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MMPC-001: Management Functions and Organisational Processes

MMPC-001: Management Functions and Organisational Processes

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MMPC-001/TMA/JULY/2022

Course Code: MMPC-001

Assignment Name :Management Functions and Organisational Processes

Year: 2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


1. Briefly describe the functions of management and discuss their importance in the functioning of the organisations.

Ans) No of their level—top, medium, or lower—all managers carry out management duties. Nevertheless, depending on their position, managers devote different amounts of time to these activities. For instance, medium level managers spent more time leading the group, directing, and regulating whereas top managers spent more time planning and arranging. Similar to the higher level, the lower level spends more time structuring itself to do the objective.


The main management responsibilities are typically divided into five categories: planning, organising, staffing, directing, and controlling. Different scholars provided various explanations for the functions. Luther Gullick used the term -POSDCoRB to describe how management functions.


P- Planning








Gullick claims that managers typically carry out these duties while on the job. The managerial functions are listed under the acronym POCCC by Henry Fayol. He claims that managers carry out five tasks. It is they-


P- Planning






Planning, organising, staffing, directing, and controlling are the five primary responsibilities of management that are generally divided under this category. Coordination, reporting, and budgeting are all parts of the controlling function, according to management theorists. Below is a discussion of the functions.




Planning entails being ready for future action. It has to do with a task that connects the present with the future. After defining the broad organisational objectives, the planning process begins to determine the next course of action. Because it is a universal function, it is applicable at all levels of management. The duties include formulating strategies, goals, and policies as well as establishing the procedures and programmes necessary to attain those goals. It dictates how the organisation will move forward and is future-focused. This task requires the capacity to anticipate long-term consequences of current behaviour. Planning takes both internal and external elements into account. The ability of the organisation to borrow money, raw materials, the economic climate, technological advancements, global and national policies, etc., are some examples of external factors. Internal factors include organisational policy, intellectual capital, the organization's financial stability, etc. Thus, planning is a continual process that decides the organization's destiny.




An organization's structure, which includes clearly defined lines of authority and responsibility, is related to organising. Through these lines, work is distributed, monitored, and coordinated so that each division and department interacts with one another and collaborates to achieve the goals of the organisation. It entails tasks like assigning power and accountability for a job's seamless completion, as well as delegation. As a result, it calls for task identification, task assignment, authority definition and delegation, and the establishment of distinct lines of authority and responsibility. In order for the organisation to operate well, the many aspects and actors must be blended together as part of the functions.




Finding the proper individuals for the correct position inside the organisational structure is referred to as staffing. Starting with the job's design, identification, and analysis, it prepares the ground for hiring, choosing, and placing employees initially before promoting them later. It also involves the tasks of educating individuals so they can perform their assigned tasks effectively and efficiently. As a result, it entails the action of selecting and keeping employees who have the necessary knowledge, abilities, and attitudes, making these roles crucial to the success of a firm.




This job include providing effective leadership, means of communication, motivation, and supervision so that workers may perform effectively to achieve the intended goals. It consists of the procedures and methods used to issue the necessary instructions and oversee the operation to ensure proper operation. To ensure a smooth flow of work, the managers communicate and transmit the message. There is sufficient evidence from organisational experience that inaccurate or miscommunicated information causes organisational failure on a global scale. Thus, it plays a crucial role in the direction function. Similar to teams, groups of people need the right leadership in order to perform effectively. The act of influencing others' conduct at work is referred to as leadership. Individuals are inspired by leaders to work toward achieving their goals as individuals, groups, and organisations. The assurance that the goal will be accomplished in accordance with the plan is provided by monitoring and supervising the group's activities. By monitoring the groups' progress, this exercise gives the leader the assurance that the instructions are being followed correctly.




Activities that are taken to ensure that the plan is followed exactly constitute the control function. Setting standards, establishing performance goals and metrics, and taking corrective action at various phases of the control process are all part of the control process. This task is frequently misconstrued and has the unfavourable impression of constraining people in their employment. As the task is being done, this function seeks to determine whether organisational goals are being reached and possible future actions. Budgets, record audits, employee payroll audits, expenditure item audits, etc. are typical examples of checking deviance. By tracking and analysing deviations, this function supplies leads to the planning function. These five management tasks are carried out by an organisation and are all related but separate from one another.


2. Discuss the necessity of having Planning and how it helps organisations. Describe various types of planning and their merits.

Ans) Necessity of having Planning as follows:


Ensures selection of optimum goals: The process of choosing the optimal course of action from a variety of available options is known as planning. It also involves deciding on a path of action that has a good possibility of being profitable, achievable, and economical while rejecting alternative options that are less likely to do so. The chosen course of action enables an organization's overall growth while taking organisational constraints in terms of resources, time, objectives, and strategies into account. The optimization of the organization's general operation and the sub-optimization of other departments are important for the organization's overall development.


Manages complexities: A single organisation functions as a result of a diverse set of human resources with varying KSA, values, beliefs, cultures, and levels of motivation. It is inevitable to have a conflict between organisational and personal interests in such a diverse work setting. When individuals in an organisation work together to achieve shared organisational goals and their own personal goals, it is said that the organization's structure is effective. Planning is a means of guiding action toward goals.


Survive environmental change: Every now and then, the corporate environment goes through significant upheaval. The transition from a conservative to a democratic corporate model has left it up to the business houses to stay current with shifting customer needs and environmental changes. Changes in demand, technologies, fashion, preferences, and social values all have a big impact on how a company runs normally. By modifying its inputs to satisfy new customer demands and preferences, management must work to seize the chance to benefit from the altered circumstances. Planning that is thorough, analytical, and methodical is essential for surviving the chaotic environment that environmental change has created.


Protection from failure: Unpredictable changes in customer tastes and preferences, fierce rivalry, quick technical advancement, a slowing economy, and political unrest all have a big impact on the country and corporate houses. These adjustments can occasionally be so detrimental that an entire firm fails. However, a lack of competent planning and poor decision-making meant that many companies were unable to withstand these extreme shifts. Although planning cannot completely prevent business failures, it may undoubtedly aid in identifying and assessing business opportunities and dangers as well as considering the many courses of action that may be taken in the future.


Unity of action: Since an individual with varied KSAs contributes to the work of the company, their harmonious cooperation is essential to achieving its objectives. This is made feasible by effective planning that gives employees a stake in working together for organisational success.


Supports control and coordination: The coordination and control functions of management are supported by the planning function. Every aspect of a function is planned and worked out extensively in advance, including what, when, how, and by whom. This makes it simple and quick to evaluate performance and identify any deviations. Without preparation, neither the performance nor the ability to create the level of performance would be of high quality. Poor performance, delays in finishing duties, waste, disorder, and ultimately a loss of control and coordination will result from this. Planning effectively may ensure that performance criteria are established scientifically and methodically, that performance is measured timely and effectively, that deviations are quickly identified and eliminated, and that there is harmonious operation at work.


Planning Promotes Innovative Ideas: It is obvious that planning chooses the finest option from the numerous available options. The manager must search for these options; they do not present themselves to the manager automatically. Many new ideas are generated during such an endeavour at discovery, and they are carefully examined to decide which ones are the most beneficial. Planning gives managers actual thinking ability in this way. It encourages the emergence of original and imaginative thoughts. An organisation might want to grow, for instance. In the manager's view, this notion triggers the start of the planning process.


Planning Facilitates Decision Making: The act of making decisions is referred to as decision-making. Under it, a range of options are found, and the best one is picked. The planning establishes the decision-making objective. It also specifies the standards for judging tactical options. Planning aids in decision-making in this way.


Benefits from Organisational Perspective

  1. Provides direction for an organisation.

  2. Focuses attention on goals and outcomes.

  3. Creates the foundation for teamwork.

  4. Aids in anticipating issues and adjusting to change.

  5. Provides principles for making decisions.

  6. Is necessary before doing any other managerial functions.


Types of Planning


Planning can be broadly divided into three areas based on corporate objectives and aims. These three types of planning are operational, tactical, and strategic. The business environment in which the organisation operates is unstable. As a result, it is vulnerable to a variety of environmental hazards and opportunities. An organisation plans strategically when it assesses potential threats and market possibilities, assesses its strengths and weaknesses, and positions itself to take advantage of favourable conditions or withstand unfavourable ones.


Strategic planning requires long-term commitment, frequently lasting five years or longer. The coordination of everything and the creation of objectives make this planning complicated. Planning strategically is typically done with an eye on company vision and mission. Since it will take time and requires a lot of technical expertise, top management is involved. The development of methods and mechanisms to be used for the implementation of strategic plans, on the other hand, is the focus of tactical planning, which is less long-term in nature and typically lasts one to three years.


Tactical planning, put simply, is the process of carrying out strategic plans. Middle-level managers participate in this planning phase since it involves implementation. Operational planning, the third sort of planning, appears to be functional planning where organization-wide goals and objectives are established and strategies to attain them are sought. Operational planning focuses on resolving immediate operational issues and is short-term planning for less than a year. This level of planning aids tactical and strategic planning at a higher level.


3. Discuss and describe the importance of Directing as a function of management. Illustrate with examples.

Ans) Importance of Directing as follows:


Directing Initiates action: Directing sets an organisation into motion, and helps other managerial functions to initiate and activate. It helps the managers to supervise, communicate, lead, guide and motivate the subordinates to achieve the organisational goals. For example, a superior guides his subordinates and explains the task, which will help the subordinates to start the work and achieve the goal.


Directing leads to integrated group activity: The organisational objectives can be achieved only when individual efforts are integrated. Directing integrates employees’ efforts in such a way that every individual effort contributes to organisational performance. For example, a leader can convince his subordinates that group efforts will help to achieve organisational goals.


Directing attempts to get maximum out of individuals: Directing helps superiors to realise the potential and identify the capabilities of individuals by motivating and guiding them. By using the elements of directing, i.e., supervision, motivation, leadership, and communication, the efficiency of employees can be raised.


Directing helps to implement changes: Directing helps to introduce changes in an organisation. Generally, people in an organisation resist changes. Effective communication, supervision, motivation and guidance help to overcome such resistance at the workplace. For example, the introduction of a new method of doing a particular task in a factory is resisted by workers, but when managers explain the purpose, guide and provide them training and rewards, it can be easily accepted by the workers.


Directing provides stability and balance in the organisation: Stability and balance are maintained in an organisation with the help of directing because it fosters cooperation and commitment amongst employees, and helps to achieve balance amongst various groups, departments, units, etc. For example, every individual has personal goals, but the managers integrate the efforts of all the individuals towards the achievement of organisational goals through guidance, motivation, supervision and communication.


4. What are the characteristics of an organizational culture? Briefly discuss how to build sustainable organizational culture including ethical culture with examples.

Ans) Typical characteristics of an organisation culture are:

  1. Alignment: Outstanding results are produced when organisational values and employee motivation are in sync.

  2. Innovation and risk taking: Employees' level of creativity and innovation within the company.

  3. Precision: Employees are required to have a certain level of precision, analysis, and attention to detail.

  4. Outcome orientation: The level of management places more emphasis on results and outcomes than on the organization's methods and procedures.

  5. People orientation: consideration of how results may affect the organization's employees.

  6. Team Orientation: Instead of concentrating on developing tasks and activities for individuals, think about the group.

  7. Aggressiveness: environment that is more competitive and combative than laid-back.

  8. Stability: The capacity of an organisation to retain stability rather than expand.

  9. Resilience: By adapting to change, an organisation becomes resilient, showing empathy when there is a disruption and restoring routine. Depending on the type of organisation and the activities carried out inside it, the degree of the aforementioned qualities ranges from low to high. The following characteristics of organisational culture have been briefly discussed by few authors:

a) Regularities in Behaviour: Within an organisation, interactions between employees take place using shared language, terminology, and traditions.

b) Rules and regulations: Every employee in the company is required to follow the guidelines set forth by the company.

c) Dominant values: The majority of organisations have core values that all employees are expected to uphold. Good efficiency, low absenteeism, high product quality, etc., are examples of these prevailing values.

d) Philosophy: Philosophy refers to an organization's ideas and values that are reflected in its policies, which may include how customers and workers are treated.

e) Organisational climate: a culture of cooperation, interdependence, reciprocity, and commitment among employees. Collectively, these factors create the organisational atmosphere.


Towards Building a Sustainable Organizational Culture


Pablo Picasso, a well-known Spanish artist, famously stated, "Our aims can only be attained by a plan, in which we must strongly believe and upon which we must energetically act. There is only one way to achieve success. This underlines once more how crucial planning is to writing a success tale. In order to create an organisational culture with built-in self-repair and auto upgradation modes, we must first comprehend the clear line of action.


The route map is broken down into 9 landmarking steps. As follows:


Shine in recognition: A powerful incentive for improvement is recognition. A personalised message to the employees can have a tremendous business impact in a time when 76 percent of workers don't feel that their contributions are recognised and appreciated. When social recognition and financial reward are combined, the company moves with an unstoppable force.


Gift voice to the employees :Expression of thoughts, emotions, and views frequently acts as a feedback mechanism. The numerous listening technologies could make gathering feedback easier.


Human intervention: Paying close attention to the subtle expressions will enable to analyse the data and make the organisational power created by nonverbal communication obvious. According to a Gallup international poll, managers who consistently receive input generate 9% more profitability than managers who don't get any criticism or suggestions for how to improve. Giving people the flexibility to express themselves without being coerced will strengthen the appeal of remote work in the current environment, where the gig economy and hybrid work culture are at an all-time high.


Redefine culture advocates to be the leaders: The simplest yet most powerful motivational strategy is acknowledgment. Culture advocacy is a difficult road to go. Advocates of the benchmark culture who serve as leaders have a big impact on the team's thinking. Such a procedure starts the root-level correction in the impressionable minds of brand-new workers. According to studies, when executives uphold the company's ideals, others tend to do the same. The urgent need is to create a culture where the company's values are cherished and given top priority in every aspect of work life.


Outlive organizational values: The distinctive set of characteristics that define an organisation are its values. Delivering on the values supports the development of a richer culture and enhances the employee's identification as a man of values. By highlighting these workers, increase the motivation of the others and create a value-pull. Such selfless deeds make lasting effects and direct future action.


Forge teams: Teams are a collection of several strengths. When combined with another unique trait, one's special strength creates unbreakable organisational traits. This enables the business to easily cross the just notifiable difference (JND), generating a competitive advantage and generating significant profits.


Focus on the holistic development: The employer's perspective has become more expansive in the modern period of development. Offering employees a variety of skill-upgrading courses encourages them to contribute to the parent company's expansion. This has two effects on the business: first, it ensures that human capital is enriched, and second, it reduces the intention to turnover. A culture of learning permeates the organisation as a result of the emphasis on holistic growth. The corporate community holds soft skill development in the highest regard. Companies that consistently fund their learning and development budgets are more likely to see rapid growth than those that do not.


Culture- as an irrevocable intangible: The culture of a company must be fostered with the highest care since it is the most valuable intangible. Focused interview questions that determine a candidate's cultural fit at the hiring stage cut out candidates who are either culturally misfit or culturally unfit. High turnover rates are caused by a misalignment between employee expectations and organisational expectations. Employees that fit in with the organization's culture not only stay for a long period, but also love their jobs.


Tailor-made employee experience: The liberalisation has made the world a small, interconnected village. Companies are able to draw talent from every nook and cranny, drawing in the cultures that already exist there. The organisation must carefully connect each employee's culture with the corporate culture by leveraging experience. The creation of a highly customised and individualised employee experience fosters a significant deal of faith in the parent organization's culture.


Showing proactive allyship: The personnel meet bad circumstances and feel helpless. In order to demonstrate that "we care about you" in action and thereby serve as an ally, businesses may take drastic measures to protect their interests, even at the expense of the firm's financial profit. The relationship between the employee and the organisational culture is made stronger by the allyship.


Ethical Culture


High ethical standards are displayed by employees who have a high risk appetite, a moderate level of aggression, and a strong concentration on procedures and results; their shape depends on the organisational culture. This ethical corporate culture maintains a balance between the organization's numerous stakeholders, including its employees, shareholders, and the community, and has a long-term outlook. Managers are expected to take risks, to be creative, to show strong resistance to giving in to competition, and to support not only the results but also the processes used to get there. If the company culture is robust, close-knit, and promotes high ethical standards, positive effects on employee behaviour might be observed. The consequences of a lax ethical culture may take many different forms. Customer boycotts, penalties, legal action, governmental regulations, and interventions may follow a culture of systematic unethical behaviour. The following guidelines show how managers can develop an ethical culture.

  1. Set an example for others and be seen.

  2. Disseminate moral obligations.

  3. ethical instruction.

  4. Reward moral behaviour openly and penalise immoral behaviour.

  5. offer a defence mechanism.


5. Briefly describe and discuss modern theories of leadership and the difference between successful vs. effective leader

Ans) Modern Theories of Leadership as follows:


Charismatic Leadership Theories


The idea that charismatic leaders are individuals who "through the power of their personal qualities are capable of having significant and remarkable effects on followers" is a holdover from the past. Although the charismatic idea, or charisma, dates back to the ancient Greeks and is mentioned in the Bible, Robert House is typically given credit for its modern development. House says that charismatic leaders are defined by self-confidence and faith in their associates, high expectations for associates, ideological vision, and the use of personal example based on the analysis of political and religious leaders. The traits of followers of charismatic leaders include identification with the leader and the leader's objective, great loyalty to and faith in the leader, emulation of the leader's morals and actions, and self-esteem derived from the relationship with the leader. In addition to technical proficiency and the ability to influence followers' attitudes, behaviours, and emotions, Bass has expanded the definition of charismatic leaders to include strong debate and persuasion skills.


Strong dedication to the leader and his or her objective, as well as performance that exceeds expectations, are traits of charismatic leaders. According to research, followers of such charismatic leaders will have a greater impact when they demonstrate higher degrees of self-awareness and self-monitoring, particularly when observing the charismatic leaders' behaviours and actions and when working in a social network. House and his colleagues offer some evidence in support of the charismatic theory, and recent conceptualization that suggests alternative forms are pertinent to the successful implementation of mergers and acquisitions suggests that research shows a positive effect on desirable outcomes like cooperation and motivation. However, complications are discovered and additional investigation is required, much like with the other leadership theories.


Transformational Leadership Theory


James MacGregor Burns distinguished between transactional and transformative political leadership many years ago. Transformative leadership is more focused on changing the values, beliefs, and needs of followers than more conventional transactional leadership, which emphasises an exchange relationship between leaders and followers.


The term "idealised influence" has replaced "charisma" as the essential quality of transformational leadership more recently. This was done in order to distinguish between charismatic and transformative leadership, which Bass considers as two distinct ideas. Although there are many differences between the two philosophies, the treatment of followers is the key distinction. The difference between charismatic and transformational leaders is that the former may strive to keep followers weak and dependent on them, while the latter may seek to empower and elevate followers. The following objectives are pursued by transformational leaders, as opposed to transactional leaders who operate in one of the ways mentioned by Avolio, who are characterised by idealised leadership, inspiring leadership, intellectual stimulation, and individualised consideration.

  1. Enhancing the state of affairs.

  2. Making leaders out of followers.

  3. Restructuring businesses to provide them new strategic objectives giving a motivating vision and a high standard for moral and ethical conduct in order to inspire individuals.


Servant Leadership


Robert K. Greenleaf coined the phrase "serve first" to describe a leadership style in which the leader seeks to "serve first" and guides others so that they "become healthier, smarter, freer, more autonomous, and more inclined to become servants themselves." An approach that is more relationally focused and humane is demonstrated by servant leadership. Presently, humanistic leadership development is moving in a more forward-thinking direction. Servant leaders take charge because they desire to help those around them, and they first set an example by acting in accordance with that goal. The goal of servant leadership is to comprehend the leader's job as a servant and to put others before oneself. The interaction between leaders and followers and the impact of values on the process of leadership are both emphasised in servant leadership as part of normative theory.


Abusive Leadership


Abusive leaders use their position of authority to further their personal agendas by acting in a domineering and authoritarian manner. To further their goals, they influence others. At any costs, they want to win. Although they are adept at demonstrating their allegiance and commitment to the company, their true motivation is to dominate the competition. According to Baron and Neuman (1998), abusive behaviour is any behaviour that is damaging to others. Petty tyranny is described by Ashforth (1994, 1997) as the ruthless, unpredictable, and unkind exercise of power and authority by a boss. He identifies the following six characteristics of a petty tyrant: acting irrationally and conceitedly; demeaning subordinates; lacking compassion for others; imposing contradictory rulings; restricting innovation; and utilising non-contingent punishment. Tepper (2000) defines abusive supervision as the impression that subordinates have of their superiors' hostile verbal and nonverbal behaviour, excluding physical abuse. He believes that some managers are compelled to behave abusively even though they don't intend to, in order to accomplish other objectives.


Successful Versus Effective Leader

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