If you are looking for MGSE-007 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Gender, Organization and Leadership, you have come to the right place. MGSE-007 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MAGD courses of IGNOU.
MGSE-007 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MGSE-007 / AST-01 / TMA / 2022-23
Course Code: MGSE-007
Assignment Name: Gender, Organization and Leadership
Year: 2022 - 2023
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
PART - A
Write short notes on the following in 200 words each. (10marks)
Q 1. Gender and Organization
Ans) Feminists conceptualise organisations in different ways. Organizational studies and feminist scholarship rarely interacted until the 1980s. For a long time, only technical efficiencies of organisations were discussed, not power, authority, or gender inequity in the workplace.
For instance, it can be observed that, men in organisations, are better paid, have far more formal power in organisations and hold the prestigious jobs in comparison to women. It was only after 1990s, gender blindness in organisations was explored and strategies were suggested to bring gender inequality into focus. Due to such measures, representation of women in organisations has been on the rise, though at a slow pace.
Organisations in modern times show considerable interest in increasing the pool of female talents in managerial tasks. Role of women in organisations are explores from various perspectives viz. Gender-in-Organisation and Gendered Organisation. The gender-in-organisations perspective focuses on women and men as fairly robust categories and investigates how these are treated, behave and/or experience work and life. The interest is often in measurement and comparison of groups of men and women.
Gendered organisations suggest that workplaces are more than gendered spaces. Organizational structures and behaviours are gendered. Organizations and other social institutions are "artificially" shaped and mould people. A gender viewpoint in an organisation promotes high sensitivity.
Q 2. Organization Diagnosis
Ans) Organizational diagnosis is a process that involves identifying problems or potential areas for improvement within an organization. It is a systematic approach to assessing the health of an organization and determining the underlying causes of issues that affect its performance. The process of organizational diagnosis typically involves collecting and analysing data to understand the current state of the organization, identifying gaps between current and desired performance, and developing strategies to address the identified issues.
The goals of organizational diagnosis can vary depending on the needs and context of the organization. Some common goals include improving organizational effectiveness, enhancing employee engagement and job satisfaction, increasing productivity and profitability, and identifying potential opportunities for growth or expansion.
Organizational diagnosis can increase performance and competitiveness. Organizations may improve processes, employee satisfaction, and results by recognising and addressing areas for improvement. Organizational diagnosis is a continual process that involves evaluation and adjustment to achieve success.
Thus, organizational diagnosis is an exercise attempted to make an analysis the organization, its structure, subsystems, and processes in order to identify strengths and weaknesses of its structural components and processes and it as a base for developing plans to improve and /or maximize the dynamism effectiveness of the organization. Organizational diagnosis could be done as a periodic routine exercise like case of periodic medical check-up of an individual or may be undertaken when there is a cognizable problem that is affecting the functioning of an organization.
Q 3. Nature of Organization
Ans) Organizational nature concepts include:
Social systems: Social systems are what organisations are. People who work in an organisation and people who live in the outside world both have psychological needs and social roles and status. Their actions are affected by both the group they are working with and their own personal goals.
Mutual or Common Interest: Both the company and its employees are interested in the same things. Organizations need workers to help them reach their goals, and workers need organisations to help them reach their own goals. Mutual interest creates an overarching goal that can only be reached by the combined efforts of each employee and the group as a whole.
Ethics: Ethics is the use of moral principles and values to change how people and groups act when making decisions about what is right and what is wrong. To make sure that managers and employees act in an ethical way, organisations need to have codes of ethics, written statements of ethical values, and ways to deal with wrongdoing.
The measures to achieve objectives are channelized so that essential organisational components like being in a system, working toward mutual benefits, or following ethics or procedures are firmly followed without unjust means. The nature of the company and its underlying values guide the formation of its goals, mission, and vision.
Q 4. Inverted Pyramid
Ans) When an organisation has this kind of structure, the customers are prioritised at the very top, and they are given the most significant part in moving the firm forward. Employees who work directly with customers, such as sales agents. People in charge of helpdesks and other customer-facing functions who often interact with clients are also assigned comparable roles and responsibilities. Because of this, the function of management in this type of organisation shifts from being one of commanding to being one of supporting. Because the Chief Executive Officer of the firm is at the bottom of the structure, this style of organisation is also known as a pyramidal organisation.
Some of the advantages of the inverted pyramid are:
This structure places the needs of the customers ahead of all other considerations. Because of this, it is much simpler for the company to understand the preferences of the customers and to devise suitable strategies to guarantee the satisfaction of the customers; and
In this type of organisation, the employees are entrusted with a greater degree of responsibility and authority than the top management.
Major Disadvantage of Inverted Pyramid
When it comes to the creation of strategies, the inverted pyramid has a number of significant drawbacks. The frontline supervisors do not yet have the necessary skills to be able to make strategies about the organisation. Because of this, there is now ample room within the organisation for members to have doubts about their ability to formulate effective tactics.
Answer any two of the questions given below in 1000 words each. (30 marks)
Q 1. Define the Glass ceiling. Discuss factors responsible for the glass ceiling.
Ans) In the 1980s, the phrase "glass ceiling" came to be used to refer to the intangible barrier that prevents women and people of colour from ascending to the highest levels of an organisation, particularly when it comes to positions of leadership. The phrase "glass ceiling" refers to an unspoken barrier that prevents women and members of underrepresented groups from rising to the highest levels of an organisation, particularly in positions of leadership. In recent years, the metaphors "glass ceiling" and "glass escalator" have been used a lot to explain about how men and women are different in these ways. These metaphors refer to the barriers that women face when trying to advance their careers.
The term "glass ceiling" refers to the unseen barriers that prevent women in leadership positions from progressing farther in their careers. Glass escalators, on the other hand, are more likely to assist men in climbing the corporate ladder and assuming leadership responsibilities. Despite the progress made in diversity and inclusion initiatives, women and members of marginalised groups continue to confront several challenges in the workplace and are grossly underrepresented in positions of executive or managerial responsibility. There has been a recent rise in the number of women achieving top management positions and smashing the glass ceiling. They are also interested in leadership responsibilities, which they excel at pursuing thanks to the personalities and management skills that they possess.
There are several factors responsible for the glass ceiling, including:
Crystal Hoyt points out a few things that create a "glass ceiling" for women and cause them to be underrepresented. These things are:
Human Capital Differences: Hoyt says that there are big differences between how much money men and women put into their human capital. Men get a lot of money and time spent on their education, training, and work experience. Women, on the other hand, do not get as much. Due to things like raising children and doing chores around the house, women have less time and money to put into these things. Even if women get to the top, they sometimes have to leave their jobs to take care of their families. This is despite the fact that there are many obstacles in their way. When women take a break to care for their families, it's hard for them to get back into the same leadership role. Also, women do not have as much access to formal training as men do.
Gender Differences: People also say that the difference between men and women is one reason why there are more men in leadership roles than women. Men and women are different in how they lead, how committed and motivated they are to their work, how they promote themselves, and how they negotiate. But in terms of leadership style, it can be said that women's styles are better than men. But when it comes to work commitment and motivation, it seems like both men and women are the same. When it comes to putting themselves forward for leadership positions, women are less likely to do so than men. Women face a lot of bias because of their gender, and when they promote themselves, they are seen as less attractive than men. This is not the case for men. How a leader negotiates with others to get the right position, opportunities, resources, etc., is also important for getting to the top. But women leaders are less likely than men to be able to negotiate, which puts them at a disadvantage.
Prejudice: Most of the time, people have biases about how men and women should act and what they should do. Women are expected to take care of things and men are expected to be in charge when someone is in charge. Also, it can be seen that when men are in charge, people pay attention to the policies they make and how they carry them out, but when a woman is in charge, people pay more attention to her personality and how she dresses than to the policies she makes. Stereotypes about men and women have ideas about how men and women should act. Men are often thought to have traits like confidence, assertiveness, independence, rationality, and decisiveness, while women are thought to have traits like caring about other people, sensitivity, warmth, and helpfulness. People's biased judgments, views, and attitudes about women's roles can sometimes make it hard for women to take on leadership roles. Also, women leaders face cross-pressures that make it hard for them to do their jobs. For example, as a leader, women are expected to be tough and masculine, but as women, they should be soft and feminine. Because of these different expectations for women, people think that women are less qualified than men to be in top leadership positions.
Promoting Leadership Effectiveness
But in recent years, women have been able to break through this glass ceiling and are moving up the leadership ladder. Society and the way organisations are set up need to do a lot to help more women become leaders. In this area, strong steps should be taken, such as making the workplace more flexible for women. Effective career advancement programmes for women should be set up by pairing them with mentors who can help them. Both at home and at work, the role that is expected of a woman can be changed. The gap between men and women in leadership positions can be closed by giving women more power in negotiations. Women leaders can learn to be warmer and more influential by combining traits like friendliness and warmth with traits like exceptional competence and assertiveness.
To summarise, the glass ceiling is a significant obstacle to the professional success of women and members of underrepresented groups. Some of the factors that are responsible for the gender pay gap, as well as the glass ceiling, are bias and stereotyping, a lack of access to networks and mentors, a lack of role models, family responsibilities, gendered job expectations, a lack of diversity and inclusion initiatives, and lack of diversity and inclusion initiatives. In order to shatter the gender, pay gap and make the workplace more egalitarian for all workers, companies and other organisations need to make diversity and inclusion programmes their top priority.
Q 2. What is a gendering organization? Explain.
Ans) The practise of organisations reproducing and sustaining gendered patterns of behaviour, power, and privilege is referred to as "gendering organisations," and the word "gendering organisations" is used to characterise this phenomenon. A societal process called "gendering organisations" reflects and promotes broader social and cultural norms and beliefs concerning gender. Feminist scholarship and research on the realities of women in the workplace led to the conception of gendering organisations as an organisational strategy.
The difference in pay between men and women is one way that gendering organisations can hurt women. Women are often paid less than men for doing the same work. This is partly because of how work is divided between men and women and how men and women are ranked in organisations. Women are more likely to be given jobs that pay less and have less status, and they are less likely to be in charge. This can lead to a cycle of disadvantage that makes it harder for them to move up in their careers and make more money. The difference in pay between men and women is especially big for women of colour, who face multiple forms of discrimination and exclusion.
Another way that gendering organisations can hurt women is by keeping stereotypes and biases about men and women around. Women are often judged based on their gender. For example, they may be seen as less skilled or less committed to their jobs than men. This can lead to bias, harassment, and being left out of the workplace. Women may face subtle forms of discrimination, like being interrupted or talked over in meetings, or more obvious forms, like being passed over for a promotion or being sexually harassed.
The impact of gendering organizations is not limited to women. Men who do not conform to traditional gender norms and expectations may also face discrimination and marginalization within the workplace. For example, men who take on caregiving responsibilities or who are more emotionally expressive may be subject to negative stereotypes and assumptions. This can limit their potential for career advancement and lead to exclusion and marginalization.
Gendering organizations occurs in a variety of ways, including through the gendered division of labour, gendered hierarchies, and gendered cultures. These factors interact to create an organizational climate that may be more or less conducive to the experiences and advancement of women and other marginalized groups.
The gendered division of labour refers to the way in which jobs and tasks within an organization are assigned based on gendered expectations and assumptions. Another way in which gendering organizations can have a negative impact on women is through the persistence of gender stereotypes and biases. Women are often subject to gendered expectations and assumptions, such as being seen as less competent or less committed to their work than men. This can lead to discrimination, harassment, and exclusion within the workplace. Women may be subjected to microaggressions, such as being interrupted or talked over in meetings, or they may face more overt forms of discrimination, such as being passed over for promotion or being subjected to sexual harassment.
Gendered hierarchies refer to the way in which power and authority are distributed within an organization. This can be reflected in the composition of the leadership team, the way in which decisions are made, and the way in which employees are evaluated and rewarded. For example, men may be more likely to occupy leadership positions and to have a greater degree of decision-making power than women. Gendered cultures refer to the way in which norms and values within an organization reflect and reinforce gendered expectations and assumptions. This can be reflected in the way in which employees are expected to dress, behave, and communicate. For example, a culture that values aggression and competition may be more conducive to the experiences of men than women.
Addressing the impact of gendering organizations requires a multifaceted approach that involves changing organizational structures, practices, and cultures. This can involve implementing policies and practices that promote gender equity, such as pay equity, flexible work arrangements, and family leave policies. It can also involve changing organizational culture through training, education, and awareness-raising initiatives.
Organizations can promote diversity and inclusion by actively recruiting and retaining employees from diverse backgrounds and creating a workplace culture that values and respects difference. The impact of gendering organizations is significant. Research has shown that gendering organizations can lead to discrimination, harassment, and a lack of opportunities for career advancement for women and other marginalized groups. Gendering organizations can also create a culture of silence around issues related to gender, making it difficult for employees to speak up about their experiences and to seek support.
To address the impact of gendering organizations, it is important to understand the ways in which gender is embedded within organizational structures, practices, and cultures. This can involve implementing policies and practices that promote gender equity, such as pay equity, flexible work arrangements, and family leave policies. It can also involve changing organizational culture through training, education, and awareness-raising initiatives. Individuals can also play a role in addressing the impact of gendering organizations. This can involve advocating for change within their workplaces and communities, speaking out against discrimination and bias, and supporting policies and initiatives that promote gender equity and inclusion.
In conclusion, gendering organizations is a complex social process that reflects and reinforces broader social and cultural norms and values about gender. Gendering organizations can create a range of negative experiences and outcomes for women and other marginalized groups in the workplace. Addressing the impact of gendering organizations requires a multifaceted approach that involves changing organizational structures, practices, and cultures to promote gender equity and support the experiences and advancement of women and other marginalized groups.
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