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MPC-004: Advanced Social Psychology

MPC-004: Advanced Social Psychology

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MPC-004 / ASST / TMA / 2022 - 23

Course Code: MPC-004

Assignment Name: Advanced Social Psychology

Year: 2022 -2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


NOTE: All Questions Are Compulsory


Section A


Answer the following question in about 1000 words each: Marks 15x3=45


Q 1. Discuss the historical developments of social psychology.

Ans) The socio-psychological ideas were initially developed within the realm of philosophy, and then gradually branched off from the established body of psychological knowledge. First, we will talk about social thought that existed prior to the development of social science for a short while, and then we will talk about the second stage in the evolution of social psychology, which is considered to be the "more productive" stage.


Social Thought Before the Advent of Social Science

Since the field's inception, social psychology has been conceptualised as the scientific investigation of the individual within the framework of the social environment. Individualism is something that has always been a part of the discipline that I'm studying. According to the teachings of individualism, all explanations of individual social phenomena are to be disregarded unless they can be couched in terms of the individual. This is a fundamental tenet of individualism.


Individualism is a school of thought in psychology that has been criticised for being self-centred and denying the existence of others. In sociological thought, individualism has manifested itself in two distinct ways

  1. Hedonism: People act in order to secure and maintain pleasure and to avoid and reduce pain.

  2. Utilitarianism: The doctrine that advocates the pursuit of the greatest happiness of the greatest number.


The majority of contemporary theories of conditioning and motivation are based on variations of the pleasure or utility principle. These ideas serve as the foundation for individual satisfaction and include reinforcement, reward, reduction of stress, reduction of dissonance, and reduction of uncertainty. In a wide variety of social psychological hypotheses, the concepts of utility and satisfaction play significant roles as important constructs.


The Second Stage of Development: Social Psychology Emerges as a Discipline

During the process of diverging from psychology as a distinct field of study, there are three defining moments that need to be emphasised:


The necessity of finding solutions to socio-psychological issues that arose in a variety of disciplines that are closely related. The processes involved in the separation of socio-psychological problems can be found within the two parent disciplines of psychology and sociology. In conclusion, a description of the first forms of independent socio-psychological knowledge is presented.


The theory of instincts of social behaviour, people's psychology, and mass psychology were the three most influential socio-psychological theories that emerged in the middle of the nineteenth century. People's psychology was another influential theory. These theories were speculative and abstract by their very nature due to the fact that they emerged against the background of a philosophical and descriptive tradition.


The historical development of social psychology can be kept in the following three categories:


Initial Stage

Sociologists, psychologists, and cultural anthropologists were primarily responsible for the development of social psychology.


Period of Emergence as an Independent Field

As a first guess, the years between 1908 and 1924 appear to qualify as a period when it emerged as a distinct field of study. Each of these dates corresponds to the years in which significant texts with the term "social psychology" in their titles were published.


Publications and Authors

  1. McDougall wrote on social behaviour and instincts in 1908.

  2. Allport published social behaviours in 1924.

  3. Kimble Young published two books on social psychology in 1924 and 1930.


With the publications of Kimble Young, Social Psychology started new life as new and interesting subjects and issues were brought under its study.


The maturity stage can be divided into the following categories:


1930s Era

The following major development took place:

  1. Thurston and Lickert introduced the scale for the measurement of attitude in 1932.

  2. In 1934 Moreno introduced the method of sociometry.

  3. In 1935 Muzaffar Sharif began the study of social norms

  4. In 1936 the first organization of psychologists “Society of Psychological Study of Social Issues” was founded. The basic principle of this organization was to use the principles of social psychology for the benefits of common people.


1940s to 1950s

It resumed its progress after the Second World War. The following developments occurred during these decades.


Important Focused Themes: The influence of groups and group membership on individual behaviour was a central concern, particularly in 1950, and it remained so until the 1960s. The relationship between a variety of personality traits and different types of social behaviour was the focus of the second theme.


Theory of Cognitive Dissonance During this time period, one of the most important developments that took place was the formulation of the theory of cognitive dissonance.


1960s Era

During this time period, the major topics that received more attention were attraction and love, aggression and violence, social perception, and social exchange.


1970s Era

The following events occurred during this time period:


The Influence of Environmental Factors on Social Cognitive Function Many new topics received increased attention during the 1970s, including social cognition, attribution, and the impact of environmental factors like heat, noise, and crowding on social behaviour, gender differences, and so on.


1980s to 1990s Era

The Implementation of Knowledge Obtained from Social Psychology Throughout these decades, a strong emphasis was placed on being able to apply sociological and psychological knowledge. A large number of researchers were trained in order to see how the challenges of daily life could be overcome in the rough. During these decades, the principles of social psychology were applied to a variety of fields, including health, education, and trade, among others.


Present Age

At this point in time, we are in a position to observe the occurrence of the following events in the field of social psychology: As its own independent field of study. At the present time, social psychology is regarded as a fully developed field of study. This makes a positive contribution to the general well-being of people everywhere. Additionally, it makes contributions to other areas of research and study.


Improvements Made to Research Procedures Computers have been a boon to the field of social psychology research, which has led to significant advancements in this area. The state of knowledge in this area is advancing at a dizzying rate.


Q 2. Explain the attribution theory and its applicability in education.

Ans) Attribution theory is probably the most influential theory with implications for academic motivation. It emphasises the idea that learners are strongly motivated by the pleasant outcome of being able to feel good about themselves. It incorporates cognitive theory and self-efficacy theory in the sense that it emphasises that learners’ current self-perceptions will strongly influence the ways in which they will interpret the success or failure of their current efforts and hence their future tendency to perform these same behaviours.


According to attribution theory, people's explanations for success or failure have three characteristics:


1) First, the cause of the success or failure may be internal or external. That is, we may succeed or fail because of factors that we believe have their origin within us or because of factors that originate in our environment.


2) Second, the cause of the success or failure may be either stable or unstable. If we believe cause is stable, then the outcome is likely to be the same if we perform the same behaviour on another occasion. If it is unstable, the outcome is likely to be different on another occasion.


3) Third, success or failure can be controlled or uncontrollable. We can control a factor if we want to. We can't easily change uncontrollable factors. Uncontrollable or controllable internal factors. External factors can be controllable or uncontrollable.


People interpret their environment to maintain a positive self-image, according to attribution theory. They'll attribute successes or failures to factors that make them feel good about themselves. When students succeed, they want to credit their own efforts or abilities, but when they fail, they want to blame bad teaching or bad luck. The basic principle of attribution theory as it applies to motivation is that a person's perceptions of success or failure determine how much effort they will put into an activity in the future. Ability, task difficulty, effort, and luck influence education motivation based on attribution theory.


These four factors can be analysed using the previous characteristics:

  1. Ability is a relatively internal and stable factor over which the learner does not exercise much direct control.

  2. Task difficulty is an external and stable factor that is largely beyond the learner’s control.

  3. Effort is an internal and unstable factor over which the learner can exercise a great deal of control.

  4. Luck is an external factor the learner can't control.


Perception determines how attributions affect future effort. A learner may believe he is "lucky," but he has little control over this internal, stable characteristic. "Luck" is an "ability" or personality trait for this person.


A person may think she worked hard when she didn't or that an easy task was difficult. The basic principle of attribution theory as it applies to motivation is that a person's perceptions of success or failure determine how much effort they will put into an activity in the future.


Students are most persistent when:


1) If they attribute their academic successes to either (a) internal, unstable, factors over which they have control (e.g., effort) or (b) internal, stable, factors over which they have little control, but which may sometimes be disrupted by other factors (e.g., ability disrupted by occasional bad luck).


2) If they attribute their failures to internal, unstable factors over which they have control (e.g., effort). If we want students to persist at academic tasks, we should help them establish a sincere belief that they are competent, and that occasional imperfections or failures are the result of some other factor that need not be present on future occasions.


3) It is not beneficial for students to attribute their successes entirely to ability. If they think they already have all the ability they need, they may feel that additional effort is superfluous. The ideal attribution for success is, “I succeeded because I am a competent person and worked hard.”


4) Students who fail and blame a lack of effort are more likely to persevere and succeed. Teachers must help students who feel unsuccessful believe they can succeed if they try hard.


5) Failing repeatedly after putting in effort is harmful to students' motivation. They'll either (a) stop believing they're competent or (b) stop blaming lack of effort. Both outcomes reduce academic persistence. Organize tasks so that hard-working students feel successful.


6) Learners must internalise a correct definition of effort. Practically, effort is putting in effective academic learning time. Trying harder or spending more time on ineffective activities isn't effort. This distinction is crucial. If we use another definition of effort, we risk leading children to believe they have an internal, stable trait called laziness over which they have no control. This demotivates.


7) Another way to say this is that it is possible and desirable for students to believe that even though they have “worked hard,” they have not yet put forth their best effort. If we can show students ways to improve their efforts— and there are almost always ways to channel their energies more effectively - then we can enable them to have an accurate perception that increased effort is likely to pay off.


8) Extremely competitive grading and evaluation systems hinder student learning. Competition will encourage students to persist if they believe extra effort will help them succeed. No matter how hard a learner works, a more competent and energetic competitor may win.


9) Students should be evaluated partly (but not exclusively) on their effort. This doesn't mean the weakest students should get the highest grades because they spend more time studying. The teacher's evaluation should help students see the connection between hard work and academic success.


10) Students should believe that their own actions, not external factors, determine success or failure. Internal locus of control describes this. While it's important for students to be aware of their surroundings, research shows that the most successful ones tend to overestimate the impact of their own actions.


The preceding guidelines should enable teachers to use attribution theory to motivate students more effectively. In addition, it is possible simply to reinforce effort attributions and to conduct training programs designed to promote attributions that are likely to lead to higher levels of motivation and productivity.


Q 3. Discuss the different factors that affect helping behaviour.

Ans) A variety of factors influence helping and prosocial behaviour. While the decision of whether to help or not to help may appear straightforward, there are several factors that influence this decision. Some of the factors are as follows:


1. Physical Attractiveness

Attractiveness can be physical or a person's personality or behaviour. Situational attractiveness can be defined, say researchers. Attractive people are more likely to get help. As a society, we treat attractive people differently, expecting better lives from them. Adams and Cohen believe physical attractiveness influences a child's prosocial behaviour.


2. Similarity and Kinship

Similar or likeable people are more likely to be prosocial. Pro-social behaviour toward family likely involves duty, reciprocity, and affective relationships. In-group victims are prioritised over out-group victims. Park and Schaller found that attitude similarity signals kinship, which may motivate prosocial behaviour in unrelated individuals.


3. Religiosity

Although several studies have examined the impact of donor characteristics across various domains, the findings are not as robust as those about victim characteristics. One consistent finding is that humanitarian values and religiosity are correlated with giving.


4. Victim’s Perspective

Batson and colleagues have shown consistently greater empathy and altruistic behaviour by individuals who are primed to take the victim’s perspective.


5. Personal Experience

Personal experience affects self-protective behaviour. Participants who had been raped reported greater empathy when watching a rape victim video than those who had never been raped. Batson found that the expectation of receiving a shock affected self-reported empathy in females but not in males. Christy and Voigt found that people who had been abused as children were more likely to intervene if they saw child abuse.


6. Identifiable Victim Effect

People give more to identifiable victims than to statistical victims, according to research. This effect has been shown even without meaningful victim information. Showing a victim's face or being in their presence also increases pro-social behaviour. Charities do describe or show images of specific victims in their advertising campaigns, but such attempts seem designed to benefit from the identifiable victim effect, not to create "friendship" between donors and victims.


7. Attributions Concerning Victim’s Responsibility

People also give more to victims who are perceived as “deserving,” in other words, whose needs arise from external rather than internal causes. Thus, disabled children are deemed deserving; healthy unemployed men are not. Finally, the effect of deservingness on prosocial behaviour is mediated by sympathy, suggesting that giving decisions are not based on cold mental calculations. A study carried out on the New York subway showed that people were more likely to help ‘blind’ rather than ‘drunk’ confederates who had collapsed.


8. Positive Friend Influence

Friends, in particular, can be important socialisers of pro-social behaviour, according to Barry and Wentzel. Children are similar to their peers in the extent to which they exhibit pro-social behaviour and are motivated to do so. Adolescents with friends are more likely to be pro-social than those without.


9. Gender

Females engage in prosocial behaviours more frequently than males, according to parent, teacher, and peer ratings. Furthermore, observational studies have shown that when interacting, females are more likely than males to share and cooperate. According to a study of 12 to 17-year-olds, females valued prosocial values more than males at younger ages, and the gender gap in prosocial values was larger at older ages. Eagly and Crowley conducted a meta-analysis and discovered that men are more likely to help in chivalrous, heroic ways, whereas women are more likely to help in nurturing, long-term ways.


10. Age

Older adolescent males valued prosocial values less than younger adolescent males. Furthermore, in a study of the behaviours of adolescent soccer players recruited from age groups of under 13, under 15, and under 17, significant differences among the age groups revealed that the oldest group displayed more frequent antisocial behaviours and less frequent prosocial behaviours than the younger groups. However, after a certain point in adolescence, there appears to be an increase in the use of some prosocial behaviours, as Eisenberg et al. discovered that prosocial moral reasoning and perspective-taking abilities increased with age from late adolescence to early adulthood, whereas helping and displaying sympathy did not.


11. Personality

The existence of the long-debated altruistic or prosocial personality is supported by research that follows children from infancy to adulthood. Individual differences in pro-sociality are associated with sociability, low shyness, extroversion, and agreeableness, though specific prosocial behaviours, such as helping, may necessitate a combination of additional traits. Prosocial behaviour is likely to be influenced by both personality and contextual factors. For example, agreeable people were more likely than disagreeable people to help an outgroup member, but agreeableness was not associated with helping an ingroup member.


While Hartshorne and May discovered only a.23 correlation between various types of helping behaviours in children, several studies have found that those who scored high on an altruism personality test were not significantly more likely to help than those who scored low. People's personalities are clearly not the only factors that influence their willingness to assist. Instead, it appears that different types of people are more likely to assist in different situations.


12. Effects of Positive Moods: Feel Good, Do Good

People who are cheerful are more likely to assist. Isen and Levin, for example, conducted a study in a shopping mall in which subjects either found or did not find a dime in a phone booth. A confederate walked by and dropped a sheaf of papers as the person emerged from the booth; 84 percent of those who found the dime helped, compared to 4 percent of those who did not find the dime. North, Tarrang, and Hargreaves discovered that people who are in a good mood are more likely to help others for a variety of reasons, including performing well on a test, receiving a gift, thinking happy thoughts, and listening to pleasant music.


Good moods can increase helping for three reasons:

  1. They cause us to interpret events sympathetically;

  2. They prolong the good mood, whereas not helping deflates it; and

  3. They increase self-attention, which leads us to be more likely to behave according to our values and beliefs, which favour altruism.


Section B


Answer the following questions in about 400 words each: Marks 5x5=25


Q 4. Discuss the experimental design in social psychology.

Ans) The experimental design refers to how participants in an experiment are assigned to different groups. Design types include repeated measures, independent groups, and matched pairs. In psychology, the design of an experiment typically consists of dividing the participants into two groups: an experimental group and a control group. After that, the change being tested is implemented only in the experimental group, while the control group remains unchanged. The researcher is tasked with determining how their sample should be distributed across the various experimental groups.


The experimental design refers to how participants in an experiment are assigned to different conditions. There are three varieties:


1. Independent Measures

Independent measures design, also known as between-groups design, is an experimental design in which different participants are used in each independent variable condition. This means that each condition of the experiment has a unique set of participants. This should be accomplished through random assignment, which ensures that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to one of two groups. Independent measurements entail using two distinct groups of participants, one for each condition. After the participants have been recruited, they should be assigned to groups at random. This should ensure that the groups are, on average, similar (reducing participant variables).


2. Repeated Measures

The Repeated Measures design is an experimental design in which the same participants participate in each independent variable condition. This means that the participants in each condition of the experiment are the same. Within groups or within-subjects design is another name for Repeated Measures design. To counteract order effects, the researcher reorders the conditions for the participants. Changing the order in which participants perform in different experimental conditions.


3. Matched Pairs

A matched pairs design is an experimental design in which participants are matched on key variables such as age or socioeconomic status. One member of each pair is then assigned to the experimental group, while the other is assigned to the control group. Each matched pair must have one member randomly assigned to the experimental group and the other to the control group. Members of each pair should be assigned to conditions at random. However, this does not address all of the issues.


Q 5. Explain the evolutionary theories of human interpersonal attraction.

Ans) According to the evolutionary theory of human interpersonal attraction, opposite-sex attraction occurs most frequently when someone has physical characteristics that indicate he or she is very fertile. Given that the primary goal of conjugal/romantic relationships is reproduction, it stands to reason that people would invest in partners who appear to be extremely fertile, increasing the likelihood of their genes being passed down to the next generation. This theory has been criticised for failing to explain relationships between same-sex couples or couples who do not wish to have children, though this may be due to the fact that whether one wishes to have children or not, one is still subject to the evolutionary forces that produce them.


Another evolutionary explanation suggests that men value fertility in a mate more than women. This theory holds that a woman places a high value on a man's ability to provide resources and protection. According to the theory, these resources and protection are critical in ensuring the successful raising of the woman's offspring. Because the underlying traits are likely to be passed down to male offspring, the ability to provide resources and protection may also be sought.


Evolutionary theory says attractive people have healthy-looking bodies. A healthy mate may pass on genetic health traits to offspring, says the theory. People prefer symmetrical faces over asymmetrical faces. Perfectly symmetrical faces were less attractive than normal faces, a study found. People are also drawn to their own faces. Case studies show that when a woman's photo was superimposed with a man's face, he rated it as the most attractive. This theory says we want to replicate our own traits in the next generation because we've survived with them and want the same for our children.


According to evolutionary theory, love keeps two people together so that they can raise a child. Love keeps two people together, which aids in the raising of a child. A man and a woman who love each other, for example, would be together and work together to raise a child. Back in the tribal days, when much of human evolution occurred, it would almost certainly take two people to successfully raise an offspring, and a mother with a supportive partner would almost certainly have more surviving offspring than a mother without such a partner. As a result, people with the ability to form love would have more children than those who did not. And these offspring would be born with love genes. As a result, the genes for love became more common, and most people today have the ability to love.


Q 6. Describe intervention to reduce aggression.

Ans) Intervention to reduce aggression should ideally begin at a young age because conduct disorder can be reliably detected early, has high continuity, is treatable at a young age, and is extremely difficult to eradicate in older children.

Some of the methods of Intervention to reduce aggression are:


1. Parent Training Programmes for Reducing Antisocial Behaviour in Children

Individual psychotherapy, whether psychodynamic or cognitive behavioural, pharmacotherapy, general eclectic family work, or formal family therapy have little published evidence that they are effective in treating conduct disorder. However, behaviourally based parenting programmes have consistently been shown to be effective. Patterson and colleagues, for example, demonstrated that directly instructing parents while they interact with their children results in a significant and long-term reduction in behavioural problems.


2. Developing a Programme

It is preferable to organise a training programme for parents and adolescent children, which can be accomplished by bringing together two or three disciplines. To achieve results, professionals must be trained in specific methods, which necessitates the use of a manual and a training facility staffed by highly qualified trainers. Most consistently effective programmes include at least ten sessions; however, a booster session several months later is recommended to maximise the effects. Also, because teenage treatments have only minor effects, intervention should begin as soon as possible.


3. Training Using Videotapes

One-on-one treatment is effective, but treating more people requires a more cost-effective approach. Videos could show parents and kids in everyday situations. They show "right" and "wrong" child-handling techniques to illustrate how parents' behaviour affects their child's behaviour. 10-14 parents attend a 2-hour weekly session for 12 weeks. Two therapists lead the group and encourage discussion, so members understand the principles; role play is used to practise the new techniques. Each week, problem-solving homework is assigned and reviewed.


4. Other Training Programmes

Among more intensive programmes, puckering et al's involves one day per week for 16 weeks. This programme has been shown to improve parenting in severely damaged families and allow children to be removed from "at risk" child protection registers.


5. Failure of Parent Training

Aggression is frequently caused by faulty parental behaviour, which is often the result of parental psychiatric issues such as depression, drug and alcohol problems, and personality difficulties.


6. Management of Hyperactivity

Hyperactivity and conduct disorder are different, but often coexist. Differentiate psychological treatment. Rewards should be more conditional and frequently changed. Subdivide tasks. Because they can't generalise, they need clear, specific rules. School is difficult because concentration is required, other children are distracting, and adult supervision is low. Applying the above principles can improve things.


7. Interventions at Schools

Early preventive education programmes have been shown to reduce later aggressive behaviour.


Q 7. Explain the nature and characteristics of attitudes.

Ans) An evaluation of an item that can be positive, negative, or mixed, and that is communicated with a certain level of intensity is referred to as an attitude. A favourable or unfavourable assessment of a person, place, thing, or event is communicated through this expression. These are the primary factors that determine how we understand and respond to the various components of our social environment. A complex organisation of evaluative beliefs, feelings, and tendencies toward particular actions is what we mean when we talk about attitudes.


Nature of Attitude

These three aspects of attitude each have certain characteristics, and it is essential to comprehend these aspects in order to have a complete comprehension of the nature of attitudes.

  1. Valence: This term refers to the extent to which the situation is favourable or unfavourable to the object or event in question.

  2. Multiplexity: Multiplexity is a characteristic of attitude components. It refers to the number of elements in a component. The greater the number of elements in a component, the more complex it is.

  3. Consistency: It is more common among valence factors than multiplexity.


Characteristics of Attitudes


Attitude is learnt: A person is not born with an attitude; rather, it is acquired through the process of becoming an acceptable member of the group to which he or she belongs. A person's attitude is also formed by his or her life experiences. These experiences and socialisation processes may predispose a person favourably or unfavourably to the object or event under consideration.


Attitude gives direction: Attitude influences our behaviour by directing it either away from or toward an object. A favourable attitude toward education, for example, will compel a person to send his children to school for formal education in order to better their lives, whereas an unfavourable attitude may compel him not to send his children to school.


Relative permanency: It means that attitudes remain stable over time and that changes in them occur gradually.


Attitude is always related to some issue, object or thing: This means that the occurrence of some event, thing, or person is required for the development of attitude. Attitudes do not form in a vacuum.


Attitude has motivational properties: Some behaviours are more easily motivated by attitude than others. For example, a person with a positive attitude toward sports may prefer to play rather than read a book.


Q 8. Discuss the two dimensional model for conflict resolution.

Ans) This model presumes that all sorts of conflict handling behaviour can be understood in terms of two dimensions i.e., assertiveness and cooperation. These two basic dimensions of behaviour define five different modes for responding to conflict situations:


  1. Competing is assertive and uncooperative—An individual pursues his or her own interests at the expense of another. This is a power-oriented mode in which you use whatever power seems appropriate to win your own position—argumentation, rank, or economic sanctions. Competing entails "standing up for your rights," defending a position you believe to be correct, or simply attempting to win.

  2. Accommodating is unassertive and cooperativethe exact opposite of competing When an individual is accommodating, he ignores his own concerns in order to satisfy the concerns of the other person; there is an element of self-sacrifice in this mode. Selfless generosity or charity, obeying another person's order when you would prefer not to, or yielding to another's point of view are all examples of accommodating.

  3. Avoiding is unassertive and uncooperative—The individual neither pursues his own nor the other person's concerns. As a result, he avoids dealing with the conflict. Avoiding can take the form of diplomatically avoiding an issue, deferring an issue until a better time, or simply withdrawing from a potentially dangerous situation.

  4. Collaborating is both assertive and cooperative—the polar opposite of avoiding Collaborating entails attempting to work with others to find a solution that fully addresses their concerns. It entails delving into a problem to determine the underlying needs and desires of the two people. Exploring a disagreement to learn from each other's insights or attempting to find a creative solution to an interpersonal problem are two examples of collaboration between two people.

  5. Compromising is moderate in both assertiveness and cooperativeness. The goal is to find a quick, mutually agreeable solution that partially satisfies both parties. It is somewhere in the middle of competing and accommodating. Giving up more than competing but less than accommodating is what compromise entails. Similarly, it addresses an issue more directly than avoiding, but not as thoroughly as collaborating. Compromise may imply splitting the difference between two positions, exchanging concessions, or seeking a quick middle-ground solution in some situations.


Each of us is capable of employing all five conflict-resolution strategies. Nobody can be described as having a single approach to conflict resolution. However, some people use certain modes better than others and, as a result, rely on those modes more heavily than others—whether due to temperament or practise.



Section C


Answer the following in about 50 words each: Marks 10x3=30


Q 9. Characteristics of group.

Ans) Group characteristics include norms, values, and beliefs. If a person finds the new group's standards, norms, beliefs, and values appealing, he may change his attitude. Position in the new group is another membership characteristic. If a new position confers more status, power, and prestige, a person's attitude toward the group may change.


Q 10. Measurement of group dynamics.

Ans) Measuring group dynamics helps understand a group's behaviour as a whole and its members. Group Climate Questionnaire, Group Cohesiveness Scale, and Group Work Engagement measure group dynamics. Synergy created by working in groups transcends individual efforts. Group dynamics promote member participation and satisfaction to achieve the group goal.


Q 11. Schemas

Ans) Schemas are useful tools for organising and making sense of information. The vast amounts of data present in our environment can be more easily interpreted with the assistance of schemas. Data that is organised in memory are called schemas. Schemas are useful because they enable us to organise and make sense of new information, as well as represent how the social world functions.


Q 12. Ethical issues in Social Psychology

Ans) Concerns of an ethical nature arise in the field of psychology whenever the rights of research participants come into direct conflict with the collection of genuine, valid, and meaningful data. Concerns regarding ethics are shared by all those engaged in psychological research. Whether they are a practitioner or a user of psychology, everyone should be aware of the role ethical guidelines play in applying psychology to problems that occur in the real world.


Q 13. Obedience

Ans) A person who acts in obedience to a direct order from another person, typically an authority figure, is exhibiting a type of social influence. It is assumed that the person would not have acted in this way if such an order had not been made. You must comply with orders given to you by people in positions of authority. Obedience involves a hierarchy of power and status. Because of this, the person giving the order is in a better position than the one receiving it. Obeying someone else's commands is referred to as obedience.


Q 14. Altruism

Ans) Altruism is broadly defined as any voluntary act performed to benefit another without expectation of recompense. Altruism is the principle and moral practise of caring about the welfare and/or happiness of other humans or animals, resulting in a material and spiritual quality of life. It is a traditional virtue in many cultures and a foundational component of many religious and secular worldviews.


Q 15. Social Learning theory

Ans) According to social learning theory, pro-social behaviour can be taught. Albert Bandura's social learning theory places a strong emphasis on the value of observing, modelling, and replicating other people's behaviours, attitudes, and emotional responses. In order to understand how environmental and cognitive factors interact to affect human learning and behaviour, social learning theory is used.


Q 16. Stereotypes

Ans) A stereotype is a set of beliefs about members of a group that lacks a rational basis. A stereotype, according to Albrecht, Thomas, and Chadwick, is a belief that a particular trait is shared by all members of a social group. Whatever the characteristic, it is assumed that all people share it. As a result, all members of the group are perceived and understood similarly.


Q 17. Overt Conflict

Ans) Overt conflict is social conflict that is brought into the open and discussed openly. The competition between the two parties is cutthroat and head-on. A more straightforward illustration of this would be a debate, in which one speaker emphasises and justifies his own point while calling into question the validity of the point being made by the opponent. The obvious objective is to come out on top against the competition and secure the win.


Q 18. Group Development

Ans) Group development is the process by which members of newly formed work teams learn about their teammates, establish their roles and responsibilities, and acquire the task work and teamwork skills needed to coordinate their effort to perform effectively as a team. After a while, members want to be a part of the group, but they also want to maintain their own identity and independence.

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