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MJM-027: Electronic Media

MJM-027: Electronic Media

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MJM-027 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Electronic Media, you have come to the right place. MJM-027 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MAJMC courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: MJM-027 / July 2022 – January 2023

Course Code: MJM-027

Assignment Name: Electronic Media

Year: 2022 - 2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Note: Answer all the questions. All questions carry equal marks = 20 each


Q 1. Explain the following camera movements with diagram: (150 words each)

Ans) The diagram of a camera describing various movements is shown below:

Q 1. a. Pan

Ans) Pan allows you to move your camera horizontally from right to left. The camera mount doesn't move when panning. Panning produces the illusion of side-to-side movement. Pan can follow a character or reveal a location. Above is a pan movement.


Q 1. b. Tilt

Ans) Tilt tilts your camera up and down. When tilting, the camera mount stays still, like the pan. Tilting gives the illusion of looking up or down while motionless. Tilt can follow your character's up-and-down movement. This can reveal your location. Figure shows tilt movement.


Q 1. c. Dolly

Ans) Dolly or track moves the camera toward or away from the target. Moving the camera towards the subject is called 'dolly in' or 'track in,' and moving it away is 'dolly out' or 'track out' Wheeled and tracked camera mounts provide mobility. This movement preserves the norm. As you approach closer or farther away, the impression changes. Diagram shows dolly or track movement.

Q 1. d. Dolly Zoom

Ans) Alfred Hitchcock invented dolly zoom. "Vertigo shot" describes it. In this technique, the camera moves away from the subject while zooming to keep it in frame. This approach keeps the subject static while the background changes size.


Q 2. Discuss the different rules of photography composition. (500 words)

Ans) Photography is about communicating with the viewer. The photographer must tell their own storey through a snapshot. Developing photo skills takes time and work. Composition norms are also important.


Basic Rules of Photography Composition


1. Leading Lines

Photographers utilise leading lines in a variety of ways to arrange their photos. However, the most common application of leading lines is to direct viewer focus to the image's main subject. But on occasion, leading lines are employed to entice the viewer's gaze further into the picture. By allowing the eyes to follow a line and wander inside the image, it is still one of the most effective techniques for capturing attention-getting pictures.


2: Rule of Thirds

The rule of thirds is photography's most famous and overused rule. You may have accidentally seen a grid line of nine square boxes in three rows in your camera's viewfinder or LCD screen. Unknowingly turning it off would have stopped you from using the rule of thirds. When the focal point is at an intersection, the image looks better.


3.  Negative Space

Negative Space is all about leaving space, and lots of it, in the image to ensure that the main subject occupies a small portion of it. How much space to leave depends on you and the final look of the image. One of the uses of negative space is in commercial and stock photography. Negative space allows an editor to put content and tag line.


4. Horizon Line

It's not necessary for the horizon to be exactly in the centre of the image. Although it sort of looks right, that isn't always a good thing. Depending on whether the sky or the foreground is more appealing, the horizon line should be either 2/3 of the way down or up.


5. Symmetry and Patterns

Symmetry is closely related to beauty, and it is the exact correspondence of form on the opposite’s sides of a dividing line. Perfect symmetry is always eye catching. Try and incorporate anything symmetrical in your images, and the quality of your compositions will go up automatically.


Since birth, our eyes have seen symmetry or dynamic symmetry, and our minds require it. It's an unbreakable rule. Symmetry should not be ignored. Compose the photo to accentuate and balance the scene. Ignoring apparent symmetry creates an unbalanced, uncomfortable picture. Symmetry is the precise correspondence of form on opposing sides of a dividing line. Perfect symmetry is eye-catching. Symmetry improves photo composition. Since birth, our eyes have seen symmetry or dynamic symmetry, and our minds require it. Therefore, it's a law. Broken patterns add interest to your photos. Broken patterns add interest to your photographs.


Q 3. Describe the following terms: (150 words each)


Q 3. a. Exposure Triangle

Ans) The exposure triangle is an analogy to explain the main elements that affect the exposure in a photograph: aperture, shutter speed, and ISO, and the way that these elements are related.


According to the exposure triangle definition, all three elements must be in balance in order to get a perfectly exposed photo. This often results in having an exposure value EV equal to zero when selecting the right metering mode. If, after achieving such a balance, you need to change any of the settings that affect the exposure, you will have to compensate by adjusting the other two settings to continue maintaining the EV and the balance in the exposure triangle.


The Exposure Triangle comprises aperture, shutter speed, and ISO. These three camera and lens controls work together to regulate the amount of light that makes it to the light-sensitive surface (aperture and shutter speed) and the sensitivity of that surface (film or digital ISO). Not only do those three controls affect the light of a photograph, but they also have unique “side effects.” Aperture controls depth of field, shutter speed can blur or freeze action, and ISO can add or subtract film grain or digital noise from an image.

Q 3. b. ISO

Ans) ISO is your camera's sensitivity to light as it pertains to either film or a digital sensor. A lower ISO value means less sensitivity to light, while a higher ISO means more sensitivity. In very basic terms, ISO is simply a camera setting that will brighten or darken a photo. As you increase your ISO number, your photos will grow progressively brighter. For that reason, ISO can help you capture images in darker environments, or be more flexible about your aperture and shutter speed settings.


However, raising your ISO has consequences. A photo taken at too high of an ISO will show a lot of grain, also known as noise, and might not be usable. So, brightening a photo via ISO is always a trade-off. You should only raise your ISO when you are unable to brighten the photo via shutter speed or aperture instead (for example, if using a longer shutter speed would cause your subject to be blurry).


Q 3. c. Aperture

Ans) The opening in a lens through which light enters the camera is known as an aperture. If you merely consider how your eyes function, the concept is simple to grasp. The size of your pupil is controlled by the iris in your eyes, which expands or contracts when you travel between bright and dark situations.


Photography's "pupil" is called aperture. You may adjust the aperture to let more or less light into your camera. Below is a lens' aperture: Adjusting aperture gives photos depth. Aperture creates a blurred background with shallow focus. This is frequent in portraiture.


On the other hand, it will enable you to capture images that are sharp from the immediate foreground to the far-off horizon. Many landscape photographers make use of this effect. Additionally, the aperture you select affects the exposure of your photographs by lightening or darkening them.


Photos can be affected in a number of ways by aperture. The brightness or exposure of the photographs is possibly the most evident factor. The brightness of image changes as a result of changes in the overall amount of light that enters the camera sensor.


Q 3. d. Shutter Speed

Ans) The length of time that a camera's shutter remains open, allowing light to reach the sensor, is measured in shutter speed. It is the amount of time required by your camera to take a photograph. This will change the appearance of your images. A "slow" shutter speed exposes your sensor for a long time. First, motion blur. Too-slow shutter speeds blur moving subjects in photos. Blurring the wheels in automobile and motorcycle advertising creates a sensation of speed and energy.


Slow shutter speeds with a tripod are used to photograph the Milky Way at night or in low light. Extended shutter speeds on rivers and waterfalls offer a feeling of motion while keeping everything else sharp. Shutter speed can freeze motion. Using a fast shutter speed, you can freeze fast-moving things like birds in flight or passing cars. When shooting water with a fast shutter speed, each droplet will be perfectly sharp, which we can't see.

Q 4. How do you see the future of radio in India? Support your answer with relevant data. (500 words)

Ans) Radio's nature links us to the communities we serve. Radio supports local organisations, relaxes families after a rough night, and informs busy residents who don't have time to watch the news. Broadcast radio won't disappear, but it will confront new challenges as the industry advances. 63.9 percent of radio listening is analogue. This is mainly because few cars have Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) radios, and fewer than half of the population owns a DAB radio at home.


As the price of mobile internet reduces and network coverage on smaller routes improves, in-car internet radio will become more popular. This won't end radio broadcasting. Local news and traffic updates will always be available via broadcast. It also controls quality. Young people can launch internet radio stations, but broadcast stations require infrastructure, money, and a licence. This will keep broadcast radio alive for home listening: you have a radio and dial through all the stations, sure they will all sound decent and not play anything really unfit for children during the day. Most stations are licenced to give frequent news bulletins.


Music is easy to get at home and in the car. Magic 105.4 is London's second most-listened-to commercial radio station, and FM Radio is India's most-listened-to. Internet radio stations broadcast to automobiles like FM stations.


Radio is widely popular. It may speak personally to millions. Localized and simplified at every stage, it provides adapted content to diverse places and audiences. India's journey began with songs and the power of music, but now it's also about people and their lives, which are reflected on a creative audio canvas. It's grown to compete with TV and on-demand material. With a continuing strive for quality, it has the country's largest reach. It has also adjusted its operations over time to give the most dynamic mix of entertainment for listeners, including engaging topical parts that reach a wider audience, intelligent celebrity interviews, and region-specific community conversations, making it a favoured medium for listeners.


Thoughts on the Future of Radio


According to Leighton Broadcasting -There are numerous opportunities that will enable radio to advance aggressively. Radio has a more promising future than most people realise. If you work in the sector, keep an eye on the developments in mobile usage and track the listening habits of your audience before determining how radio fits in. The level of connection in American life is currently rising. Our audiences want connectivity and ease, whether it be through mobile phones, smart speakers, or more advanced automobiles. How can we make that work? through establishing a connection with our audiences on their terms.


We see apps as a chance to improve our capacity for self-branding and accelerate the expansion of our regional partners. The future of marketing is having access to local, relevant, and accessible apps. We're interested to watch how it develops.


Comments on Quora

I think in a near future, radio like many other things will shift to online, thus enabling people to contribute with their own radio shows, music and their own stations.


It will be more of content contributed by users than users listening to the limited content available and the stream of advertisement.


Radio is developing, against popular belief. Most people listen to radio on their way to and from work. Even radio channels are disappearing due to stereo-linked iPods. logical! Who wants commercial-filled music when they can just plug in their iPod?


Radio will always exist. In the chaos that results from the breakdown of civilisation, AM will be a voice of calm and reason. Radio has helped disseminate information and knowledge to the world, along with the printing press. When satellites are reduced to dead metal moons, phone booths are used by pigeons, TV studios are permanently dark, and movie theatres have screened their final frames, someone will still be modulating information onto a carrier wave and sending it through a mast, along with many others making simple crystal sets.


Q 5. Write short notes on any four of the following: (150 words each)


Q 5. a. Previsualization

Ans) Previsualization is the process of imagining movie scenes or sequences before they are filmed. Additionally, it is an idea used in a variety of artistic disciplines, such as animation, performing arts, video game design, and still photography. When preparing and conceptualising movie scenes, methods like storyboarding, whether done with sketches or with digital technology, are commonly referred to as previsualization.


Previsualization has the benefit of enabling a director, cinematographer, production manager, or VFX supervisor to test out various staging and art direction possibilities, including lighting, camera positioning and movement, stage direction, and editing, without having to pay for actual production. On a more expensive project, directors might collaborate with actors in a special room or the visual effects division. Previsualizations are most frequently used in scenes with stunts, special effects, or intricate choreography and cinematography. They can use music, sound effects, and dialogue to closely mimic the look of fully produced and edited sequences. Additionally, it is utilised in productions that integrate animation, photography, and digital video, such as 3D animation.


Q 5. b. Flat Lighting

Ans) Flat lighting is a type of even lighting with little depth and contrast. Flat illumination is often regarded as undesirable, but there are circumstances in which it may be beneficial. A scene can be purposely or unintentionally lit with flat light. Flat lighting is a word used in both photography and film/video. Simply speaking, it has to do with a scene's lack of contrast between highlights and shadows. As a result, it appears to be two-dimensional. Flat light happens when a picture is very evenly lit and differs from soft light, which is the flow of light from highlight to shadow.


Overcast days produce flat lighting, as does direct flash, which is frequently utilised in beauty photography and by some documentary photographers. If you want to use flat light to your advantage, you must first analyse the light and, more importantly, choose the proper day and time of day. Flat lighting can also be employed to add a subtle beauty effect, particularly in still photography. It can smooth out a subject's skin to some extent, making wrinkles and imperfections less visible. This is like the traditional soft-focus photography beautifying method.

Q 5. d. Phone in Programmes

Ans) Overseas radio stations have begun employing a technique dubbed "Phone-in" to accept instantaneous fan requests for pop music tunes. The concept is gaining popularity in India.

In our country, "phone-ins" for music listening and counselling services have grown commonplace. The popularity of "phone-ins" on health-related topics can be attributed to the benefit that listeners gain from the counselling services offered. These are designed to provide listeners with timely advice and direction in the areas that matter most to them. Numerous listeners interact directly with the doctors and obtain counselling.


If the subject of a "phone-in" programme is "arthritis," orthopaedists and physiotherapists are brought into the studios. Prior to the live broadcast, the topic is released, and callers are encouraged to discuss their concerns with the experts. Numerous listeners interact directly with specialists and receive the appropriate counselling. Due to the popularity and success of this format, radio programmers have expanded the scope of the programme to include issues such as law, education, employment opportunities, etc. Legal practitioners answer immediately to questions from listeners regarding matrimonial issues, the Dowry Act, divorce laws, alimony provisions, etc. In order to receive further clarifications, you can also ask further questions.

Q 5. f. Parallel Editing

Ans) When a video editor cuts between multiple sequences in quick succession, they are performing parallel editing. The events take place simultaneously in the universe of the movie, but they are taking place in separate locations each time. The most effective way to highlight contrast is through the cross-cutting technique known as parallel editing.


This practise is also known as cross-cutting in some circles. It is a method of editing that involves cutting between shots of two or more activities or events that are occurring simultaneously. It gives the impression that these activities are occurring in a variety of locations, most of the time at the same time. When telling a tale, it's common practise to cut back and forth between multiple shots at the same time. This technique is known as cross-cutting. It is possible to utilise it to illustrate both sides of a narrative. In the narrative, it can also be utilised to heighten suspense and excitement, and it can even be used to contradict what happened in the previous scene. Using parallel editing, we are able to enliven the sequence and give it greater appeal.

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