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MPC-003: Personality: Theories and Assessment

MPC-003: Personality: Theories and Assessment

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MPC-003 / ASST / TMA / 2022-23

Course Code: MPC-003

Assignment Name: Personality: Theories and Assessment

Year: 2022 - 2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


NOTE: All questions are compulsory.




Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 Marks


Q 1. Describe self-report inventories.

Ans) Self-report inventories, also known as personality inventories, are self-rating questionnaires, where the individual describes own feelings, environment, and reactions of others towards self. In other words, on the self-report inventories a person report about one’s own self in the light of the questions (or items) given therein. Hence, the method is known as a self-report inventory.


Self-report inventories are classified into five types, as given below:


1) Inventories that attempt to measure social and certain other specifies traits such as self-confidence, dominance, extroversion, etc.: These are tests or inventories which attempt to measure social and other specific traits including self-confidence, dominance, extraversion etc. Examples of such an inventory are that of Bernreuter Personality Inventory, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Differential Personality Scale etc.


2) Inventories that attempt to evaluate the adjustment of the person to different aspects of the environment such as school, home, health: These are inventories that try to evaluate the level of adjustment of a person to different aspects of one’s life. For instance, some of the adjustments that are studied here include adjustment to self, health, home, and school. Example for such an inventory is Bells Adjustment Inventory.


3) Inventories that attempt to evaluate pathological traits: These are Inventories that attempt to evaluate the pathological traits in an individual. Some of these try to evaluate a large number of traits of pathological nature, while some confine to a few pathological traits. For instance, the MMPI (The Minnessota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) tries to get at a very large number of pathological traits in addition to some normal traits. The 16 PF inventory attempts to evaluate 16 personality traits including 4 pathological traits. These pathological traits may include hysteria, paranoia, hypomania, depression, schizophrenia, etc.


4) Inventories that attempt to screen individuals into two or three groups: These are inventories which attempt to screen individuals into two or three groups. The Cornell Index is the best example of such as inventory. The Cornell Index screens the persons into two groups - those having psychosomatic difficulties like asthma, peptic ulcer, migraine, etc., and those not having them that is, those who are normal.


5) Inventories that attempt to measure attitudes, interests, and values of persons: These are Inventories that attempt to measure attitudes, interests, and values of persons. E.g., In regard to attitude we can give the example of Bogardus Social distance scale; in regard to interest inventory, we can give the example of Strong Vocational Interest Blank, and in regard to values, we can give the example of Allport-Vernon Study of Vaues Scale.


This classification is based upon the purpose and the nature of item content. All the above self-report inventories are based upon same principle, which states that behaviour is nothing, but the manifestation of trait and one can find out the presence or absence of a trait by means of assessing the behaviour. Self-report inventories are more widely used than any form of personality assessment. These are paper-and-pencil test that ask people to respond to questions concerning their traits, values, attitudes, motives, feelings, interests, abilities.


The term “self-report” refers to any information the person reveals directly about himself / herself by responding to specific questions or items with a limited number of prescribed choices (e.g.,” Yes.” “No,” “Always,” “Don’t know”).


General feature of self-report test is standardisation of response alternatives. That is, people taking the tests have to select either true or false, agree or disagree, an alternative that varies from 1(very characteristic of me) to 6, and so on. In this manner, objectivity is achieved by restricting the degree of freedom people have in responding to test items. Similarly, standardisation of scoring procedures minimises the risk of personal bias of the persons scoring the tests. Self- report inventories differ in regard to the number of personality dimensions they measure at one time.


Strength and Weakness of Self-report Tests

Assessment of individual differences is a significant aspect of personology. Much emphasis has been placed on self-reports as the basis for measuring the individual differences. The major advantage is that self-report tests provide more thorough, precise, and systematic information about an individual’s personality than does casual information.


The strengths of the self-report inventories are given below:

  1. The objectivity of scoring minimizes personal or theoretical bias

  2. Also, self-report measures can be administered easily by someone with relatively little formal training.

  3. Self-report tests have greater reliability than do other assessment techniques.

  4. Finally, multi-dimensional inventories allow for measurement of several different personality traits at once.


Self-report tests have some weaknesses. The major limitations of self-report tests are given below:

  1. They are susceptible to deliberate deception,

  2. There is considerable influence of social desirability,

  3. There is the influence of the response set.

  4. Deliberate deception is most likely to occur when the person believes there is something to be gained from fraudulent responding.


Q 2. Explain behavioural assessment techniques and their weaknesses.

Ans) Although there is a wide variety of methods available, all of those methods share certain characteristics in common. One of those features is that they all assess behaviour:


1) They are all centred on behaviour. Behaviours, both overt and covert, are observed, measured, and analysed in real time as they take place in various settings. Observations of behaviours take place at predetermined intervals and in confined spaces. Because assessment requires information that is objective, rather than inferring or making interpretations based on personal experience, the variables and concepts that are used to describe behaviour have been approached in an objective manner.


2) Quantification is a fundamental tenet of every behavioural assessment method. Quantifying behaviour makes it possible to make reliable comparisons across different time periods and individuals as well as facilitates communication between individuals. This results in a more objective presentation of the information.


3) All of the different ways to evaluate someone's behaviour involve using trained, objective observers. Observers receive training in the use of a variety of measurement techniques for conducting behavioural assessments, as well as in the recording of those assessments and the objective collection of data. In the process of collecting data, recording the information, and interpreting the data, observers are expected to achieve a certain level of consistency according to the specified standard.


4) Every one of them utilises measures that have been empirically validated. It is essential to maintain a consistent method of measurement across all of the different scenarios. The measures need to be validated through empirical research.


5) Every one of them is aware of the errors that can occur and makes an effort, using statistical methods, to either eliminate errors entirely or reduce their impact as much as is practically possible. The results of any assessment can be unreliable due to the varying degrees of error that are inherent in the process. As a result, it is essential to reduce the number of errors, which can typically be accomplished through the application of statistical methods.


6) All of these theories hold the belief that the behaviour in question occurs as a result of stimuli originating from the surrounding environment. The purpose of assessment is to identify the factors in a given situation that have an impact on behaviour. The focus is on public events and the direct observation of behaviour in its natural setting, with behaviour being recorded as close to the moment it occurs as is practically possible.


7) All of these assessment techniques rely on multiple sources of information rather than one. A variety of assessment strategies are used in addition to the behavioural assessment, such as behavioural interviews, checklists, rating scales, standardised instruments, self-reports, self-monitoring forms, and observations, because no single test or source can provide adequate information as to why a behaviour occurs.


8) All behavioural assessment techniques, in the end, place a strong emphasis on intervention. The primary goal of assessment is not to categorise or label a person, but rather to gather information that will aid in the development of effective interventions. Personality strategies are evaluated. Because of the emphasis on intervention, the behavioural assessment model is applied to the specific person, situation, etc.


9) All the behavioural assessment techniques use continuous assessment. During all three phases—the baseline, the intervention, and the follow-up—there will be ongoing assessment. On-going assessments are made to determine whether or not particular intervention strategies are effective.


10) Each of these approaches to assessing behavioural patterns places an emphasis on a decision-making process that is empirically based. The decisions that are made regarding specific assessment strategies and interventions are based on the empirical data that is readily available on the individual who is the focus of the assessment. This data comes from the individual themselves as well as the environment in which the individual lives.


11) The majority of these approaches to assessing behavioural patterns concentrate on the individual rather than on groups. The individual being evaluated is given priority over making comparisons to a norm group when conducting the assessment. There is an acknowledgement of individual differences in behaviour and the factors that influence it, which results in idiosyncratic evaluation and treatment.


12) There is a strong focus on the unique qualities of each individual. There is no such thing as an absolute individual difference between people. The differences must be viewed in relative terms, with due consideration given to differences in both the circumstances and the cultures involved. It is essential to bear in mind that a specific behaviour that is regarded as normal in one setting may be regarded as abnormal in another setting.


13) Once the root of the issue has been identified, every behavioural assessment method will attempt to find a solution to the problem at hand, in addition to investigating the factors that may have contributed to it. The purpose of behavioural assessment is to solve problems, and as a result, the identification of causes is of the utmost importance in order to develop intervention strategies that will enable the problem to be solved.


14) The development of adaptive behaviour in the individual is the primary focus of each and every behavioural assessment technique. The development of adaptive, positive, or desirable behaviours, as opposed to the control and reduction of undesirable behaviours, is the primary emphasis of behavioural assessment. Consequently, behavioural interventions ought to be developed and carried out with the advantage of the particular person in question in mind at all times.


Weaknesses of behavioural assessment

  1. A significant portion of the methodology for assessing behaviours is not standardised.

  2. There is a possibility that inconsistent data will emerge if the concerned behaviours are specified at different levels.

  3. A lack of consistency in the observation of behaviour may be the result of using overly specific definitions of behaviour.

  4. The application of the behavioural assessment methodology might appear to be relatively straightforward. On the other hand, if the psychologist or behaviourist who is conducting the assessment does not have adequate training in the procedures, the assessment will be flawed, and as a result, the intervention will not be successful.


Q 3. Explain Eysenck’s trait-type theory.

Ans) The approach taken by Eysenck is founded in personality theory. In order for us to comprehend this, we need to take into consideration the fact that human behaviour is founded on a variety of characteristics. These characteristics, also known as genetic traits, serve as the basis for an individual's personality. They set us up to behave in a particular manner by their predispositions.


In addition to this, Eysenck's theory postulates that individuals' occurrences of these characteristics will vary. The theory also presupposes that characteristics are consistent across a wide range of circumstances and remain relatively stable over the course of an individual's lifetime. He is also of the opinion that by isolating these genetic traits, we can see the more fundamental structure of a person's personality.


It is widely acknowledged that Eysenck's theory of personality is both a true paradigm and the most robust theory that psychology has to offer. The theory offers the most compelling explanation for why every individual possesses their own distinct personality. According to the theory, there are three major characteristics residing within each of us. Psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism are the three personality traits that are being discussed here.


According to Eysenck, each individual possesses a unique combination of the characteristics being measured. The extent to which we exhibit these three characteristics determines who we are as individuals.


The approach taken by Eysenck is founded in personality theory. In order for us to comprehend this, we need to take into consideration the fact that human behaviour is founded on a variety of characteristics. These characteristics, also known as genetic traits, serve as the basis for an individual's personality. They set us up to behave in a particular manner by their predispositions. In addition to this, Eysenck's theory postulates that individuals' occurrences of these characteristics will vary. The theory also presupposes that characteristics are consistent across a wide range of circumstances and remain relatively stable over the course of an individual's lifetime. He is also of the opinion that by isolating these genetic traits, we can see the more fundamental structure of a person's personality.


These concepts served as the foundation for Hans Eysenck's two-factor theory. In order to accomplish this, he investigated the manner in which individuals responded to personality questionnaires. Eysenck carried out a procedure known as a factorial analysis, which is a statistical method for condensing and grouping together data. In this instance, he applied this method in order to distil behaviours down to a set of factors that shared characteristics; we'll call these the super factors. Each distinct collection of contributing factors is organised according to one dimension. The PEN model gets its name from Eysenck's discovery of three distinct facets of one's personality: neuroticism (N), extraversion (E), and psychoticism (P). These facets are denoted by the letters P, E, and N, respectively. These three super factors, in his opinion, are sufficient to adequately describe a person's personality.


The three dimensions of Eysenck’s personality theory


1. Psychoticism

To begin, the degree to which a person is psychotic is a reflection of their propensity toward impulsiveness, hostility, and a lack of empathy. These people tend to be callous, antisocial, violent, aggressive, and extravagant. They may also be insensitive. If you have a high level of psychoticism, you may have a higher risk of developing a variety of mental illnesses, including psychosis. When compared to the other two dimensions, psychoticism is the only one that lacks an opposite or inverse extreme. On the contrary, psychoticism is present in varying degrees in every single person.


2. Extraversion (extraversion-introversion)

Second, individuals who score higher on the extraversion scale exhibit greater levels of sociability, impulsiveness, lack of inhibitions, vitality, optimism, and inventiveness in their daily lives. On the other hand, people who are more introverted tend to be more tranquil, passive, have fewer social interactions, and have a more pessimistic outlook. On the other hand, this theory of personality posits that the primary distinction between the two factors lies in their physiological underpinnings. The level of arousal in the cortex plays a role in determining this.


3. Neuroticism (stability-emotional instability)

Eysenck identifies neuroticism as the highest level of emotional instability, which brings us to our third point. Eysenck uses this dimension to explain why some people are more likely than others to suffer from anxiety, hysteria, depression, or obsession. He does this by pointing out that some people have a genetic predisposition. People who react in an exaggerated way more frequently and find it difficult to return to a normal level of emotional activation are what he considers to be neurotic. People who are emotionally stable, calm, reasonable, and have a high degree of self-control can be found all the way over on the other end of the dimension.


As a direct consequence of this, the PEN (Psychoticism, Extraversion, and Neuroticism) model suggests a hierarchical classification of personality that is comprised of four levels. Behaviours such as having a one-time conversation with a friend are examples of the lowest level in the hierarchy of acceptable social interactions. At the second level are routines, which are made up of reoccurring behaviours and include things like having multiple conversations with the same group of friends. The third level of the hierarchy is that of characteristics or factors such as sociability, which are made up of sets of behaviours that are intercorrelated with one another. Intercorrelated sets of characteristics or factors are known as super factors or dimensions of personality, and they sit atop the hierarchy. One example of a super factor is extraversion.


In conclusion, personality is one of the most essential, as well as one of the most interesting and essential, topics in the field of psychology. The purpose of in-depth research into a person's personality is to better understand why that person is the way they are. Eysenck's theory, which has evolved into a cornerstone theory, is widely regarded as one of the most significant contributions to the field of personality psychology. When Eysenck first conceived of his theory, it established the parameters for what would later become the scientific study of personality and human behaviour.





Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25 Marks


Q 4. Explain the technical criteria before which the assessment techniques are considered scientific.

Ans) Before assessment techniques can be considered scientifically acceptable measures of individual differences in people's enduring qualities, they must meet four technical criteria. These are the criteria of standardisation, norms, dependability, and validity. Let us deal with each of these and learn what they mean.


1. Standardisation

The concept of standardisation is crucial in the measurement of personality dimensions. This concept refers to the consistent procedures used in administering and scoring an assessment tool. In the self-report scale, for example, the examiner must make every effort to ensure that subjects read and understand the printed instructions, respond to the same questions, and stay within any time limits that have been set. It also includes information on the circumstances under which the assessment test should or should not be administered, who should or should not take the test, specific scoring procedures, and the interpretative significance of the scores.


2. Norms

A personality assessment test's standardisation includes information about whether a particular "raw score" ranks low, high, or average in comparison to other "raw scores" on the test. Test norms are standards against which the scores of different individuals who take the test later can be compared. Typically, raw test scores are converted into percentile scores, which indicate the percentage of people who score at or below a given level. As a result, test norms enable the comparison of individual scores to a representative group in order to quantify the individual's relative rank standing in comparison to others.


3. Reliability

Any test, whether for personality, intelligence, or aptitude, must be reliable, and this must be demonstrated. Repeat administrations of the same test or another type of test should produce roughly the same results or scores. Thus, reliability refers to the consistency or stability of an assessment technique when administered to the same group of people twice. This type of dependability is known as test-retest dependability.


4. Validity

Validity refers to whether or not a test measures what it is supposed to measure or predicts what it is supposed to predict. It is yet another important concept in personality evaluation.


Validity can be classified into three types 

a)  Content validity: An assessment tool must include items whose contents are representative of the entire domain or dimension it is supposed to measure in order to be content valid.

b) Criterion-related validity: Personality assessment is commonly used for criterion related validity in order to make predictions about specific aspects of an individual's behaviour.

c) Construct validity: The concept of construct validity addresses how well a test measures something that is, in reality, just a useful abstract invention.



Q 5. Explain the classification of projective techniques. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of projective techniques.

Ans) Lindzay recently provided a classification of projective techniques. Based on the responses of the examinees, he has classified projective techniques into the five categories listed below:


1. Association Technique

This category includes all situations in which the examinee is asked to respond with the associations that come to mind after seeing or hearing stimulus materials. For example, the Rorschach test, Holtzman Inkblot test, and Word Association test. For studying personality, the reaction and responses are analysed.


2. Construction Technique

This category includes all situations where examinees must build a storey after viewing stimulus materials. Themes and mode of response are more important than time. Thematic and Children's Apperception Tests. Image Frustration Test Object Relations, Blacky Pictures, etc. All these tests require examinees to write simple or complex stories.


3. Assessment of Personality Completion Technique

Examinees are given incomplete sentences to complete as they wish. Examinee responses are analysed to reveal personality traits. These methods lack a standardised analysis method.


4. Expressive Technique

This technique includes manipulative tasks that involve interacting with materials. Play, drawing, role-playing, fingerpainting, etc. Examiners closely watch how candidates manipulate materials.


5. Choice Technique

The choice technique, also called the ordering technique, is not a true projective technique; it's a step toward objectifying them. Examinees are shown a series of images and told to choose the most relevant one. Using the name ordering technique, he may be asked to rank the pictures based on his preferences. The items chosen determine personality inferences.


Strengths and Weaknesses of Projective Techniques

Two benefits of projective tests First, test stimuli are ambiguous. The person doesn't know how the test informs the examiner. This indirect method conceals the test's true purpose and reduces deception. Second, projective tests' indirect method allows them to avoid conscious defences, revealing hidden personality traits. The lack of established methods of administration, scoring, and interpretation makes projective tests poorly standardised. The reliability of these tests depends heavily on the examiner's skill and clinical intuition.


Thorough instruction in a scoring system produces satisfactory inter-judge agreement. The interpretation of projective test scores is more serious. Too often, clinicians interpret tests based on personal insights and intuition. Projective tests aren't well-supported, either. Psychologists should avoid basing diagnoses solely on projective tests. Case studies, interviews, and self-report tests can supplement projective tests.


Despite the issues, many clinical psychologists use these techniques to explore unconscious conflicts, fantasies, and motivations. They reveal human personality in greater depth and detail than some personality inventories, where fraud is common. Personality inventories are less reliable than predictive tests. A survey of Society for Personality Assessment members ranked Rorschach and TAT second and fourth in psychometric tool usage.


Q 6. Define personality. Explain the concept of trait and personal dispositions.

Ans) Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving. The study of personality focuses on two broad areas: One is understanding individual differences in particular personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability.


Concept of Trait and Personal Dispositions

Allport defines trait as a neuropsychological structure that functionally equivalentiates many stimuli and guides adaptive and expressive behaviour. Traits are consistent behaviours in a variety of situations. Many stimuli and responses are psychologically equated by traits. Multiple stimuli may elicit the same response, or multiple responses (emotions, perceptions, interpretations, actions) may have trait-related meanings.


Allport proposed eight fundamental defining traits. These are:

  1. Multifaceted traits exist. Personality traits are real and important. Everyone has "general action tendencies." Aggression, honesty, etc. People have these traits.

  2. Unlike habits, traits are universal. Traits are permanent, general behaviours. Habits are specific tendencies that elicit fewer general situations or responses. Combining habits creates personal cleanliness.

  3. Traits are dynamic or behaviour-determining. Traits aren't dormant until stimulated. People are motivated to exhibit their traits. Traits direct a person's actions.

  4. Empirically proving a trait's existence. Traits can be confirmed despite not being directly observed. Consider the subject's repeated actions, case histories or biographies, or statistical techniques that measure coherence.

  5. A trait is only relatively independent of other traits. No trait is independent of the other. They overlap. There is no rigid boundary separating one trait from another. The personality is comprised of a network of overlapping traits only relatively independent of one another.

  6. A trait is not synonymous with moral or social judgement. Personality is important, not character. Many traits like loyalty, greed, etc. are bound by social demands and socio-cultural factors.

  7. A trait can be viewed based on its possessor's personality or its population distribution. Shyness is both unique and universal. The trait can be studied universally by developing a reliable and valid "shyness scale" and determining how people differ on it.

  8. Acts or even habits that are inconsistent with a trait are not proof of the nonexistence of the trait.


Not everyone has the same level of integration for a given trait. Furthermore, the same person may exhibit contradictory characteristics. Finally, there are times when social situations, rather than personality traits, drive behaviour.


Q 7. Explain the salient features of Sullivan’s theory of personality.

Ans) Sullivan placed an emphasis not only on the cognitive representations of personality but also on the social aspects of personality. Sullivan's approach was what's known as an interpersonal theory of psychiatry, and he called it that. Sullivan places a high value on his interpersonal connections. Personality is an abstract concept that can only be observed or investigated in the context of an individual's relationships with other people. The only way to truly understand someone's personality is through their interactions with other people. As a consequence of this, the interpersonal situation, as opposed to a single person, will serve as the unit of analysis.


The theory put forward by Sullivan can be broken down into three distinct categories: personality dynamics, enduring aspects of personality, and developmental epochs. According to Sullivan, a person's personality can be understood as an energy system, with energy existing either as tension (potential for action) or as energy transformations (the actions themselves). He further separated the tensions into two categories: needs and anxiety.


Sullivan identifies anxiety as the factor that contributes the most to the breakdown of interpersonal relationships. Sullivan distinguished three levels of cognition, or modes of perception, naming them prototaxic, parataxic, and syntaxic, respectively. The prototaxic level encompasses the experience that infants have at their most fundamental level. Parataxic experiences are those that defy logic and are nearly impossible to accurately communicate to other people. Syntactic experiences are those that are capable of being conveyed to others in an accurate manner.


Sullivan's theory of personality placed an emphasis on the aspects of an individual's nature that are consistent throughout their lifetime. Among these, some examples include dynamicism, the self-system, and personification. According to Sullivan's theory, dynamism is a term that can be thought of as being synonymous with traits. The self-system, also known as the pattern of behaviours, which keeps us secure in our interpersonal relationships and shields us from anxiety, is the dynamism that encompasses the most elements of any other type.


According to Sullivan, we develop personifications of ourselves and others as a result of social interactions as well as the selective attention or inattention we pay to those interactions. Personifications are mental images that assist us in comprehending not only ourselves but also the world in which we live. The bad me, the good me, and the not-me are the three fundamental ways that we perceive ourselves, as defined by Sullivan. Sullivan also held the view that human beings progress through a series of stages of development in a predetermined sequence. Epochs were what he called the stages in his theory of development, which he developed. Sullivan has described seven developmental epochs.


Q 8. Discuss the psychological determinants of personality.

Ans) Several psychological factors tend to determine the development of personality. Among those factors the following can be specially discussed because of their importance. These include:


1. Intellectual Determinants

This influences personality development. Intellectual capacities affect personality through life adjustments and indirect judgments based on intellectual achievements. This affects personality evaluation and development. Men and women with above-average intelligence make better personal and social adjustments. Superior intelligence affects personality development negatively because it creates problems that bright people don't face. These problems lead to personality traits like negativism, intolerance, chicanery, emotional conflicts, solitary pursuit, self-sufficiency, dominance, etc. Intellectual capacities influence values, morality, and humanity, according to evidence.


2. Emotional Determinants

These affect personality. Emotions determine personal and social adjustment, thus personality. Personality development is affected by dominant emotions, emotional balance, emotional deprivation, excessive love and affection, emotional expressions, and emotional stress. Some people have happier emotions. Personality is affected. Happy people see the bright side when depressed. Even in happy situations, fearful people are depressed and fearful. Social and personal adjustment require emotional balance, where pleasant emotions outweigh negative ones. Emotional deprivation of love, happiness, and curiosity affects personal and social adjustment. Lack of affection can lead to emotional insecurity. Much adolescent and adult rebellion against authority stems from emotional insecurity caused by unstable early childhood family relationships.


3. Self-disclosure

Self-disclosure is considered fundamental to mental health, and such disclosure contributes to the development of a healthy personality pattern, which ensures socially desirable and favourable reactions from others. Emotional stress manifested as anxiety, frustration, jealousy, and envy has an impact on personality development. When a person is under emotional stress, he or she makes good personal and social adjustments. Intense emotional stress may motivate a person to overindulge in the hope of being relieved of it.


4. Aspiration and Achievements

These also have an impact on personality development. Aspiration is defined as a yearning for and striving for something greater than one's current position. Aspirations are thus the ego-centered goals that people set for themselves. The more ego-involved the aspirations, the greater the impact on behaviour, and thus the greater the impact on personality. Aspirations can be positive (to achieve success), negative (to avoid failure), realistic (within the range of the person's capacity), unrealistic (beyond the person's capacity), remote (to achieve a goal in the distant future), or immediate (to achieve a goal in the near future) (to achieve a goal in the near future).

Aspiration's motivating power varies. In general, distant, and realistic aspirations are more motivating than immediate and unrealistic aspirations. Negative aspirations are thought to be less effective at motivating people than positive aspirations.





Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 Marks


Q 9. Important steps in personality assessment

Ans) The two most important steps in personality assessment are listed below.

Step 1: Outline the schedule for the personality test. The goal of personality assessments is to predict individual differences in a person's capacity for cooperation and advancement.

Step 2: Selecting the personality trait you want to assess is required. A value assessment is required if one wants to evaluate personality from the inside out.


Q 10. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Ans) The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is an introspective self-report questionnaire used in personality typology to identify different psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions. The test attempts to assign a value to each of the following four categories: introversion or extraversion, sensing or intuition, thinking or feeling, and judging or perceiving.


Q 11. Purpose of case study method

Ans) The case study method is used to comprehend the critical aspects of a unit's life cycle. A case study examines and interprets the interactions of various factors that influence the change or growth of a unit. Although a case study is a detailed description and analysis of a specific individual's personality, it is also a vital research strategy.


Q 12. The study of values by Allport

Ans) The Allport-Vernon Study of Values (SOV) is one of the earliest questionnaires that measured personal values on the basis of declared behavioural preferences. It was also one of the first to be theoretically and empirically well-grounded. It is a psychological instrument that was developed to measure an individual's preferences regarding six distinct types of values. These values are theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious.


Q 13. Big-five Inventory

Ans) The Big Five Inventory (BFI) is a self-report inventory used to assess the Big Five dimensions. It is quite brief for a multidimensional personality inventory with 44 total items and consists of short phrases with relatively accessible vocabulary. The Big Five Inventory is a self-report scale designed to assess extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness, among other personality traits.


Q 14. Evaluation of Bandura’s theory

Ans) Bandura's theory has been shown to make powerful predictions and to generate useful applications in a wide range of human behaviour areas. According to Bandura's social theory, learning can also occur simply by observing the actions of others. People can learn new information and behaviours by observing the actions and behaviours of others. This is referred to as observational learning or modelling.


Q 15. Characteristics of self-actualizers

b) A self-actualizer is someone who lives creatively and fully utilises his or her potential. It refers to the desire for self-actualization, or the proclivity for him to become actualized in what he is potentially. Maslow's theory was based in part on his own assumptions or convictions about human potential, and in part on case studies of historical figures he believed to be self-actualized.


Q 16. Constitutional and environmental traits

Ans) Constitutional traits are those determined by nature or biology, whereas environmental mould traits are those determined by nurture, or experience gained through interaction with the environment. Some source traits derive solely from within the individual (biology of the individual), while others derive solely from sources derived solely from environmental factors.


Q 17. Guilford’s trait theory

Ans) J.P. Guilford attempted to analyse and predict personality based on traits. The significance of trait in Guildford's view of personality can be seen in his definition of personality, which states that an individual's personality is nothing more than the individual's unique pattern of traits. For him, a trait is any discernible, relatively long-lasting way in which one person differs from another.


Q 18. Idiographic approach to personality

Ans) According to the idiographic approach to personality, each of us has a distinct psychological structure. Certain traits or combinations of traits may be shared by only one person, making it impossible to compare people like for like. However, identifying and describing a personality trait is not the same as explaining it, which can be difficult for idiosyncratic researchers due to small sample sizes of one participant.

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