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MPA-013: Public Systems Management

MPA-013: Public Systems Management

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

If you are looking for MPA-013 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Public Systems Management, you have come to the right place. MPA-013 solution on this page applies to 2023-24 session students studying in MPA courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MPA-013/TMA/2023-24

Course Code: MPA-013

Assignment Name: Public Systems Management

Year: 2023-2024

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

This assignment consists of Sections I and II. There are five questions in each section. You have to answer a total of five questions in about 500 words each. It is necessary to attempt at least two questions from each section. Each question carries 20 marks.


Q1) Explain the concept public systems management and bring out its characteristics.

Ans) Public systems management focuses on the design and operation of public services and the functioning of executive government. This reform approach aims to install a more business-like ethos within government operations while emphasizing the pivotal role of bureaucrats as effective managers.

Traditionally, public administration has carried the weighty responsibility of promoting the public interest, ensuring equity, representation, and responsiveness to citizens. However, an overreliance on bureaucratic structures, hierarchical systems, and rigid regulations has raised concerns about its efficiency and effectiveness over time.

Various factors, including the dissolution of the USSR, escalating levels of public expenditure and taxation, dissatisfaction with bureaucratic structures and procedures, and the influence of globalization, have driven the shift towards a more management-oriented approach within public systems. This transformation seeks to adapt government operations to modern challenges and demands.

Public Systems Management (PSM) represents a change in basic assumptions in governance that advocates increased managerial autonomy while reducing central agency control. This approach acknowledges the significance of equipping managers with the necessary human and technological resources to achieve performance targets effectively. PSM emphasizes managerial responsibility for delivering results and fosters a dynamic relationship between politicians and managers within government structures.

  1. Result-Oriented: PSM places a strong emphasis on delivering high-quality services that align with citizens' preferences and needs. It seeks to provide value to citizens by focusing on the outcomes and impacts of government actions.

  2. Client-Centric: Recognizing citizens as active consumers, PSM aims to understand their expectations and requirements. It prioritizes responsiveness to external groups and individuals, fostering a client-focused approach to public service delivery.

  3. Flexibility: PSM allows for greater flexibility in working conditions, including the use of contractual appointments and workplace bargaining. It encourages the utilization of expertise and employee creativity to enhance service quality.

  4. Managerial Leadership: PSM promotes positive and productive managerial leadership within government agencies. It simplifies organizational structures and reduces hierarchical layers to create conditions conducive to effective leadership.

  5. Performance Measurement: Rigorous performance measurement of both individuals and organizations is a hallmark of PSM. This approach ensures accountability and transparency in government operations.

  6. Competition Orientation: PSM is receptive to competition and adopts an open-minded attitude toward managing public organizations. It embraces market mechanisms and encourages efficiency and innovation.

  7. Collaborative Approach: PSM encourages collaboration and networking across public, private, and voluntary sectors to solve community problems and provide public services effectively. It promotes a cooperative approach to governance.

  8. Decentralization: PSM advocates decentralization of authority and embraces participatory management models. It seeks to empower local decision-makers to address region-specific challenges.

  9. Market Mechanisms: PSM favours market mechanisms over bureaucratic ones, emphasizing the efficient allocation of resources and services.

  10. Preventive Measures: PSM emphasizes the prevention of administrative problems rather than addressing them after they arise. It proactively seeks to enhance governance practices and reduce inefficiencies.

Public Systems Management is Characterized by the Following Attributes

  1. Transparency and Accountability: PSM places a high premium on transparency and accountability in government operations, moving beyond mere procedural adherence to foster public trust.

  2. Information Technology: Extensive use of information technology is integral to PSM, facilitating efficient and data-driven decision-making processes.

  3. Decentralization and Outsourcing: PSM encourages decentralization of activities and explores opportunities for contracting and outsourcing while retaining strategic control over key areas.

  4. Empowered Civil Servants: Civil servants play a pivotal role in PSM, requiring technical competence, managerial skills, and policy-making capacities.

  5. New Work Culture: PSM promotes a new work culture within public systems and organizations, incorporating incentive systems, performance evaluations, and pay differentials to drive improved performance.

Q2) Economic factors affect the nature, organisation and functioning of public Systems. Elaborate.

Ans) Economic factors play a significant role in shaping the nature, organization, and functioning of public systems. The economic landscape of a country is closely intertwined with its legal and administrative framework, leading to a reciprocal relationship between economic features and public systems. These economic features are inherently specific to each country and have historical underpinnings.

In the context of India, several key economic characteristics influence the operation of public systems.

  1. Agriculture-Based Economy: Historically, India has been predominantly agrarian, with a substantial portion of its population engaged in agriculture. Despite planned development efforts and economic growth, agriculture remains a crucial sector. The success and development of agriculture are prerequisites for sectoral diversification and overall economic progress. Agriculture's significance extends beyond sustenance, as it also supplies raw materials to various industries, particularly food processing.

  2. Poverty: Poverty, defined as the inability of a segment of the population to meet basic life necessities, remains a pressing challenge in India. The Human Development Report of 2001 ranked India 55th among 90 developing countries in terms of the Human Poverty Index. Poverty affects both rural and urban areas, with approximately 260.3 million people estimated to be living in poverty in 1999-2000.

  3. Unemployment: Structural unemployment is prevalent in India, stemming from the rapid growth of the population. The labour market faces challenges as the number of job seekers outpaces employment opportunities due to slow economic growth. Initiatives like the Tenth Five Year Plan aim to address this issue by targeting an 8.0 percent annual increase in GDP to alleviate unemployment.

  4. Industrial Policy Resolution: India's industrial policy has evolved over the years. The 1948 Industrial Policy Resolution advocated a mixed economy, with roles designated for both the private and public sectors. Subsequent liberalization efforts in the 1970s and 1980s led to significant policy changes. In 1991, a new industrial policy was introduced, emphasizing economic integration with the global economy, reducing bureaucratic control, encouraging foreign investment, and addressing monopolistic practices.

  5. Mixed Economy: India operates as a mixed economy, wherein both private and public sectors coexist with defined spheres of activity. The government's role has shifted from direct control to a more promotional approach, emphasizing concepts such as privatization, downsizing bureaucracy, entrepreneurialism, and customer service. The government seeks to manage according to cost-benefit economic rationality and promote efficiency within the public sector.

  6. Corruption: Corruption is a pervasive challenge in India, involving politicians, businesspersons, and civil servants. Factors contributing to corruption include the lack of transparency in administration and bureaucratic delay. Addressing corruption necessitates enhancing transparency through extensive use of information technology and streamlining service delivery to reduce red tape and delays.

In recent years, administrative reforms have shifted the focus of public systems towards citizen orientation and service quality. The new public management practices prioritize citizens' satisfaction and aim to bring greater transparency to public service management. These reforms encourage public systems to adopt private sector management models, emphasizing cost-efficiency, competitiveness, entrepreneurship, and customer-friendliness.

To navigate the complex economic landscape, today's public systems must exhibit flexibility, consultation, outcome-focused approaches, and initiative-taking support for innovation. Placing citizens at the centre of public service management and promoting constructive collaboration between the public and private sectors are essential steps in enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of public systems in India.

Q3) Describe the various models of governance.

Ans) The concept of governance can be understood through two fundamental dimensions: the vertical axis and the horizontal axis. These axes represent the degree of centralization or decentralization of power and the orientation towards change, respectively. The vertical axis focuses on how power is distributed within governance structures, ranging from high centralization to high decentralization. In contrast, the horizontal axis pertains to the governance approach's inclination towards change, either emphasizing continuity, stability, and sustainability or prioritizing innovation to respond to evolving economic pressures and public expectations.

When These Two Axes Intersect, They Give Rise to Four Distinct Models of Governance:

  1. Hierarchical Model: This model emphasizes predictability, control, and accountability. It relies on bureaucratic power structures and vertical hierarchies, where decisions flow up and down the chain of command. Change within this model is slow and primarily achieved by modifying legislation, rewriting rules, and guidelines, or establishing new standards and procedures. Accountability is high, but the focus is on maintaining continuity rather than rapid change. It is characterized by minimum risk, security, order, and standardization.

  2. Rational Goal Model: This model prioritizes maximum output in a shorter timeframe. Power is dispersed across various agencies, and change is a prominent feature. It involves altering incentives and attaching rewards or penalties to the achievement of targets and policy goals. While power is devolved, a centralized approach remains in terms of goal setting and performance monitoring. It is marked by a strong means-ends orientation, pragmatism, and a focus on efficiency and economic rationalism.

  3. Open Systems Model: This model emphasizes network-based interactions and iterative adaptation processes. It aligns with the "network" model of governance and promotes differentiation through decentralization. It allows experimentation and innovation and incorporates multiple inputs and reflexive decision-making processes. Accountability is low, but sustainability is high. Change occurs through self-organization and self-steering, fostering adaptability and responsiveness.

  4. Self-Governance Model: This model focuses on building sustainability and fostering interdependence and reciprocity. It recognizes the role of civil society in governance, emphasizing the relationship between the State and citizens. Governments may work in partnership with citizens, promoting participatory and direct democracy. It emphasizes democratic innovation and civil society engagement, seeking to address social problems collaboratively.

Each of these governance models is based on distinct values, assumptions, definitions of effectiveness, and institutional norms. They often conflict with each other and may not be readily compatible. To achieve efficient and result-oriented governance, governments often need to adopt a combination of these models, balancing various approaches as needed.

Additionally, Guy Peters proposed four models of governance, including market government, participative government, flexible government, and deregulated government. These models encompass various aspects of governance reforms and strategies, such as market incentives, managerial initiatives, competition, and collaborative networking.

In contemporary governance, there is a growing recognition of the coexistence and interaction of both formal and informal actors. Informal sectors and non-governmental entities play increasingly significant roles, reshaping the patterns of governance. This evolving landscape blurs the boundaries between formal and informal governance organs, creating a convergence of influences and rights within clearly defined spheres.


Q4) Write a note on the characteristics and structure of Management of information System.


Characteristics of Management Information System (MIS):

  1. Management-Oriented: The management information system (MIS) was developed to meet the requirements of managers operating at every level of a business, from the CEO on down. It all starts with an analysis of the goals and requirements of the organisation.

  2. Active Management Involvement: In order to guarantee that the MIS satisfies the requirements of the organisation, management takes an active role in both its creation and its subsequent deployment.

  3. Integration: Even if having an integrated system is not the same thing as having MIS, having this feature is essential. Integration is the collection of pertinent data at its point of origin and its subsequent application across all functional areas in order to eliminate redundant work and improve efficiency.

  4. Planning and Evolution: The MIS requires careful planning, and even then, it must develop over time to accommodate the shifting demands of the enterprise.

  5. Flexibility: MIS systems need to be adaptable in order to handle any future shifts in the requirements of the organisation.

  6. Inclusive of All Types of Systems: The Management Information System (MIS) incorporates both formal and informal information-gathering mechanisms.

A Management Information System (MIS) is an organisational tool that is meant to collect and report data connected to a programme. This provides managers with the ability to plan, monitor, and assess the overall operations and performance of the programme in an efficient manner. A successful management information system (MIS) endeavour should take into account both "hard" knowledge held in databases and "soft" knowledge held in the heads of individual people.

This difficulty is addressed by MIS, which creates a framework to capture, store, and disseminate knowledge assets among multiple organisational stakeholders, such as people and information systems. MIS also helps ensure that knowledge assets are not lost. This procedure is comprised of a few stages, including the locating, acquiring, developing, disseminating, utilising, and preserving of knowledge. The ability of an organisation to make decisions and its overall performance can both be improved through the use of MIS, which helps ensure the smooth flow of information and knowledge.

Components of Management Information System (MIS):

  1. Hardware: This component comprises the physical machinery and equipment used for data processing and computing. It includes servers, computers, storage devices, networking equipment, and peripheral devices like printers. Hardware forms the infrastructure that allows data to be collected, processed, and stored efficiently within an organization.

  2. Software: MIS relies on software to control hardware and enable data processing. This includes operating systems, application software, and specialized MIS software. Software provides the instructions and tools needed to manage data, generate reports, and support various business functions within the organization.

  3. People: People are a fundamental component of any MIS. In the early days of computing, only a select group of IT professionals interacted with these systems. However, in modern organizations, virtually everyone interacts with the information system. This includes end-users who input data, managers who use the system for decision-making, and IT personnel who maintain and troubleshoot the system.

  4. Procedures: Procedures are the set of rules, guidelines, and protocols that govern how users should interact with the MIS. They include data entry procedures, data validation protocols, security policies, and disaster recovery plans. Effective procedures ensure that data is processed accurately and securely, and that the MIS functions smoothly.

  5. Databases: Databases are organized collections of data stored in a structured format that allows for efficient retrieval and processing by computers. They serve as the repository for data used by the MIS. Databases can be relational, hierarchical, or other types, depending on the organization's needs. They enable data to be stored, retrieved, updated, and analysed to generate valuable information for decision-making and reporting.

Q5) Discuss important work measurement techniques.

Ans) Work measurement is a critical aspect of operations management that involves the systematic analysis and quantification of the time and effort required to perform a specific task or job. Accurate work measurement techniques are essential for various purposes, such as optimizing processes, setting productivity standards, determining labour costs, and improving overall efficiency.

  1. Time Study

    Time study is one of the most traditional and widely used work measurement techniques. It involves observing and recording the time taken by a skilled worker to complete a task at a standard pace. The data collected is then used to establish time standards for various tasks within an organization. Time study helps in setting realistic performance expectations and identifying areas for improvement.

  2. Predetermined Motion Time Systems (PMTS)

    PMTS is a systematic approach that breaks down tasks into basic motions or movements. Each motion is assigned a predetermined time value based on historical data and analysis. By summing up these predetermined times for each motion, the total time required for a task can be calculated. This technique is particularly useful in industries where repetitive tasks are common, such as manufacturing and assembly lines.

  3. Work Sampling

    Work sampling, also known as activity sampling or ratio delay study, is a statistical method for work measurement. Instead of continuously observing a worker, work sampling involves taking random samples of the worker's activities over a period. Statistical analysis of these samples provides estimates of the time spent on various tasks and activities. Work sampling is less intrusive than time study and is often used when constant observation is not practical.

  4. Standard Data

    Standard data systems provide pre-established time values for a wide range of activities and tasks. These systems are typically based on extensive time and motion studies conducted in various industries. By referencing standard data, organizations can quickly estimate the time required for specific tasks without the need for extensive measurement. Examples include the MTM (Methods-Time Measurement) and MOST (Maynard Operation Sequence Technique) systems.

  5. Elemental Standard Data

    A subtype of standard data known as elemental standard data deconstructs activities into their component parts, which are referred to as elements. The amount of time that is linked with each component has been decided beforehand. The amount of time necessary to complete a specific activity can be calculated by combining these components. This approach provides a higher level of detail and flexibility in the measurement of effort.

  6. Analytical Estimation

    Using engineering judgement and knowledge, analytical estimation entails estimating the amount of time needed to complete activities based on characteristics such as the complexity of the operation, the materials used, the equipment used, and the skill levels of the workers. Analytical estimating is beneficial for novel or one-of-a-kind projects in which past data cannot be accessed, despite the fact that it may not be as precise as other estimation methods.

  7. Computer-Based Simulation

    Work measurement has been increasingly reliant on the use of computer-based simulation tools in recent years because to advancements in technology. These technologies give businesses the ability to model and simulate a wide variety of processes, which enables them to more accurately predict and improve resource utilisation, cycle durations, and overall efficiency.

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