top of page
MGS-005: Research Methodologies in Gender and Development Studies

MGS-005: Research Methodologies in Gender and Development Studies

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

If you are looking for MGS-005 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Research Methodologies in Gender and Development Studies, you have come to the right place. MGS-005 solution on this page applies to 2023-24 session students studying in MAGD courses of IGNOU.

Looking to download all solved assignment PDFs for your course together?

MGS-005 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: MGS-005/AST-01/TMA/2023-24

Course Code: MGS-005

Assignment Name: Research Methodology in Gender and Development Studies

Year: 2023-2024

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Answer the following in 200 words each:

Q1) Explain Probability Sampling.

Ans) Probability sampling is a method of selecting a sample from a population in which every individual or element has a known and non-zero chance of being included in the sample. It is characterized by the use of random selection, where each member of the population has an equal opportunity of being chosen, providing a basis for making statistical inferences about the entire population.

Key Features of Probability Sampling

a) Random Selection: Probability sampling relies on random selection, ensuring that every element in the population has an equal chance of being included. This minimizes bias and allows for the generalization of results to the entire population.

b) Representativeness: The goal of probability sampling is to create a sample that accurately represents the characteristics of the larger population. This enhances the external validity of research findings.

c) Sampling Frame: A well-defined sampling frame, which is a list or framework of all the individuals or elements in the population, is essential for probability sampling. This frame serves as the basis for the random selection process.

d) Systematic Methods: Various systematic methods, such as simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, and cluster sampling, fall under the umbrella of probability sampling. These methods offer different approaches to ensure randomness and representation.

Types of Probability Sampling

a) Simple Random Sampling: Involves randomly selecting individuals from the population, where each member has an equal chance of being chosen. This is often done using random number generators or randomization techniques.

b) Stratified Random Sampling: Divides the population into subgroups or strata based on certain characteristics. Samples are then randomly selected from each stratum, ensuring representation from various segments of the population.

c) Systematic Sampling: Involves selecting every kth individual from a list after randomly choosing a starting point. The interval (k) is calculated based on the population size and desired sample size.

d) Cluster Sampling: Divides the population into clusters, randomly selects some clusters, and then includes all individuals within those chosen clusters in the sample. It is particularly useful when a complete list of the population is challenging to obtain.

Q2) What is sampling error? List two major non-sampling errors.

Ans) Sampling error is the difference between the results obtained from a sample and the true values or characteristics of the entire population from which the sample is drawn. It occurs due to the inherent variability that arises when using a subset (sample) to estimate characteristics of a larger group (population). Sampling error is expected and can be quantified statistically, allowing researchers to assess the reliability and precision of their sample estimates.

Major Non-Sampling Errors

a) Selection Bias:

Selection bias occurs when the process of selecting individuals for the sample systematically excludes or includes certain groups, leading to a sample that does not accurately represent the population. This can result from issues such as under coverage, where certain segments of the population are not adequately represented in the sampling frame, or non-response bias, where selected individuals decline to participate, introducing potential bias to the results.

b) Measurement Error:

Measurement error occurs when there are inaccuracies in the way data are collected or recorded. This can result from various factors, such as poorly designed survey questions, ambiguous wording, respondent misunderstanding, or errors in data entry. Measurement error can lead to inaccuracies in the recorded values, impacting the validity of the study's findings.

These non-sampling errors can significantly affect the accuracy and reliability of research results. Therefore, researchers must be vigilant in addressing and minimizing both sampling and non-sampling errors to enhance the overall quality of their studies.

Q3) What do mean ‘Gross Enrolment Rate’? How would you find out the national GER for upper primary level?

Ans) The Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) is a statistical measure used in education to assess the total enrolment in a specific level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the official school-age population corresponding to that level. It provides insights into the overall participation and accessibility of a given level of education within a particular population.

Calculation of National GER for Upper Primary Level

To find out the national GER for upper primary level, you would follow these steps:

a) Define the Age Group: Determine the official school-age population for the upper primary level. This usually corresponds to a specific age range, such as 11 to 14 years, depending on the education system's norms.

b) Gather Enrolment Data: Collect data on the total number of students enrolled in upper primary schools across the entire nation. This information can be obtained from national education databases, school registries, or official enrollment records.

c) Calculate Total Official School-Age Population: Sum up the official school-age population for the upper primary level. This is the denominator in the GER calculation and represents the total number of individuals within the specified age range.

d) Calculate Total Enrolment: Sum up the total number of students enrolled in upper primary schools. This is the numerator in the GER calculation and represents the total enrolment at the upper primary level.

e) Apply the Formula:

Use the formula for Gross Enrolment Rate:

GER=(Total Enrolment/Total Official School-Age Population Total Enrolment)×100

f) Express as a Percentage:

Multiply the result by 100 to express the GER as a percentage. This final percentage represents the national GER for the upper primary level.

For example, if there are 500,000 students enrolled in upper primary schools, and the official school-age population is 600,000 for a specific age range, the GER would be calculated as:


This indicates that, nationally, approximately 83.33% of the official school-age population for the upper primary level is enrolled in schools.

Q4) How do you use email in your research? Explain.

Ans) Email is a valuable tool in the research process, facilitating communication, collaboration, and data collection. Here's how email is commonly used in research:

a) Communication with Participants: Researchers use email to communicate with study participants. This may include sending invitations to participate, providing information about the research project, and sharing consent forms or other relevant documents. Email allows for efficient and direct communication with a large number of participants.

b) Surveys and Questionnaires: Researchers often distribute surveys or questionnaires via email. Participants receive a link to the online survey, and their responses are collected electronically. Email surveys are a cost-effective and convenient way to gather data from geographically dispersed participants.

c) Interview Scheduling: Email is commonly used for scheduling interviews with participants. Researchers can send invitations, propose available time slots, and coordinate interview details. It streamlines the scheduling process and allows for easy confirmation and follow-up communication.

d) Collaboration with Team Members: In collaborative research projects, email serves as a primary communication tool among team members. Researchers can share updates, discuss findings, and coordinate tasks. It helps maintain a record of project-related discussions and decisions.

e) Dissemination of Research Findings: Researchers use email to disseminate their research findings to colleagues, stakeholders, or the wider academic community. Sending preprints, conference announcements, or links to published papers allows for the efficient sharing of knowledge.

f) Correspondence with Institutional Review Boards (IRBs): Email is often used for communication with Institutional Review Boards or ethics committees. Researchers submit study protocols, informed consent forms, and other documents for review, and IRBs communicate decisions or request clarifications via email.

g) Recruitment for Studies: Researchers may use email to recruit participants for studies. This can involve reaching out to specific populations, academic institutions, or organizations to invite individuals to take part in research projects.

h) Requesting Information: Researchers may use email to request information from colleagues, experts, or organizations relevant to their research. It serves as a professional and efficient means of seeking input, data, or collaboration.


Answer any two of the questions given below in 1000 words each.

Q1) Explain the features of feminist method with examples.

Ans) Feminist methodology is a different approach to research that aims to confront and repair gender-based injustices, challenge current power systems, and amplify the voices of oppressed groups, notably women. Its primary focus is on women. It was developed as a response to the constraints of traditional research methodologies, which frequently ignored or misrepresented the experiences of women. Here are some of the most important aspects of feminist methodology, along with some examples to illustrate them:

a) Intersectionality:

1) Feature: An essential component of feminist methodology is the concept of intersectionality, which recognises the fact that individuals are subjected to multiple forms of oppression or privilege that intersect with one another on the basis of factors such as gender, race, class, sexuality, and other identities.

2) Example: A feminist researcher studying workplace experiences recognizes that the challenges faced by women of color may differ significantly from those faced by white women. Intersectionality prompts the researcher to explore the nuanced ways in which gender, race, and other factors intersect to shape individuals' experiences.

b) Participatory Action Research (PAR):

1) Feature: Participatory action research (PAR) is a method that emphasises the active participation of participants in the research process. It involves collaboration between researchers and the community that is being investigated. This method not only strives to comprehend, but also to make a contribution to the process of social transformation.

2) Example: A feminist PAR project on domestic violence involves survivors, community advocates, and researchers working together to identify systemic issues, develop interventions, and advocate for policy changes. The research is not only about the participants but actively involves them in shaping the research agenda and outcomes.

c) Reflexivity:

1) Feature: According to the concept of reflexivity, researchers are required to critically evaluate and accept their own perspectives, biases, and power dynamics. This is done with the understanding that their identities might have an impact on the research process and the results.

2) Example: A feminist researcher studying reproductive health practices reflects on their own experiences and biases related to reproductive choices. They openly discuss their positionality in the research, recognizing that their background may influence how participants perceive and respond to the research.

d) Qualitative Methods:

1) Feature: In order to capture the variety and depth of women's experiences, feminist methodology frequently makes use of qualitative research methods. Some examples of these approaches are discussions in focus groups, interviews, and narrative analysis. Rich, context-specific insights can be obtained through the use of these strategies.

2) Example: A feminist researcher conducting in-depth interviews with LGBTQ+ individuals explores the nuances of their experiences with discrimination. Qualitative methods enable the researcher to capture the diversity of narratives and the emotional impact of systemic inequalities.

e) Critique of Objectivity:

1) Feature: Researchers that adhere to the feminist perspective question the concept of objective, value-free research, contending that the subjectivity of the researcher is a factor that influences all study. Their position is that there should be transparency regarding the researcher's point of view.

2) Example: In a study on gender in the workplace, a feminist researcher openly acknowledges their feminist perspective and how it informs their research questions and interpretations. This transparency allows readers to critically assess the research's context and potential biases.

f) Inclusive Sampling:

1) Feature: For the purpose of ensuring that a wide range of opinions are reflected, feminist methodology places an emphasis on inclusive sampling. In order to accomplish this, it is necessary to actively seek out people from a wide range of backgrounds, especially those who have been historically disadvantaged.

2) Example: A feminist study on women's experiences in STEM fields intentionally includes participants from different racial, socioeconomic, and cultural backgrounds. The goal is to capture the multiplicity of challenges and successes within the broader context of gendered experiences.

g) Ethical Considerations:

1) Feature: In feminist research, some examples of ethical considerations that are considered include a commitment to minimising the amount of harm caused, respecting the participants' right to make their own decisions, and advocating for social justice. Informed permission and confidentiality are not the only things to take into consideration here.

2) Example: A feminist researcher studying sexual violence collaborates with advocacy organizations to ensure that survivors are provided with support services. The study is conducted with a trauma-informed approach, prioritizing the well-being of participants.

h) Alternative Knowledge Production:

1) Feature: There are many other types of knowledge creation that are valued by feminist methodology. These include experiential knowledge, storytelling, and other non-traditional means of experiencing and gaining knowledge. This raises questions about the privileges that particular categories of knowledge have.

2) Example: A feminist researcher exploring women's health practices incorporates narrative storytelling as a method. Participants are encouraged to share their experiences through personal narratives, contributing to a more holistic understanding of health beyond traditional biomedical perspectives.

i) Activism and Advocacy:

1) Feature: Research that is feminist frequently links with activism and advocacy, with the goal of not just gaining an understanding of social issues but also making a contribution to the improvement of society. It is an effort to close the gap that exists between academic institutions and grassroots movements.

2) Example: A feminist researcher investigating access to education for girls collaborates with local NGOs to translate research findings into actionable policy recommendations. The research is not just an academic exercise but a tool for advocating for policy changes that benefit marginalized communities.

j) Longitudinal and Life Course Approaches:

1) Feature: Both longitudinal and life course techniques are frequently used within the realm of feminist methodology in order to gain an understanding of how experiences develop over time, taking into account the cumulative impact of social, economic, and political issues. This is done in order to gain a better understanding of how experiences develop over time.

2) Example: A feminist researcher studying women's career trajectories uses a longitudinal approach to trace the effects of workplace policies and societal expectations on career progression. This allows for a nuanced understanding of how gendered experiences evolve over different life stages.

In essence, feminist methodology is a dynamic and evolving approach that seeks to challenge traditional research paradigms and center the experiences of marginalized groups. By embracing intersectionality, reflexivity, and participatory methods, feminist researchers aim to produce more nuanced, inclusive, and socially relevant knowledge that contributes to dismantling systemic inequalities.

Q2) What is research? Describe different types of research and their use at the level of techniques.

Ans) The purpose of research is to develop new knowledge, enhance understanding, and contribute to the advancement of a particular topic or study. Research is a process of inquiry that is organised and systematic in nature. It entails the gathering, examination, and interpretation of information in order to provide answers to certain questions, provide solutions to problems, or investigate existing occurrences. Research is carried out in a wide range of fields, including the sciences, the social sciences, the humanities, business, and technology. It is a comprehensive endeavour that features a variety of varieties, each of which employs distinct strategies that are suitable to the aims it seeks to achieve.

Types of Research

a) Basic Research (Pure or Fundamental Research):

i) Objective: In order to improve one's grasp of fundamental concepts and theories, basic research is carried out. This type of study frequently does not have any direct practical applications.

ii) Techniques: Experimental methods, observational studies, theoretical modelling, and literature reviews are common techniques in basic research. For example, physicists conducting experiments to understand the properties of subatomic particles engage in basic research.

b) Applied Research:

i) Objective: The purpose of applied research is to find solutions to specific practical problems or to provide answers to practical questions, with the end goal of resolving challenges that are common in the real world.

ii) Techniques: Surveys, case studies, experiments, and simulations are commonly used in applied research. For instance, a medical researcher investigating the effectiveness of a new drug is conducting applied research.

c) Quantitative Research:

i) Objective: The objective of quantitative research is to collect and examine numerical data in order to identify patterns, correlations, and generalisations.

ii) Techniques: Surveys, experiments, and statistical analyses are prevalent techniques in quantitative research. For example, a sociologist using surveys to analyse the correlation between socioeconomic status and educational attainment is employing quantitative research.

d) Qualitative Research:

i) Objective: The objective of qualitative research is to investigate and comprehend social events, experiences, and points of view by utilising data that is not numerical in nature.

ii) Techniques: In-depth interviews, focus groups, content analysis, and participant observation are common techniques in qualitative research. Anthropologists studying cultural practices within a community are engaging in qualitative research.

e) Descriptive Research:

i) Objective: When conducting descriptive research, the researcher does not attempt to manipulate the variables in order to describe the characteristics of a population, phenomena, or situation.

ii) Techniques: Observational studies, surveys, and case studies are often used for descriptive research. A marketing researcher analyzing customer demographics to understand the target market is conducting descriptive research.

f) Exploratory Research:

i) Objective: Study that is exploratory is conducted with the purpose of gaining insights into a phenomenon, developing hypotheses, and determining viable research questions.

ii) Techniques: Literature reviews, pilot studies, focus groups, and case studies are common in exploratory research. An educational researcher exploring innovative teaching methods through interviews and observations is conducting exploratory research.

g) Experimental Research:

i) Objective: For the purpose of determining the existence of cause-and-effect linkages, experimental research involves the manipulation of independent factors in order to examine the effects that these variables have on dependent variables.

ii) Techniques: Randomized controlled trials, laboratory experiments, and field experiments are techniques in experimental research. For example, a psychologist conducting an experiment to study the impact of sleep on memory is engaging in experimental research.

h) Correlational Research:

i) Objective: Correlational research is a method that does not include any manipulation of the variables and is used to explore the statistical correlations that exist between two or more variables.

ii) Techniques: Surveys, observational studies, and statistical analyses (e.g., correlation coefficients) are common techniques in correlational research. A sociologist investigating the relationship between income and educational attainment is conducting correlational research.

i) Action Research:

i) Objective: Action research is carried out by practitioners in locations that are representative of the real world in order to address practical issues in a cooperative manner and to bring about good change.

ii) Techniques: Reflective practices, participant observation, and iterative cycles of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting are characteristic of action research. A teacher implementing and evaluating a new teaching strategy in their classroom is conducting action research.

j) Historical Research:

i) Objective: When conducting historical research, one looks at past occurrences, behaviours, or phenomena in order to get a knowledge of how they developed and the impact they had.

ii) Techniques: Archival research, oral history interviews, and content analysis of historical documents are common techniques in historical research. Historians studying the socio-political context of a particular period in history are conducting historical research.

k) Cross-Sectional Research:

i) Objective: For the purpose of determining the extent to which certain qualities or relationships are prevalent, cross-sectional research involves the collection of data from a population or sample at a specific point in time.

ii) Techniques: Surveys, observational studies, and data collection tools are employed in cross-sectional research. A public health researcher assessing the current prevalence of a particular health condition in a population is conducting cross-sectional research.

l) Longitudinal Research:

i) Objective: In order to examine changes and developments over a longer period of time, longitudinal research involves collecting data from the same population or sample over an extended period of time.

ii) Techniques: Surveys, interviews, and observations are used repeatedly over time in longitudinal research. For instance, a developmental psychologist studying cognitive changes in individuals from childhood to adulthood is conducting longitudinal research.

Common Techniques Across Research Types

a) Literature Review:

1) Use: To examine existing research, theories, and knowledge on a specific topic.

2) Applicable to: Basic research, applied research, exploratory research.

b) Surveys:

1) Use: To gather data from a sample using standardized questionnaires or interviews.

2) Applicable to: Quantitative research, qualitative research, descriptive research, correlational research, cross-sectional research.

c) Experiments:

1) Use: To manipulate variables and observe their effects on other variables.

2) Applicable to: Experimental research, quantitative research.

d) Interviews:

1) Use: To gather in-depth information through direct conversations with participants.

2) Applicable to: Qualitative research, exploratory research, longitudinal research.

e) Observational Studies:

1) Use: To systematically observe and record behaviour or phenomena in natural settings.

2) Applicable to: Descriptive research, correlational research, cross-sectional research, qualitative research.

f) Case Studies:

1) Use: To explore in-depth the details and context of a specific case or situation.

2) Applicable to: Qualitative research, exploratory research, descriptive research.

g) Content Analysis:

1) Use: To analyse and categorize the content of texts or visual materials.

2) Applicable to: Qualitative research, exploratory research, historical research.

h) Focus Groups:

1) Use: To gather insights and opinions from a group of participants through facilitated discussions.

2) Applicable to: Qualitative research, exploratory research.

i) Archival Research:

1) Use: To examine historical records, documents, and artifacts for research purposes.

2) Applicable to: Historical research, exploratory research.

j) Field Studies:

1) Use: To conduct research in real-world settings outside of a controlled laboratory environment.

2) Applicable to: Applied research, experimental research, action research.

100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40  written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Learn More

Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery

Learn More

Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!

Learn More

Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!

Learn More

Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!

Learn More

Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!

Learn More

Download Premium PDF

Assignment Question Papers

Which Year / Session to Write?

Get Handwritten Assignments

bottom of page