The growth chart allows healthcare professionals and parents to track a child's growth and compare it to a reference population.

The uses of a growth chart include

a) Assessment of Growth: Healthcare providers can plot a child's measurements on the chart and track their growth patterns. Deviations from expected growth patterns may indicate potential health or nutritional concerns.

b) Identification of Nutritional Problems: Growth charts can reveal nutritional issues, such as failure to thrive, stunted growth, or rapid weight gain, which may prompt further evaluation and intervention.

c) Early Detection of Health Conditions: Abnormal growth patterns can be an early indicator of underlying medical conditions or chronic diseases.

d) Monitoring Progress: Regular measurements and tracking on a growth chart provide an ongoing assessment of a child's health and development.

e) Nutritional Guidance: Growth charts help healthcare professionals provide guidance on a child's nutrition and overall well-being.

Q9. c) Discuss nutritional requirements for adolescent. Also give some guidelines for advocating good eating habits in them.

Ans) Adolescents experience rapid growth and development, which increases their nutritional needs.

Key nutritional requirements for adolescents include

a) Calories: Adolescents need sufficient calories to support growth and physical activity. The total energy intake should meet their energy expenditure.

b) Protein: Adequate protein is essential for growth, muscle development, and overall health.

c) Calcium and Vitamin D: These are crucial for bone health during the growth spurt of adolescence.

d) Iron: Iron needs increase, especially for females due to the onset of menstruation.

e) Folate: Important for cell division and the formation of DNA.

f) Fiber: Promotes digestive health and helps maintain a healthy weight.

Guidelines for advocating good eating habits in adolescents include

a) Encouraging balanced meals with a variety of foods from all food groups.

b) Promoting regular physical activity to support growth and overall health.

c) Limiting sugary beverages, processed snacks, and fast food.

d) Encouraging regular meal times and family meals.

e) Providing healthy snack options at home.

f) Discussing the importance of portion control and mindful eating.

g) Educating adolescents about making nutritious food choices and understanding food labels.

Q10. a) Give nutritional recommendations for elderly with chewing difficulty.

Ans) Elderly individuals with chewing difficulties may face challenges in consuming a regular diet.

Here are some nutritional recommendations to address their needs

a) Texture-Modified Foods: Offer soft or pureed foods that are easier to chew and swallow. Examples include mashed potatoes, yogurt, and pureed vegetables.

b) Fortified Foods: Provide nutrient-dense, fortified foods to ensure they receive essential vitamins and minerals. Consider foods like fortified cereals, soups, and milk alternatives.

c) Protein-Rich Foods: Include protein sources that are easier to chew, such as ground or minced meats, fish, and tofu.

d) Nutrient Supplements: If necessary, consider nutritional supplements or meal replacements to ensure they meet their nutrient requirements.

e) Hydration: Ensure adequate fluid intake, as elderly individuals may have difficulty swallowing, which can increase the risk of dehydration.

f) Consult a Dietitian: Seek guidance from a registered dietitian who can assess specific needs and provide tailored dietary recommendations.

Q10. b) Define physical fitness. Describe five measurable components of physical fitness.

Ans) Physical fitness refers to the state of well-being and the ability to perform daily activities with vigour and without undue fatigue. It encompasses various components that contribute to overall health and functional capacity.

Five measurable components of physical fitness include

a) Cardiorespiratory Endurance: This component relates to the ability of the heart, lungs, and circulatory system to deliver oxygen and nutrients to working muscles during sustained physical activity. It can be assessed through tests like the aerobic capacity test.

b) Muscular Strength: Muscular strength is the maximum force a muscle or muscle group can generate during a single effort. It can be measured using resistance exercises, such as weightlifting or resistance band exercises.

c) Muscular Endurance: Muscular endurance is the ability of muscles to exert submaximal force repeatedly or sustain a contraction over time. It is evaluated through tests like push-ups or plank exercises.

d) Flexibility: Flexibility is the range of motion around a joint. It is assessed through tests that measure the extent of joint movement, such as the sit-and-reach test.

e) Body Composition: Body composition refers to the proportion of fat, muscle, bone, and other tissues in the body. It can be measured through techniques like skinfold thickness measurements or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

Q10. c) Explain role of iron in gene expression.

Ans) Role of Iron in Gene Expression:

Iron plays a vital role in various physiological processes, including gene expression. Iron is a crucial component of haemoglobin, myoglobin, and various enzymes involved in DNA synthesis and repair. Specifically, iron is required for the activity of ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, essential building blocks for DNA.

Iron also participates in the regulation of gene expression through its involvement in various redox reactions. Iron-sulphur clusters in proteins can serve as cofactors for transcription factors, which can influence the expression of specific genes.

Additionally, iron contributes to the proper functioning of the electron transport chain in mitochondria, which generates the energy necessary for cell activities, including gene transcription and translation.

In summary, iron is essential for DNA synthesis, repair, and various redox reactions that influence gene expression, making it a critical element in the molecular processes of genetic regulation and cell function.

Section B - OTQ (Objective Type Questions) (20 marks)

Q1) Briefly explain the following terms giving examples:

i) Mutual supplementation

Ans) Mutual supplementation refers to the complementary relationship between two or more food items, where the amino acids or nutrients lacking in one food are provided by another. For example, the combination of rice and beans creates a complete protein when rice is deficient in the amino acid lysine, and beans are deficient in methionine.

ii) Conjunctival Impression Cytology

Ans) Conjunctival Impression Cytology is a diagnostic technique that involves applying a cellulose acetate filter paper to the conjunctival surface of the eye. This method is used to assess the health of conjunctival cells and is often employed in diagnosing conditions like dry eye syndrome.

iii) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Ans) Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in cells, playing a crucial role in various metabolic processes, such as energy production and DNA repair. It exists in two forms, NAD+ and NADH, and is involved in redox reactions. For example, NAD+ is involved in glycolysis.

iv) Iron toxicity

Ans) Iron toxicity refers to an excessive buildup of iron in the body, which can lead to poisoning. This condition can result from the overconsumption of iron supplements or genetic disorders, causing symptoms such as gastrointestinal distress. Hemochromatosis is an example of a genetic disorder leading to iron overload.

v) Prebiotics

Ans) Prebiotics are non-digestible fibres or compounds that promote the growth and activity of beneficial gut bacteria, such as probiotics. They serve as food for these healthy microorganisms. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) found in foods like chicory root are an example of prebiotics.

vi) Phytoestrogens

Ans) Phytoestrogens are natural plant compounds that structurally resemble the hormone estrogen. They can mimic or block estrogen's effects in the body. Isoflavones in soybeans and lignans in flaxseeds are examples of phytoestrogens.

vii) Lactogenesis

Ans) Lactogenesis is the process of milk production in the mammary glands of the breast. It involves the development of milk-producing tissue and the synthesis of milk components during pregnancy and after childbirth, especially during the first few days postpartum.

viii) Bifidogenic effect of fructans

Ans) The bifidogenic effect of fructans refers to the promotion of the growth and activity of beneficial Bifidobacteria in the colon due to the consumption of fructans, a type of prebiotic. Fructans, found in foods like onions and garlic, stimulate the growth of Bifidobacteria in the gut.

ix) Protein Energy Ratio

Ans) The Protein Energy Ratio (PER) is a measure used to assess the protein quality of a food or diet. It represents the ratio of protein to energy (calories) in a food item or diet and is used to evaluate the nutritional value of protein sources.

x) EAR

Ans) EAR (Estimated Average Requirement), is a dietary reference value used to estimate the nutrient intake required to meet the needs of 50% of the population, particularly for essential nutrients like vitamins and minerals. It serves as a basis for setting recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for different age groups and genders.

Q2) Calculate the energy requirement of Kanupriya, who is a 32-year-old moderately active female using the factorial estimation of total energy expenditure.

Note: Refer Unit 2, MFN-004 for the necessary calculations.

Ans) The factorial estimation of total energy expenditure (TEE) takes into account various components of energy expenditure, including basal metabolic rate (BMR), physical activity, and the thermic effect of food.

To calculate Kanupriya's TEE, we can use the following formula:



BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) is the energy expended at rest, and it can be estimated using equations like the Harris-Benedict equation.

PAL (Physical Activity Level) is a factor representing the level of physical activity. For a moderately active individual, the PAL is typically around 1.55.

First, we need to estimate Kanupriya's BMR. One commonly used equation to estimate BMR is the Mifflin-St Jeor equation:

For females:

BMR=(10×weight in kg)+(6.25×height in cm)−(5×age in years)−161

Let's assume Kanupriya's weight is 65 kg, height is 165 cm, and her age is 32 years:



BMR=1360.25 calories per day

Now, we can calculate her TEE using the PAL of 1.55:


TEE≈2103.39 calories per day

So, Kanupriya's estimated total energy expenditure (TEE) is approximately 2103.39 calories per day. This is the total daily energy requirement for her considering her moderate level of physical activity.

Q3) Give full form of the following:


Ans) Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Score

ii. ICF

Ans) International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health

iii. 1,25-(OH)2D

Ans) 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol

iv. FAD

Ans) Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide

v. BMD

Ans) Bone Mineral Density

vi. ATP

Ans) Adenosine Triphosphate

vii. AAD

Ans) American Academy of Dermatology

viii. BMI

Ans) Body Mass Index

ix. TEE

Ans) Total Energy Expenditure

x. WHR

Ans) Waist-to-Hip Ratio

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