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MPC-002: Life Span Psychology

MPC-002: Life Span Psychology

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MPC-002 / ASST / TMA / 2022-23

Course Code: MPC-002

Assignment Name: Life Span Psychology

Year: 2022 -2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


NOTE: All questions are compulsory.



Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks


Q 1. Discuss cognitive development during middle childhood.

Ans) Formal education is a new experience for children when they reach the age where they start middle childhood. According to Piaget, this is the stage of the child's cognitive development in which they are entering a new stage in which they are improving their logical skills. Memory skills, both short-term and long-term, continue to develop throughout the middle years of childhood in children.


According to Piaget, as children gain more knowledge and expand their vocabularies, they develop schema, which gives them the ability to organise things in a variety of different ways. A new arrangement of the information, the categorization of the information, or the creation of new classes of information are all examples of classification. A large number of psychological theorists, including Piaget, are of the opinion that classification entails the use of a hierarchical structure. According to this view, information is organised in a manner that progresses from very general categories to very specific items.


Children understand the concept of reversibility, or that some things that have been changed can be returned to their original state, during middle childhood. Water can be frozen and then thawed to return to its liquid state. However, eggs cannot be unscrambled. Arithmetic operations can also be reversed: 2 + 3 = 5 and 5 - 3 = 2. Many of these cognitive skills are taught in schools through mathematical problems and worksheets about whether situations are reversible or irreversible.


These new cognitive abilities help the child understand the physical world. Later comes operational or logical thought about the abstract world. Information processing theory is a classic memory theory that compares how the mind works to how computers store, process, and retrieve information.

According to the theory, there are three levels of memory:


Sensory memory: First, information enters our sensory memory (sometimes called sensory register). Stop reading and take a quick look around the room. (This is true. Do it!) Okay. What do you recall? Probably not much, despite the fact that EVERYTHING you saw and heard was recorded in your sensory memory. And even if you heard yourself sigh, saw your dog walk across the room, and smelled the soup on the stove, you may not have registered those sensations. Sensations are constantly entering our brains, but the majority of them are never perceived or stored in our minds. They are lost after a few seconds because they were filtered out as irrelevant right away. If information is not perceived or stored, it is quickly discarded.


Working memory (short-term memory): If information is meaningful to us (either because it reminds us of something else or because we need to remember it for something like a history test in 5 minutes), it moves from sensory memory to working memory. The mechanism by which this occurs is not entirely clear. Working memory is made up of information that we are consciously and immediately aware of. Everything on your mind right now is part of your working memory. At any given time, the working memory can only hold a certain amount of information.


Although rehearsal can aid in the retention of information in working memory, the process by which information moves from working memory to long term memory appears to require more than simple rehearsal. Information in our working memory must be effectively stored in order for us to access it later. It is saved in our long-term memory, also known as our knowledge base.


Long-term memory (knowledge base): This type of memory has an infinite capacity and can store data for days, months, or years. It is made up of things that we are aware of or can recall if prompted. This is where you want the data to be stored in the end. The most important aspect of storage is that it must be done in a meaningful or effective manner. In other words, if you simply try to remember something by repeating it several times, you may only remember the sound of the word rather than the meaning of the concept.


So, you'll be lost if you're asked to explain the meaning of a word or apply a concept in some way. Organizing information in a meaningful way for later retrieval is part of studying. Passively reading a text is usually insufficient and should only be considered as the first step in learning material. Writing keywords, thinking of examples to demonstrate their meaning, and considering how concepts are related are all useful techniques for organising information for effective storage and retrieval.


Because of advancements in the ways in which children pay attention to and store information, children are able to learn and remember more during the middle childhood years. When kids go to school and learn more about the world, they naturally begin to develop more categories for different types of ideas and learn more effective strategies for storing and retrieving information.


One of the most important reasons is that they continue to amass more experiences from which they can draw when gaining knowledge of new topics. The child will find that new experiences are comparable to previous ones or will remind them of something else with which they are already familiar. They will have an easier time remembering new experiences as a result of this.


In the middle years of childhood, children have a better understanding not only of how well they are performing on a task but also of the level of difficulty involved in the task. As they gain a more accurate perception of their capabilities, they will be able to modify their study methods to better suit their requirements. Children who are of school age begin to learn how to prioritise their activities and distinguish between what is essential and what is not at the same time, in contrast to pre-schoolers, who may spend as much time on a less significant aspect of a problem as they do on the main point. They improve their metacognition, which can be defined as the ability to understand how to solve a problem in the most effective way. They learn new techniques and formulate new plans.


Q 2. Define life span development. Discuss the characteristics of life span development.

Ans) The term "life span" refers to the ongoing process of growing up. It is the period of time that begins with conception and ends with death. Life span development research is critical because it aids in describing and explaining the mysteries of human development. The extent to which development occurs through the gradual accumulation of knowledge versus stage-like development, or the extent to which children are born with innate mental structures versus learning through experience, are examples of life span development issues.


Many researchers are fascinated by the interaction of personal characteristics, individual behaviour, and environmental factors such as social context, as well as their impact on development. The pattern of change that begins at conception and continues throughout the life cycle is referred to as life span development. Lifespan development can also be defined as a systematic, intra-individual change associated with age-related progressions. The development proceeds in a way that involves the level of functioning. Lifespan development is a process that begins with the emergence of a foetus from a single celled organism. The environment in which the unborn child exists begins to influence the child's development as the child enters the world.


The important characteristics beliefs of the life span approach are given below:


Lifelong development: This belief can be broken down into two distinct parts. To begin, there is a window of opportunity for growth that spans an individual's entire lifespan. In other words, there is no presumption that a person's trajectory through life must inevitably stall out or go into a downward spiral during adulthood and old age. Second, there is the possibility that development will involve processes that will not be present at birth but will become manifest later on in life. There is no one age bracket that predominates over others during development.


More and more, researchers are focusing their attention on the experiences and psychological orientations of adults at varying stages of their development. Throughout the course of a life cycle, there are both gains and losses that occur in terms of development.


Development is Multidimensional: The idea of development not being able to be reduced to a single criterion, such as an increase or decrease in a certain behaviour, is what is meant by the term "multidimensionality." It manifests itself in the biological, cognitive, and social-emotional domains, respectively.


Development is Multidirectional: The multidirectional principle asserts that there is no single, normal path that development must or should take and that there are multiple possible routes. To phrase it another way, wholesome developmental outcomes can be accomplished in a great many different ways. The process of development frequently involves the accumulation of multiple abilities that can progress in a variety of directions, displaying varying degrees of change or consistency. It's possible that while some aspects or dimensions of development are expanding, others are contracting or remaining relatively stable.


Development is Plasticity: Plasticity is a term that describes the variability that can exist within a single individual with regard to a specific behaviour or development. For instance, infants who have a hemisphere of the brain removed shortly after birth (as a treatment for epilepsy) are able to recover the functions associated with that hemisphere as the brain reorganises itself and the remaining hemisphere takes over those functions.


This occurs because the brain is able to take over the functions of the removed hemisphere. Understanding the nature of plasticity as well as the boundaries of its application across a variety of domains of functioning is a vital component of the research agendas in the field of developmental psychology. The circumstances of one's life have the potential to moderate their development to some degree. The concept of plasticity refers to the extent to which certain characteristics shift or remain unchanged.


Development is Contextual: The various environments in which we spend our lives each have a unique impact on our development. To give just one example, the social and rural environments are each associated with their own unique sets of factors that have the potential to have an effect on development. In order to understand how the process of development differs for individuals who are exposed to these two very different settings, it is necessary to have an awareness of the differences in these contexts. It takes place in the context of a person's biological make-up, their physical environment, as well as the social, historical, and cultural contexts in which they exist.


Development is Multidisciplinary: The field of developmental psychology draws from a number of different fields of study. To put it another way, the causes of changes associated with ageing do not fall under the purview of just one academic field.


Methods from the field of psychology, for instance, might not be the best choice for gaining an understanding of the sociological aspects of a situation. Rather, an understanding of human development can only be attained through research that is carried out from the point of view of multiple disciplines, including sociology, linguistics, anthropology, computer science, neuroscience, and medicine.


Development involves Growth, Maintenance, and Regulation: The three goals of human development that are growth, maintenance, and regulation come into conflict and competition with one another in the process of mastering life.


Development is embedded in History: In addition to being historically situated, development is also profoundly impacted by the circumstances of the past at every stage. The historical era in which we find ourselves as children and adolescents has an effect on who we become as adults.

Normative Age Graded Influences: The process of development is also impacted by biological and environmental factors that are shared by people of the same age (for instance, childhood and puberty).


Normative History Graded Influences: Influences can also come from biological and environmental factors that are associated with historical events that are experienced by people of the same generation (for example, the Great Depression or the AIDS epidemic).


Non-normative Events: Unusual occurrences that have a considerable influence on a person's life; the frequency of these events, the pattern they follow, and the order in which they take place are not typical for most people.


Q 3. Discuss psychosocial challenges in older adults.

Ans) We gradually diverge from the appearance of our contemporaries as we age. This is due to the fact that we are a product of the sum total of our life experiences. At the age of six, not a lot has changed in our bodies to distinguish us noticeably from our contemporaries in terms of appearance.


However, by the time we reach middle age and old age, we've had decades to develop and maintain habits that have an effect on our health, whether for the better or for the worse. As a person ages, their body goes through a number of different transitions and changes. Loss of elasticity is a general phenomenon that occurs in muscles, blood vessels, and other tissues. As people age, their hearts become less effective, their bones become less robust, and their metabolisms slow down.


Despite changes to the rest of the body, many people are preoccupied with changes to their appearance as they age. These are some examples:



Collagen and elastin fibres in the skin degrade and lose strength as people age. Sun exposure throughout life plays a role in this process. The skin cannot maintain its shape without these fibres. Because older skin retains less fat, it appears less supple. Gravity causes the skin to sag as well.


Dry skin

The skin of older people tends to be drier because they produce less oil and sweat as they age. The appearance of wrinkles may be accentuated when the skin is excessively dry.


Age spots

Sun damage can cause dark spots on the skin, particularly on the arms, hands, face, and feet. These spots usually appear as a result of cumulative sun exposure. Most people call these marks liver spots, but they are unrelated to liver function. In reality, they are the result of an abundance of the pigment melanin being produced in regions of the skin that have been subjected to the greatest amount of UV radiation.


Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

The majority of adults aged 60 and up are overweight or obese. Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast and colon cancer, gallbladder disease, and hypertension. Women in perimenopause and menopause tend to gain weight around the waist and hips, while men gain weight around the stomach. Food intake should be controlled by limiting calorie intake and alcohol consumption, as many alcohol calories are absorbed directly in the gut. Increase your intake of healthy fats like omega-3 fatty acids and unsaturated fats and eliminate trans fats entirely. High-fructose corn syrup-sweetened foods should be avoided.



One in two people over the age of 65 have arthritis, making it the most common cause of disability in this age group. The most important aspects of injury prevention are avoiding overuse, engaging in consistent, regular exercise rather than short bursts of activity on the weekends, and calling it quits if you experience any kind of pain. Maintaining a healthy weight is just as important for one's cardiovascular health as it is for maintaining healthy joints.


Osteoporosis and Falls

Osteoporosis and low bone mass affect the majority of adults aged 50 and older, with the majority of affected individuals being female. Osteoporosis is not a natural part of ageing, according to the National Osteoporosis Association (National Osteoporosis Association). It is possible to prevent or significantly lessen the severity of the condition by engaging in healthy behaviours and receiving treatment when necessary. Exercises that require you to bear weight are also beneficial to bone health.



The likelihood of developing the vast majority of cancer types increases with advancing years. The risk of developing endometrial cancer rises with age while the risk of developing cervical cancer falls. The likelihood of developing prostate cancer grows with age, and African American men have a higher incidence of the disease than white men do. Screening should begin when a person is in their 40s, and at a minimum, it should consist of a digital rectal examination.

Cancer of the lung is the leading cause of death worldwide, killing more people than breast cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer combined.


Vision and Hearing Loss

People over the age of 40 are more likely to develop age-related eye diseases such as macular degeneration, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Eating foods high in antioxidants may help reduce vision loss caused by macular degeneration. Regular eye exams should include glaucoma screening, which is known as "the sneak thief of sight" because the first symptom is vision loss. Although the disease can be halted, glaucoma-related vision loss cannot be restored.

Hearing loss becomes more common as people get older. Hearing loss has a negative impact on one's quality of life, leading to depression and withdrawal from social activities. Although hearing aids can be beneficial, only one in every four people uses them. High-frequency hearing loss is common in old age and is exacerbated by a loud-sound-exposure lifestyle.


Mental Health: Memory and Emotional Well-being

Maintaining a healthy mental state in addition to a physically active lifestyle is of equal significance. Alzheimer's disease is one of the most puzzling problems that people face in life. Depression is frequently misdiagnosed, and as a result, patients do not receive treatment. There is a widespread but mistaken perception that depression is an inevitable consequence of advancing age. The decision to retire is one of the most momentous steps in one's life. A considerable number of individuals equate their sense of value with the work that they do. Depression and suicide rates rise in retirement.


As we get older, we start to resemble our contemporaries less and less physically. This is due to the fact that our life experiences make up the sum total of who we are. At the age of six, there hasn't been much of a change in our bodies that sets us apart from our contemporaries. On the other hand, by the time we reach middle age and old age, we've had decades to develop and maintain habits that can either positively or negatively affect our health.





Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25 marks


Q 4. Define intellectual disability. Explain its identification process in children and effective teaching strategies.

Ans) Intellectual disability is typically diagnosed in childhood and has a long-term impact on an individual's development. A significant reduction in the ability to understand new or complex information, learn new skills, and cope independently, including social functioning, is defined as intellectual disability. Because of these constraints, a child may develop and learn more slowly or differently than a typically developing child. Intellectual disability can occur at any age before the age of 18, even before birth. A learning disability is defined as "a syndrome found in children of normal or above intelligence that is characterised by specific difficulties in learning to read (dyslexia), write (dysgraphia), and do grade appropriate mathematics (dyscalculia)."


Identification Process of LD

Early detection or screening is dependent on early observation of behavioural and learning characteristics by class teacher who should possess the knowledge of the symptoms and characteristics of specific learning problems. A multidisciplinary team including class teacher, school psychologist and other clinical personnel must determine the degree of disability.


The following tests are used for the assessment and identification of Learning Disability:

  1. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) is used to assess cognitive abilities in children.

  2. Woodcock-Johnson The Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised (WJ-III) is used to assess reading, writing, and mathematics achievement by age and grade level.

  3. Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Basic Skills is used to assess a wide range of skill sequences in readiness, reading, language arts, and math.


Following methods are used as special techniques to teach the children with special needs:

Direct Instruction: This is a highly structured and organised teaching strategy that begins with the analysis of learning problems and the assignment of specific learning tasks. It is carried out in stages, with clear goals to be met at each stage. Feedback and corrections are used and have been shown to improve children's participation and performance. Cognitive instruction is used in conjunction with DI. Attendance, response, rehearsal, recall, and information transfer are all emphasised in CI. Multisensory instructional strategies emphasise learning through sight, hearing, touch, and movement.


Students can benefit from study skill training or meta-cognitive skills to learn how to take notes and tests, prepare compositions, and remember to bring necessary materials. Social skill training is used to help children interact with peers and adults in a variety of settings and situations.

Inclusion strategies are state and national policies that require students with learning disabilities to be educated alongside nondisabled students their age.


While teaching children with LD in a general classroom, additional instructional resources can be used. Teachers should make an effort to use methods that will improve LD children's understanding and participation with other children. Other methods include peer-mediated instruction and computer-assisted instruction. All of these methods must be implemented properly if the classroom teacher and school psychologist are sensitive to the problems and needs of such children and provide appropriate educational settings for LD children.

Q 5. Elucidate Marcia’s identity status.

Ans) Marcia devised a framework for thinking about identity that can be summarised in terms of four different identity statuses. It is essential to emphasise that these are NOT different stages in the process. It is important to avoid thinking of different identity statuses as individual steps in a sequential or linear process.


Foreclosure: These individuals have not yet gone through an identity crisis, despite the fact that they have made plans for their professional future. They have shaped their future to meet the expectations of those who are looking to them for guidance. For instance, a person might have given their parent the authority to choose what kind of work they will do later in life. These people have not investigated a wide variety of possibilities, including identity, self-concept, self-esteem, and relationships with their peers.


Diffusion: The young person has not committed to anything and may or may not be going through an identity crisis at this point in their life. According to Marcia's definition of the term "clear sense of identity," this person seems to have given up any attempt to make the commitments that are necessary for developing this sense.


Moratorium: People who are participating in the moratorium are actively investigating various alternative commitments, but they have not yet made a choice. Even though they are going through an identity crisis, it seems as though they are making progress toward forming their identity by committing to something.


Achievement: The person in question has been through an identity crisis and has made the necessary commitments, as outlined earlier, in order to construct a sense of identity for themselves.


The core idea is that one’s sense of identity is determined largely by the choices and commitments made regarding certain personal and social traits. The work that is done within this paradigm takes into consideration the extent to which an individual has made particular choices and the degree to which the individual displays a commitment to those choices.


The development of one's identity necessitates the selection of one's:

1) sexual orientation,

2) a collection of values and ideals, and

3) a career path.


A strong sense of self-identity provides one with an understanding of both their own strengths and weaknesses, as well as their own individuality. A person who has not developed their identity to their full potential is unable to identify their own personal strengths and weaknesses, and they do not have a well-articulated sense of who they are.


Q 6. Describe the ageing process in men and women.

Ans) Ageing is an unavoidable natural process for which there is no treatment. Women face significantly different challenges than men in the ageing process.


Ageing Process in Women

Women's worlds revolve around their appearance. As if their appearance were all that matters. The first signs of ageing shatter their world. As the more sensitive gender, emotional and psychological changes with age are difficult. Physical, psychological, and social changes occur as women age.


Physical Challenges

Menopause is synonymous with women's ageing. Pre-menopause and post-menopause divide a woman's life. Hormonal changes cause many age-related issues. Bones and muscles weaken. Weakened bones often lead to osteoporosis and arthritis, which the woman must live with. Sunken, sallow skin develops wrinkles. Without enough antibodies, the immune system leaves the body vulnerable to illness.


Psychological Challenges

These are related to physical health. Menopause is hot. Menopause hormones change a woman's behaviour. Infertile women are depressed. They fear their spouse will leave them because they're less attractive. She may become moody and irritable due to life's many changes. She associates ageing with the 'end' Some optimistic women may see this as a chance to live their dreams.


Social Challenges

Women's social lives as they age depend on their attitude and health. Illness or other factors may cause some women to isolate themselves. The outgoing group may participate in community activities or hobbies. Most women in this age group are financially secure and have independent children. This is their chance to live their own lives.


Ageing Process in Men

Aging men often lose physical and mental function and vitality. Age-related stigma prevents men from addressing important health issues. Men's mental and physical abilities decline with age. Men age physiologically. Men in their 40s and 50s bulge due to unburned fat and lack of exercise. Men age unevenly.


Whole health

When the ageing process begins, a high-fibre, low-saturated-fat, nutrient-rich diet is best. Eating antioxidant-rich vegetables and fruits reduces cancer risk. Moderate exercise improves cardiovascular health and reduces obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis risk. Diet, exercise, and stress management make up a health plan.


Mental health

Alzheimer's disease and dementia are common in older men, so mental health is a concern. Aging concerns include mental health and function. Herbal extracts like ginkgo biloba and nutrients like phosphatidyl serine and DHA can promote mental health and function. Standardized ginkgo extracts improve brain and extremity circulation, protect nerve cells by reducing platelet aggregation, and act as an antioxidant in the brain and retina.


Heart health

Men's heart health is their top concern as they age. Men still die most often from cardiovascular disease. Diet and lifestyle are key to preventing and treating cardiovascular disease. Natural medicines can reduce heart disease risk and complications. High-fibre foods, reduced intake of fatty meats, daily exercise, and stress reduction have shown positive results in even the worst heart disease.


Prostate health

Men over 40 should consider prostate health. 60% of men over 40 have an enlarged prostate. BPH risk increases with age. Proactive care can reduce the risk for more serious complications, even if the initial symptoms are mild.


Skeletal health

As men age, osteoporosis is also a major concern. One-sixth of men will fracture a hip in their lifetime, compared to one-third of women. Natural ageing. Aging doesn't mean losing function or vitality. Healthy eating habits, nutrients, and herbs can make a man's 40s his best.


Q 7. Explain Levinson’s seasons of life theory.

Ans) Levinson was looking for a common path of change in adulthood. He believed that there were stages, each with its own set of tasks. He believed that each stage began with a transition period of about 5 years. Between transitions, there are stable periods of 5 to 7 years during which a person builds a life structure.


The underlying design of a person's life, which includes relationships with significant others and occupations, is referred to as life structure. This structure is intended to balance inner and outer demands in order to improve quality of life. Early adulthood is a time of high energy, conflict, and stress. It is also a time of intense fulfilment as a person charts his or her own course in love, sexuality, family, occupation, setting life goals, and so on.


Mentors and dreams: According to Levinson's theory, most people construct a dream, an image of themselves in the adult world that will guide their decision making, during the early adult transition (age 17 - 22). The more specific the dream, the more compelling it becomes. Men's dreams are said to be more individualistic and often involve business and career success. If they include women, however, their dreams are invariably linked to their being supporters of their goals.

The age-30 transition allows people to rethink their life structure. If the individual is still single, she or he will start looking for a partner. Women who have been immersed in marriage and childbirth may begin to assert more individualistic goals. If neither relationships nor employment are successful, this period can be a real crisis.


Women face continued insecurity because childbearing and family responsibilities frequently divert them from a professional focus. Most women do not achieve the stability that men do in their early 30s until they reach middle age.


Finding a partner, forming emotional bonds, and learning how to engage in true intimacy with another person are all necessary components of close relationships. Romantic love entails finding someone with whom to share one's life and dreams. It improves self-esteem and well-being. Finding a mate usually entails looking for someone with a similar background, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and religion in places where people of similar backgrounds congregate. A meaningful relationship necessitates some physical proximity.


According to the Sternberg triangular theory of love, love has three components: intimacy, passion, and commitment. Intimacy is associated with feelings of tenderness, warmth, concern for others, and a desire for the partner to reciprocate. The sexual component is passion, while the physical arousal component is romance. Passionate love is the stuff of courtship and sexual attraction at the start of a relationship. It decreases as the partner becomes more familiar and less idealised. This level of attraction is uncommon in long-term relationships.


Commitment determines whether or not a relationship will last. Commitment communication necessitates warmth, forgiveness, sensitivity, acceptance, and respect.


Q 8. Describe cognitive changes during middle adulthood.

Ans) The brain at midlife has been shown to not only retain but also gain many of the abilities of young adults. The following are some noticeable changes.


Cognitive Changes

Middle adulthood is the time when an individual's cognitive functioning changes in terms of intelligence: crystallised and fluid; information processing and memory; expertise; career, work, and leisure; religion, health, and coping; and life meaning.




Fluid Intelligence

Fluid intelligence is made up of basic mental abilities such as inductive reasoning, abstract thinking, and speed of thought that are required for understanding any subject. It is quick and abstract reasoning, which declines with age in adults. It includes nonverbal abilities and nonverbal puzzle solving, novel logic problems; allows best works by mathematicians, scientists, and poets in their 20s and 30s.


Crystallized Intelligence

Crystallized intelligence includes knowledge, experience, vocabulary, and verbal memory. Fluid intelligence declines with age, but crystallised intelligence grows with age. Intelligence crystallises after middle age. Education and culture affect a person's ability to remember and use lifelong knowledge. A person can use stored information and process it automatically.


Analytic / Academic

It promotes learning, remembering, and thinking. Single-correct-answer tests reward analytical intelligence. They have extensive, organised domain knowledge and work satisfaction. Greater job dedication. They're physically and mentally healthy. Middle-aged workers face more challenges, leading to career changes. Self-motivated or imposed, midlife career changes are common.



Creativity is another intelligence-related adult skill. It requires flexibility and innovation in new situations. Middle-aged adults gain expertise. They solve problems using life experience. They like making their own plans. They prefer their own judgement to others' and don't back down when criticised. They're resourceful in unusual situations. They use words creatively. They approach problems more flexibly, are eager to try new avenues, and aren't bound by rules or accepted ideas. They're creative and don't use stock answers.



It enables the person to adapt his/her abilities to contextual demands. They tend to have a pleasant time after work. They have more time and money to pursue activities and interests. There is decreased rate of heart disease and death due to vacations and leisure. During this time, they are preparing themselves for retirement.


Information Processing and Memory

The speed of information processing, reaction time, and memory all slowdown in middle adulthood. Effective memory strategies can help to slow the decline.


Religion, Health, Coping and Meaning in Life

Religion and spirituality are important aspects of life at this stage. During middle age, there is a significant increase in religiosity and spirituality. Individual differences in religious interest exist, with females showing greater interest in religion than males. There is a link between religious participation and longevity. Religion promotes physical and psychological health, as well as positive religious coping functions.




Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 marks


Q 9. Exceptional children

Ans) Exceptional children are those who differ from the average or normal child in (1) mental characteristics, (2) sensory abilities, (3) neuromuscular or physical characteristics, (4) social or emotional behaviour, (5) communication abilities, or (6) multiple handicaps to the extent that he requires a change in school practises or special education services in order to develop to his full potential.


Q 10. Cross-sectional method

Ans) This method investigates developmental changes by testing people of various ages at the same time only once. This method aids in determining the norms or standards of typical developmental patterns for various ages. This method is both faster and less expensive than the longitudinal method. It does not lose subjects who drop out of the study because they are only tested once.


Q 11. Grammar and pragmatics

Ans) Grammar involves two parts. The first part is syntax, it refers to the rules in which words are arranged into sentences. The second is morphology, it refers to the use of grammatical markers indicating tense, active or passive voice etc.

Pragmatics involves the rules for appropriate and effective communication. The three skills involved in this include 1. using language for greeting, demanding etc. 2. changing language for talking differently depending on who it is you are talking to 3. following rules such as turn taking, staying on topic, etc.


Q 12. Signs of negative self-concept in adolescents

Ans) There are several signs that an adolescent has a negative self-concept. One or more of the following may be included:

  1. Doing poorly in school.

  2. Having few friends.

  3. Putting down oneself and others.

  4. Rejecting compliments.

  5. Teasing others.

  6. Showing excessive amounts of anger.

  7. Being excessively jealous.

  8. Appearing conceited; or

  9. Hesitating to try new things.

Q 13. Growth spurt

Ans) The rapid and intense increase in the rate of growth in height and weight that occurs during the adolescent stage of the human life cycle is known as the human adolescent growth spurt. The human adolescent growth spurt is observed in nearly all of the body's long bones and most other skeletal elements. The female pelvis, on the other hand, grows in a smooth and continuous manner until adulthood.


Q 14. New egocentrism

Ans) New egocentrism is when someone is preoccupied with themselves. Egocentrics believe their own opinions and interests are important. Thoughts about oneself and personal experiences influence judgments more than thoughts about others and other information. It leads to an inability to fully understand or deal with other people's viewpoints and the possibility that reality may differ from what one is willing to accept, regardless of one's own beliefs.

Q 15. Sociometric rejections

Ans) Sociometric rejects might be rejected due to social awkwardness, being overly aggressive, or being withdrawn. When someone is purposefully excluded from a social relationship or social interaction as a form of social punishment, social rejection occurs. A person may be rejected by an entire group of people or by an individual. In addition, rejection can be active, such as when someone is bullied, teased, or mocked, or passive, such as when someone is ignored or treated silently.


Q 16. Social hazards during early childhood

Ans) Social risks are prevalent in early childhood. A child who struggles with communication may not be well liked by his peers. In addition to loneliness, such kids might lack the chance to practise engaging in peer-approved behaviour. Children may acquire negative social behaviours. Young children who have experienced prejudice and discrimination due to their gender, caste, or religion display biased behaviour. They consequently restrict their interactions with other people, both inside and outside the home.


Q 17. Continuity vs discontinuity

Ans) This relates to whether development is continuous or marked by ages. Development is the gradual accumulation of skills, knowledge, or behaviour. Second-viewers believe developmental change is discontinuous. Development is defined as a series of discrete stages, each defined by past events and how well the child mastered developmental tasks, etc. According to these theorists, behaviours or skills change qualitatively over time, and new organisations of behaviours, skills, or knowledge emerge abruptly.


Q 18. High-risk behaviours during adolescence

Ans) An exceptional time of transition between childhood and adulthood is late adolescence. They also start to exhibit high-risk behaviours at this age. They try drugs, alcohol, smoking, risky sports, and many other things. The norms and systems that are currently in place are challenged by many of these behaviours. They often take chances and challenge the status quo. They do this in an effort to prove to themselves, their peers, and their parents that they are adults.

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