If you are looking for MGSE-006 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Gender, Resources and Entitlements, you have come to the right place. MGSE-006 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MAGD courses of IGNOU.
MGSE-006 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MGSE-006 / AST- 01 / TMA / 2022-23
Course Code: MGSE-006
Assignment Name: Gender Issues in Resources and Entitlements
Year: 2022 - 2023
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
PART - A
Write short notes on the following (200 words each): (10 marks)
Q 1. Entitlement Relationships
Ans) When it comes to ownership, an entitlement relation is a set of rules that link one set of ownerships to another. It is a relationship that can be connected over and over again. In a private ownership market economy, the following are common types of entitlement relationships:
Trade-based entitlement: one is entitled to own what one obtains by trading something one owns with a willing party (or, multilaterally, with a willing set of parties).
Production-based entitlement: one is entitled to own what one gets by arranging production using one’s owned resources, or resources hired from willing parties meeting the agreed conditions of trade.
Own-land entitlement: one is entitled to one’s own labour power, and thus to the trade-based and production-based entitlements related to one’s labour power.
Inheritance and transfer entitlement: one is entitled to own what is willingly given to one by another who legitimately owns it, possibly to take effect after the latter’s death (if so specified by him).
Some relationships are simple, but others are more challenging. Someone may be able to enjoy the fruits of a property without being able to trade it. If the country has a family-based inheritance law, a relative who died without a will may be entitled to inherit it. You may own unclaimed property. Rationing or coupons can boost market entitlements in privately held market economies like Britain's during the last war.
Q 2. Gender and Rights-based approach
Ans) A gender and rights-based approach is an approach that considers the gendered dimensions of power and inequality in society and seeks to promote the rights of all people, regardless of their gender. This approach recognizes that gender intersects with other forms of identity, such as race, class, and sexuality, and that these intersections can create different experiences of power and oppression. A gender and rights-based approach is based on the principle that all individuals should have equal access to their human rights, including civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights. This means that gender inequalities should be addressed, and that policies and programs should be designed to promote gender equality and empower all individuals, regardless of their gender.
A gender and rights-based approach can be applied to a wide range of issues, including education, healthcare, employment, and political participation. For example, a gender and rights-based approach to education would aim to eliminate gender-based discrimination in schools and ensure that girls and boys have equal access to education and opportunities for learning. Overall, a gender and rights-based approach seeks to challenge gender-based discrimination and promote gender equality, as well as to empower individuals to claim their rights and participate fully in society.
Q 3. Gender and Water sector
Ans) The gender dimensions of water management have become an increasingly important issue in the water sector, as it has been recognized that women and men often have distinct roles, needs, and responsibilities related to water use and management. In many parts of the world, women are primarily responsible for collecting and managing water for their households, often spending several hours a day fetching water from distant sources. This can have significant implications for their health, education, and economic opportunities, as well as their ability to participate in decision-making processes related to water management.
Therefore, a gender-sensitive approach to water management is essential for ensuring that women's needs and perspectives are considered and integrated into water policies and programs. This approach recognizes that gender is a social construct that shapes the distribution of power, resources, and opportunities within societies.
A gender-sensitive approach to water management includes promoting women's participation in decision-making processes related to water management, recognizing and valuing women's contributions to water management, improving women's access to water and sanitation facilities, and addressing the gender-specific impacts of water-related challenges such as climate change and water scarcity. Overall, integrating gender considerations into water management can help to promote gender equality and empower women, while also contributing to more effective and sustainable water policies and programs.
Q 4. Hindu Succession Act, 1956
Ans) The Hindu Succession Act, 1956 is a legislation that governs the inheritance rights of Hindus, including Buddhists, Sikhs, and Jains in India. The act was enacted on 17 June 1956 and has been amended several times, most recently in 2005. The Hindu Succession Act recognizes the principle of coparcenary, which means that all sons and daughters have equal rights in the ancestral property. Prior to the amendment in 2005, only male heirs were recognized as coparceners, but the amendment extended this right to daughters as well. The act provides for the division of property among legal heirs in case of the death of a Hindu without leaving a will. The act recognizes two types of property - ancestral property and self-acquired property.
Ancestral property refers to property inherited from ancestors, while self-acquired property refers to property acquired by an individual through their own efforts or resources. The act also recognizes the rights of widows to inherit the property of their deceased husbands, and provides for the rights of mothers, widows, daughters, and sisters to inherit property in certain circumstances. Overall, the Hindu Succession Act has been an important legislation in India, as it has helped to promote gender equality in the inheritance rights of Hindus and has provided a legal framework for the division of property among legal heirs.
PART - B
Answer any two of the questions given below in 1000 words each.
Q 1. What is the relationship between women and the forest? Explain with suitable examples.
Ans) Forests are important to people's health and well-being, and they give many communities around the world valuable resources and ways to make a living. Women have a strong connection to forests because they often depend on them for food, medicine, fuel, and money.
It's pretty clear that women play an important role in activities that involve natural resources, and it's also clear that the loss of natural resources hurts women. Some experts, like Vandana Shiva, think that women have a special relationship with nature and are better at managing natural resources because of this. Vandana Shiva's well-documented and thorough research on our forests, soils, and water systems shows how development has destroyed the existing system and made it harder for people, especially women, to get food and water and stay alive. She says that the government's development policies hurt both nature and women, who are the main people who keep society going. But it's important to take a critical look at the word "women." Bina Agarwal supports a feminist environmental perspective that is based in the real world and sees the relationship between women and nature as being shaped by how production, reproduction, and distribution are organised by gender and class (caste/race).
In many rural areas, women are in charge of gathering firewood, which is important for cooking and heating. This can take a lot of time and be hard on the body because women may have to walk a long way to find good wood and then carry heavy loads back to their homes. In addition to the physical work of gathering firewood, women may also face safety risks like being attacked by animals or being hurt by strangers. In some situations, women may be forced to get firewood from forests that are far away from their homes. This can keep them from going to school or getting other opportunities. It is hard to lump all women into one group, because there is a lot of difference between rural and urban women, different classes of women, and different parts of the world. So, the damage to the environment has different effects on different women. Women in cities, especially those from middle- and upper-class backgrounds, don't care much about the environment. In the countryside, however, women and natural resources are closely linked, especially in poor peasant and tribal families. In poor and tribal families, women have always been in charge of getting food, water, fuel, and animal feed. In hill communities, they are also the main farmers.
Despite these problems, women have come up with a number of ways to deal with forests and make sure they can make a living. For example, women can form cooperatives or groups to share the work of gathering firewood and to get access to markets where they can sell their goods. Women could also find other ways to get energy, like biogas or solar power, so they don't have to rely so much on firewood. Women depend on forests for more than just firewood. They use them to get food, medicine, and feed for their animals, among other things. In many places, women know a lot about the plants and animals in the forest. They use this knowledge to feed their families and keep their communities going. For example, women may pick fruits and vegetables from the wild or use plants to treat common illnesses. Women can also use forest resources to feed their animals. For example, they can collect leaves and branches to feed their animals.
In some situations, women may also help take care of and protect forests. For example, women's groups in India have helped restore degraded forests by using traditional knowledge and practises to make the soil healthier and increase the number of plant species. Women can also help run forests by doing things like taking part in community forestry programmes or fighting for their right to access and manage forest resources.
Even though women play an important role in the management and use of forest resources, they are often left out of the process of making decisions about forests. Often, women's voices and points of view aren't heard or considered. This can lead to policies and programmes that don't meet their needs or reflect their priorities. For example, women may not be able to take part in community forestry programmes or have equal access to markets where they can sell the products they make from the forest. In order to deal with these problems, there have been more and more efforts to promote gender equality in forest management and to recognise the important role women play in protecting forests and making a living from them. For example, the UN's REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) programme has emphasised the need for gender-responsive approaches to forest management, recognising the important role that women play in reducing emissions from deforestation and promoting sustainable forest management.
They are affected in very specific ways by damage to the environment. As a result of their everyday interactions, women have a unique understanding of how different species change and how nature renews itself. This has made them more aware of the environment and given them a unique view of how it heals, which women who don't spend much time in nature are likely to lose. So, the link between women and the environment is based on their material lives and is shaped by how work, property, and power are divided based on gender class (caste or race). In the end, the relationship between women and forests is complicated and has many different parts. Women depend on forests for many different resources and ways to make a living, and they have come up with creative ways to deal with their relationships with forests. But women are often left out of the process of making decisions about forests. There is a need to promote gender equality in forest management and to recognise the important contributions women make to protecting forests and making a living.
Q 3. What is the difference between social enterprise and commercial enterprise? Explain with relevant case studies drawn in India
Ans) Both commercial and non-profit organisations, often known as social enterprises, are separate types of businesses that pursue their missions in fundamentally different ways. In spite of the fact that the primary focus of both social enterprises and commercial enterprises is on making a profit, the primary objective of social enterprises is to make a positive social or environmental effect. Commercial enterprises' primary objective is to make a profit.
Social enterprise is a type of business that seeks to generate revenue while achieving a social or environmental objective. The primary goal of a social enterprise is to create positive change in society or the environment, while generating revenue to sustain the organization. Social enterprises operate in a variety of sectors, including education, health, energy, and the environment. In India, social enterprises have emerged as a powerful tool for social and economic development, particularly in areas that have been neglected by the government and traditional businesses.
One of the most successful social enterprises in India is SELCO, a company that provides renewable energy solutions to underserved communities in rural India. SELCO has designed and implemented innovative business models that have helped to bring clean energy to millions of people who previously had no access to electricity. The company has developed a network of local entrepreneurs who sell and service its solar products, creating jobs and empowering rural communities. SELCO's success demonstrates the potential of social enterprises to create positive change in society, while generating sustainable revenue. Another example of a successful social enterprise in India is D.light, a company that provides solar-powered lighting solutions to off-grid communities. D.light has developed affordable and reliable solar lanterns that have helped to improve the quality of life for millions of people who live without electricity. The company has also developed a network of local entrepreneurs who sell and service its products, creating jobs and economic opportunities in rural areas.
Commercial enterprise is a type of business that seeks to generate profits by providing goods or services to customers. The primary goal of a commercial enterprise is to maximize revenue and profit, often through the development of new products or services, cost-cutting measures, and strategic partnerships. Commercial enterprises operate in a wide range of sectors, including retail, manufacturing, and technology. In India, commercial enterprises have been instrumental in driving economic growth and creating jobs.
One of the most successful commercial enterprises in India is Reliance Industries, a conglomerate that operates in a wide range of sectors, including petrochemicals, retail, and telecommunications. Reliance Industries is the largest private sector company in India, and its success has been driven by the vision and leadership of its founder, Mukesh Ambani. The company has developed innovative business models that have enabled it to capture market share and drive growth in a variety of sectors. Another example of a successful commercial enterprise in India is Tata Group, a conglomerate that operates in a wide range of sectors, including steel, automobiles, and telecommunications. Tata Group is one of the oldest and most respected companies in India, and its success has been driven by the values and principles of its founder, Jamshedji Tata. The company has a long history of innovation and social responsibility, and it has played a key role in driving economic growth and development in India.
Difference between Social Enterprise and Commercial Enterprise
The main difference between social enterprise and commercial enterprise is their primary goal. Social enterprises prioritize achieving social or environmental impact over generating profits, while commercial enterprises prioritize generating profits overachieving social or environmental impact. Social enterprises often reinvest their profits into their social or environmental mission, while commercial enterprises distribute profits to their shareholders or owners. Social enterprises may also have a broader stakeholder base, including customers, employees, and the community, while commercial enterprises primarily serve their customers and shareholders.
Another difference between social enterprise and commercial enterprise is their approach to measuring success. Social enterprises often use a "triple bottom line" approach that measures social, environmental, and financial impact, while commercial enterprises primarily use financial metrics to measure success, such as revenue and profit.
Social enterprises and commercial enterprises also differ in their sources of funding. Social enterprises often rely on a combination of grant funding, impact investment, and earned revenue, while commercial enterprises primarily rely on debt and equity financing from investors.
Finally, social enterprises and commercial enterprises also differ in their organizational structure and governance. Social enterprises may have a more democratic and participatory organizational structure, with a broader stakeholder base involved in decision-making, while commercial enterprises typically have a more hierarchical and shareholder-focused governance structure.
In conclusion, social enterprise and commercial enterprise are two distinct forms of businesses that operate in different ways to achieve their objectives. Social enterprises prioritize achieving social or environmental impact over generating profits, while commercial enterprises prioritize generating profits overachieving social or environmental impact. While both forms of businesses have their strengths and weaknesses, social enterprises have emerged as a powerful tool for social and economic development in India, particularly in areas that have been neglected by the government and traditional businesses. The success of social enterprises like SELCO and D.light demonstrates the potential of social enterprise to create positive change in society, while generating sustainable revenue. At the same time, commercial enterprises like Reliance Industries and Tata Group have played a key role in driving economic growth and creating jobs in India. Both forms of businesses have an important role to play in driving economic and social development in India and around the world.
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