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MPA-014: Human Resource Management

MPA-014: Human Resource Management

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MPA-014 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Human Resource Management, you have come to the right place. MPA-014 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MPA courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MPA-014 / ASST / TMA / 2022-23

Course Code: MPA-014

Assignment Name: Human Resource Management

Year: 2022 - 2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


This Assignment consists of Section – I and Section - II. There are five questions in each section. You have to answer a total of five questions in about 500 words each, selecting at least two questions from each section. Each question carries 20 marks.




Q 1) Describe the process and aspects of Manpower Planning. 20

Ans) The process of Manpower Planning involves the following steps:


1. Manpower plan and objectives of the organisation

Objectives of the organisation have to be stated objectively and personnel requirements settled in accordance with estimations drawn. Within the broad parameter of objectives, priorities have to be ordered and performance indicators specified in quantifiable or measurable terms for example, punctuality, allotted work hours etc. Efficiency should be measured by specific norms.


2. Assessment of the manpower situation:

Manpower inventory has to be prepared, which involves collecting all possible information regarding educational qualifications, experience, abilities, aptitudes, performance, date of joining, date of birth and date of retirement etc. of individual employees. This helps assess basic skills of employees and the resource base of the organisation. Organisational effectiveness over a period of time can also be assessed by statistics prepared. It also helps gain perspective for the future in terms of how efficiency levels can be enhanced, what qualifications need to be prescribed at what level, what training to institute, etc., in order to raise efficiency to desired/optimum levels.


3. Projection of manpower requirements

There is need to anticipate future trends in personnel availability and requirements. Application of statistical methods ranging from simple extrapolation, regression, or correlation analysis to complex econometric models help the management analyse past, present trends, and estimate future requirements relatively accurately.


Aspects of Manpower Planning

Mentioned below in brief are the aspects of manpower planning.

I. Organisational Planning and Development

a) Establishing organisational objectives, goals, and targets.

b) Redesigning organisational structure.

c) Building inter-personal relationships intra and inter agencies and thereby in the total system.

II. Career Development

a) Staffing

b) Training

III. Terms of Employment

a) Salary administration

b) Incentive

c) Fringe benefits

d) Retirement benefits

IV. Employee Welfare

a) Medical Facilities

b) Leave

c) Recreation

d) Housing

e) Leave travel concession

f) Children’s education

V. Personnel Records

a) Personnel files

b) Personnel data for decision-making

c) Performance appraisal

VI. Morale and Motivation

a) Financial and non-financial incentives

b) Conduct and discipline

c) Professional standards

d) Satisfaction of social and psychological needs.

VII. Management Staff Relations

a) Professional associations and union

b) Participative management

c) Effective joint professional association

VIII. Personnel Research and Review (PER)

i) Planning and determining programme areas

ii) Analysis and interpretation

iii) Development of more appropriate personnel programmes and policies

iv) Development and integrated personnel approach

v) Follow-up improvement action: and.

IX. Effective Communication

The department of personnel must provide for effective communication between the staff and the management. Proposed organisational change may actually give counter results if personnel are suspicious or resentful of contemplated change. It is not official queries or statements of confidential reports that earn staff loyalty. It is the extent to which the average staff member appreciates and understands the objectives and purposes of communication, especially regarding proposed changes, that solidarity is achieved.

The administrator must encourage employees to participate in developing solutions. To quote

Ted R. Brannen, (1998) “Only by an understanding of the individual, his habits, expectations,

and beliefs, can the administrator know what is needed to induce his spontaneous co-operation

for the benefit of the organisation.”

X. Motivation through Decentralisation Delegation and Job Enlargement

There is need to induce proper motivation to optimize output and thereby productivity. This

would require judicious decentralisation, delegation, and job enlargement and performance

appraisal. Employees or unions or associations should be dealt with sternly in case of non

compliance or alleged insolence on the part of any worker.



Q 3) Discuss major objectives of performance appraisal. 20

Ans) Objectives of Performance Appraisal

Performance evaluation serves three functions: monitoring, evaluation, and control. It is a necessary exercise in order to achieve the many goals of personnel administration. Performance evaluation is more than just a job evaluation. It is a management development activity that is defined as a process that facilitates the development of an organisational climate of mutuality, openness, and collaboration toward the achievement of individual and organisational goals. "Performance appraisal is the process of evaluating the performance and qualifications of employees in terms of the requirements of the job for which he is employed; for administrative purposes; including placement, selection for promotion, providing financial rewards, and other actions that require differential treatment among the members of a group as distinguished from actions affecting all members equally," Heigel writes. The primary goal of performance evaluation is to help each man do a better job in his current position. It is the primary channel by which human talent in organisations is most effectively utilised.


Performance appraisal's many goals must be clearly classified.

Work -related objectives:

a) Provision of control over work.

b) Improvement of work efficiency.

c) Work is assigned scientifically, according to specialisations and expressed proclivity of personnel, and further organisational expansion and diversification is planned in accordance with internal manpower planning; and

d) Job evaluation for compensation administration.


Career development objectives:

a) Identifying strong and weak points of personnel and aiding remedial measures for perceived weaknesses through need-based training.

b) Encouraging, motivating, controlling, organisational behaviour, identifying training and development needs, and rewarding, correcting or punishing employees.

c) Determining career potential of an employee with respect to his area of specialisation and aptitude and chart future course accordingly.

d) Planning performance development activities for total improved organisational performance.


Communication objectives:

a) Provide timely feedback on performance, and facilitate informal communication

b) Clearly establish goals in terms of what is expected of a staff member, possible job enrichment for the future, mutual setting of goals for better interaction through hierarchic tiers.

c) Provide counselling and job satisfaction, through open and free discussion regarding performance; and

d) Aiding self-assessment of employees in terms of where they stand in the organisation, by comparing expected and actual performance.


Administrative objectives:

a) Serve as a basis for promotions, rewards and penalties

b) Base incentive administration on. Performance is not a unidirectional but a two-way interactional process in which management balances inducements and employee contribution. According to Barnard, 'equilibrium' is reached when a worker's negative and positive balances are equal. A company must strategically 'doctor' this balance. To this end, organisations must reinforce positive employee behaviour through rewards, welfare measures, and employee benefit programmes to ensure sustained and willing cooperation toward organisational goals and restore internal equilibrium in case of divergence.

c) Serve as a basis for transfer and placement policy with regard to suitability of each employee as discovered through the performance appraisal; and

d) Serve as a basis for termination in case of imminent staff reduction due to cost considerations.





Q 6) What do you understand by Management Development? Discuss approaches to Management Development. 20

Ans) Management development is defined as a conscious and systematic process for controlling the development of managerial resources within an organisation in order to achieve goals and strategies. An attempt to improve managerial effectiveness through a deliberate and planned learning process.


Approaches To Management Development

After determining its policy guidelines, the organisation should consider how it should approach manager development. There are various approaches to management development. Mumford describes three approaches that are broadly representative of current management development. They are as follows:


Type 1: ‘Informal managerial’—Accidental Processes Characteristics:

  1. Occurs within manager’s activities

  2. Explicit intention is task performance

  3. No clear development objectives

  4. Unstructured in development terms

  5. Not planned in advance

  6. Owned by managers.


Type 2: ‘Integrated managerial’—Opportunistic Processes Characteristics:

  1. Occurs within managerial activities

  2. Explicit intention is both task performance and development

  3. Clear development objectives

  4. Structured for development by boss and subordinate

  5. Planned beforehand and/or reviewed subsequently as learning experiences

  6. Owned by managers.


Type 3: ‘Formalised development’—Planned Process Characteristics:

  1. Often away from normal managerial activities

  2. Explicit intention is development

  3. Clear development objectives

  4. Structured for development by developers

  5. Planned beforehand or reviewed subsequently as learning experiences

  6. Owned more by developers than managers.


Piecemeal Approach

Programmes that have characteristics similar to Type 1and Type 3 development tend to lead to

piecemeal approaches, which in turn lead to inefficient and ineffective development. There are a

number of reasons why organisations might choose or be forced to adopt these approaches.

Some of them are:

Characteristics of this approach

  1. No management development infrastructure. Development is not linked to business strategy.

  2. Development often focuses on the needs of the organisation and fails to meet the learning

  3. needs and aspirations of individuals and groups.

  4. There is tacit support for management education and training because it is seen as a ‘good

  5. thing to be doing’ irrespective of organisational needs

  6. There is lack of common vision among those responsible for management development.

  7. It is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of a piecemeal approach that lacks clear direction

  8. and established objectives.

Open System Approach

If organisations adopt an open systems perspective of management development, they may avoid many problems caused by a piecemeal approach.


Open systems thinking recognises and focuses on:

  1. It is composed of identifiable parts or components, which act together in an organised way. A range of inputs is transformed in the management development process to produce a range of outputs.

  2. The management development process interacts, influences and is influenced by variables from other environmental and organisational subsystems (social, technological, cultural). Benefits of open systems approach:

  3. The notion that if you develop the manager, you develop the organisation and vice versa, become apparent. An open systems view identifies the way management development contributes to overall organisational effectiveness.

  4. Viewing management development in open system terms reveals the full extent of its influence

  5. on the organisation and is likely to lead to more detailed and objective assessment of

    performance and overall effectiveness.


Unified Approach

Management development is central to an organization's philosophy, mission, business goals, and human resource strategy in a unified programme. The process is consistent and integrated across all functions and hierarchies. Manager performance is measured, and development activities are clearly linked to organisational values and strategic goals.


Q 8) Define TQM and distinguish it from traditional management. 20

Ans) Total Quality Management is defined as a continuous effort by a company's management and employees to ensure long-term customer loyalty and satisfaction. Remember that one happy and satisfied customer brings ten new customers with him, whereas one disappointed individual will spread negative word of mouth and spoil several of your existing and potential customers.


Total quality management is a structured effort by employees to continuously improve the quality of their products and services through proper feedback and research. A single member is not responsible for ensuring superior quality of a product or service. Total quality management ensures that every employee works to improve the work culture, processes, services, systems, and so on in order to ensure long-term success.


Differences Between TQM And Traditional Management

The following are some of the most fundamental and fundamental differences:

1. TQM stresses focus essentially on customers. Customers are viewed as dominant resource.

2. TQM takes the view that profits follow quality, not the other way round

3. According to TQM, quality is made up of multidimensional attributes. There are eight customer-oriented quality dimensions, according to Garvin: performance, features, dependability, aesthetics, conformance, durability, service ability, and perceived quality. These customer-oriented dimensions are overlooked by traditional management.

4. Traditional management views economy-of-scale as a desirable goal characterised by long production runs that incur low costs while achieving high efficiency. TQM pursues economies of time and scope: just-in-time production, shorter lead-times, low inventories, quick customer response, and the smallest possible sizes are the goals, in order to serve customers better and faster.

5. In traditional management, high volumes, long runs, and maximum products are perceived as


6. TQM fosters goal-oriented connections between customers, managers, and employees.

Everyone is eager to pitch in. TQM enables all employees, regardless of level, to find better ways to work. Employees are given a significant role under TQM, which is based on participative management concepts. Workers must work in traditional management, whereas managers must manage. Quality is the responsibility of the quality control manager.

7. Traditional management is distinguished by clear divisions of labour and a distinction between manual and mental labour. TQM places a premium on a multi-skilled workforce that can easily transition from one job to another.

8. TQM is a process-oriented approach that ensures a long-term focus on process improvement in order to achieve long-term goals. The TQM approach, which is process-oriented, is a long-term, incremental approach to improving process quality. People are at the heart of all improvement efforts because TQM empowers people to improve the way they work.

9. Traditional management proposes organisations that are hierarchical and vertically structured. TQM, on the other hand, aims to foster a culture of networking across and among functions, so that teams from various disciplines collaborate to find a permanent solution to each problem as it arises.

10. Traditional management favours many layers of authority with varying degrees of control.

TQM advocates for a flatter organisational structure with broad spans of control, where authority is pushed as low as possible, and flexibility is actively encouraged.


Q 9) Discuss the objectives and process of collective bargaining. 20

Ans) Collective bargaining is defined as a process or method of determining employment terms and conditions through negotiations between management and union representatives. The signed agreement, also known as a trade agreement or contract, establishes the terms and conditions of employment for a specified period of time. Collective bargaining can be seen as an alternative to either individual bargaining or government regulation.


Objectives of Collective Bargaining

The following are the main objectives of collective bargaining:

  1. To increase mutual confidence.

  2. To regulate terms and conditions of employment without intervention of a third party.

  3. To create cordial environment in the establishment.

  4. To protect the interest of the employees, and.

  5. To raise the socio-economic attributes of the employees.


Collective Bargaining Process

The following main steps are involved in the Collective Bargaining Process as explained below:

Negotiating Team

Because the interests of both sides are involved, two teams, one from management and one from workers, should be present when bargaining the issues. On the worker side, the team consists of union office bearers, while on the management side, the team may include personnel, production, and finance managers, among others. One of the team members is the organization's CEO. It is not necessary for both sides to have an equal number of representatives.


Preparation of Demands

The following step is to prepare demands. The charter of demands presented to management by unions is generally prepared by members of the negotiating team in consultation with other employees of the organisation. The involvement of an outside expert is permitted if necessary.


Negotiating Procedure

The stage of the negotiation process follows preparation. The team may use one of two processes: (a) piecemeal negotiation, in which issues are taken up one by one, or (b) total approach, in which all issues are negotiated while considering total effect. Management should clearly define the process and authority during negotiations.


Bargaining Strategy

There is no clear strategy for resolving the issues. It is determined by the situation, time, strength, and other market factors. However, the main point is to focus on the entire package and its long-term outcomes rather than on immediate gains or losses.


Preparation of Agreement

The preparation of an agreement is the result of the collective bargaining process. Bargaining issues are resolved and then documented. In the letter of such agreements, legal terminology should be avoided as much as possible. The agreement should be signed by both parties and distributed to all parties involved. In our country, it is referred to as a "settlement" under Section 2(p) of the Industrial Disputes Act.


Administration of Agreement

The administration of the agreement is left to both management and workers because, according to Section 29 of the Industrial Disputes Act, any person who violates any term of the settlement is punishable by imprisonment for a term up to six months, a fine, or both. An important and relevant point that deserves to be addressed in collective bargaining is that it is a temporary accommodation because unions may always demand that such agreements be renewed before they expire, and management may reject this demand, which may lead to further negotiations. As a result, we can say that collective bargaining is an ongoing process.

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