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MPCE-013: Psychotherapeutic methods

MPCE-013: Psychotherapeutic methods

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MPCE-013/ASST/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MPCE-013

Assignment Name: Psychotherapeutic Methods

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


NOTE: All questions are compulsory.




Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3x15=45


Q1) Explain behaviour change strategies based on operant conditioning.

Ans) This entails changing the stimuli settings in which behaviours are triggered, encouraging the occurrence of, and reinforcing desired behaviours, putting an end to and/or punishing undesirable behaviours, and lessening the reinforcing effects of circumstances that encourage undesirable behaviours.


Stimulus Control

Operant behaviours don't happen in a vacuum; they are influenced by both external and internal stimuli and are more common in some situations than others. In other words, discriminative stimuli exist for all operant behaviours and tend to cue the response. Unlike the CS, which activates the CR, discriminative cues set the occasion for the behaviour, increasing, or decreasing the likelihood that it will occur.


Increasing Desirable Behaviours

The most typical operant strategy involves rewarding positive behaviour. And even when the focus is on another strategy, like extinction, this should normally be included in all operant programmes.

  1. Reinforcement: We must determine what is truly reinforcing to the person, not what we believe should. Asking the person what reinforcing a smart way is to identify reinforcers. In some cases, a customer won't find something reinforcing until he has had some recent experience with it. A mentally ill patient who hasn't used the phone in years might not find talking to a relative on the phone to be reassuring. Reinforcer sampling is the term used for this process.


Strategies for Initiating Behaviours

The desired behaviour must first be carried out in order to reinforce it. Waiting for a catatonic to speak before reinforcing his talking would not be a successful strategy if he has been silent for five years. Utilizing strategies to assist in the initiation of the behaviours to be reinforced is thus a crucial component of the operant method. This can be accomplished in a variety of methods, such as moulding, modelling, fading, punishing, and guiding.

  1. Shaping: The act of shaping, also known as sequential approximation, involves reinforcing actions that progressively resemble the intended behaviour. Using consecutive approximations in tiny enough increments to make it simple to move from one to the next is the key to shaping. It might not be advisable to begin by attempting to meditate for an hour if one is aiming to develop the capacity to meditate for lengthy periods of time.

  2. Modelling: In modelling, a person's behaviour is altered as a result of observing the behaviour of the model, a different individual. So, a good strategy to start a behaviour, especially with a child, is to have them watch someone else engaging in the desired behaviour and then to encourage imitation of that behaviour. A client who is learning how to conduct a job interview may first observe the practitioner demonstrate suitable behaviours during a mock job interview.

  3. Fading: By gradually transforming the first circumstance into the second, fading involves taking a behaviour that occurs in one context and getting it to occur in another. A young child may act calm and compliant at home but become afraid and withdrawn if placed in an unfamiliar school all of a sudden. If the youngster is gradually exposed to conditions that resemble the classroom, this fear can be overcome. When a client picks up new behaviours in a constrained setting, like a clinic, hospital, or halfway house, fading is especially crucial.

  4. Punishment: When one behaviour is punished, it is repressed and makes room for other behaviours to emerge. One of these additional behaviours might be a desirable one that can be reinforced. Most of the time, this is not a desirable or particularly effective course of action.

  5. Guidance: The act of physically assisting someone to respond is guidance. This means that the client may be instructed to touch a frightened object as part of contact desensitisation or flooding. A client may receive guidance to master a manual skill, or a young infant beginning to speak may receive guidance on how to form his lips to create particular sounds.


Variables of Reinforcement

The efficiency of reinforcement is affected by a number of factors. The three most crucial factors are the quantity of reinforcement, the latency of reinforcement, and the reinforcement schedule.

  1. Amount of Reinforcement: Both quantity and quality of reinforcement are discussed here. With some exceptions and within certain bounds, the effect of reinforcement grows as reinforcement amount does.

  2. Delay of Reinforcement: The interval between a person's behaviour and the reinforcement of that behaviour is referred to here.

  3. Schedule of Reinforcement: This is the manner in which reinforcers and responses are connected. Whether all correct responses are reinforced equally or whether certain correct responses are reinforced more than others is the main difference between reinforcement schedules.


Facilitating Generalisation and Maintenance

An operant programme is frequently developed in a particular environment, such a clinic, hospital, or classroom. However, we often want the behaviours and skills that are encouraged and learned in this environment to persist and be maintained in other environments. The behaviours will typically transfer somewhat from our particular configuration to other settings; nonetheless, it is normally preferable to encourage this transfer. The following are some strategies for encouraging the generalisation and persistence of behaviours: Phase out the behaviour change reinforcements for the client and replace them with more "natural" types of reinforcement.



Programs that involve reinforcement have drawn a lot of criticism, especially when used in schools. Many critics believe it is improper to reward someone for doing something they ought to be doing, to some observers, this reeks of bribery. Another typical complaint is that once individuals start expecting rewards for everything they accomplish, they will stop working. This could promote avarice or encourage the individual to do badly in order to receive rewards for their goodness. Another objection is based on the fact that there is conflicting evidence showing that using extrinsic reinforcement may lessen intrinsic drive in some circumstances.


Q2) Describe the use of various psychotherapy with older adults.

Ans) Ageism, or the discrimination of individuals based only on their age, has taken a while for society to become conscious of it. Ageism is only now beginning to register in the collective consciousness of policy makers and therapists, whereas racism, casteism, and sexism, for instance, have been addressed in statute law around the world. It is intriguing to analyse the contradiction that, in contrast to "isms" that oppress minority groups in society, prejudice based on a shared experience has progressed rather slowly in terms of public consciousness. There could be a number of causes for this, including the fact that older individuals tend to age more quickly than younger people do, the necessity for strong denial-based defences to fend off terrifying existential uncertainty, and the idea that "elderhood" died out in 20th-century Western civilization.


Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

The type of psychotherapy that is most frequently utilised with elderly patients is cognitive behavioural therapy. It has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and troublesome behaviours in the context of dementia in controlled clinical investigations. CBT has been demonstrated to be extremely helpful with depressive patients in both hospital and community settings, as well as in individual and group formats, in a series of studies with older persons in the USA by Gallagher-Thompson and colleagues. In a more recent trial, CBT was found to be both effective and superior to supportive counselling in terms of improvement in anxiety symptoms and self-rating of anxiety and depression over a 12-month period. The trial compared the effects of CBT vs. supportive counselling on anxiety symptoms in older adults.


Cognitive Analytic Therapy

With the goal of facilitating a quick, systematic, and collaborative therapeutic journey from past trauma towards reconnection with conversation and meaning, cognitive analytic therapy is a contemporary fusion of analytic and cognitive psychotherapy traditions. Although the model has only been around for a little over 20 years and the evidence base is still developing, there is interest in using it with older clients because of its emphasis on shared meaning within the context of the client's life storey and the significance it places on "dialogue," both cathartic and reparative, in the therapeutic relationship. Recently, traditional ideas from psychiatry and psychoanalytic theory have been applied to later life from a CAT viewpoint.


Psychodynamic Therapy

This wide variety of therapies has been extensively discussed in relation to later life and draws heavily from the work of Freud, Klein, and Jung. There is some scientific support for the idea that psychodynamic therapy for older patients is at least as helpful as CBT in treating depression. Developing understanding of repressed unconscious information from earlier life experiences and working with this material in the therapy partnership are central to psychodynamic techniques. Experience has shown that the age of the client can have a significant impact on how the transference and countertransference components of treatment are structured.


Interpersonal Therapy

Interpersonal therapy is a practical, narrowly focused, brief, manual-based therapy that, following a period of basic training, can be used by a variety of specialists. There is solid data to support its effectiveness in treating depression in older adults, both in the acute phase and in relapse prevention, and its accessibility has sparked a great deal of interest in its usage with this population. Interpersonal therapy focuses on relationships that are disrupted and is divided into four domains:

  1. Role Transition,

  2. Role Dispute,

  3. Abnormal Grief

  4. Interpersonal Deficit.


A variety of therapy techniques are used to enhance communication, convey emotion, and encourage renegotiated role relationships, which reduce symptoms and enhance functionality. Interpersonal therapy is directly applicable to the relationship and developmental problems that affect persons in later age, according to experience in using it to work with older adults.


Systemic (Family) Therapy

A model that considers individuals in the context of their larger family and societal system appears to have broad applicability, despite the fact that the research foundation for the use of systemic approaches in work with older people is weak. Untangling the reinforcing elements in dysfunctional somatising and ill role behaviour in older persons, as well as conveying and processing the dementia diagnosis in a family setting, may both benefit from a systemic approach. Systemic techniques can be employed effectively in more formal therapy sessions that follow a well-established family therapy paradigm as well as in one-time therapeutic assessments.


Reminiscence/Life Review Therapy

Recalling the past as part of reminiscence therapy helps people feel more connected to others and more positive about themselves. RT usually takes place in a group setting where people are encouraged to remember and share experiences from the past. Personal items, newspapers, and/or music are frequently utilised to jog people's memories. The therapist typically chooses the subject for these sessions. Instead of being used as a clinical intervention for older adults who have serious mental health issues or personality disorders, this very popular counselling technique is frequently used with elderly people to help them gain perspective on their lives and is therefore popular in senior centres, residential settings, and retirement communities.


Psychotherapy In Dementia

The application and administration of psychotherapy services to persons with cognitive impairment is a significant subject that requires additional research. Progressive dementia affects the cognitive capacities of a sizeable minority of the senior population, and many of these people also experience co-morbid emotional discomfort. People with dementia are typically not viewed as suitable candidates for traditional psychotherapy due to their cognitive deficiencies, such as memory loss or a diminished ability to make decisions and solve problems.


The signs and actions of dementia patients should not be only seen as biological manifestations, but also as being influenced by social, psychological, and environmental circumstances. As a result, psychological therapies can be beneficial for dementia patients. A variety of CBT, environmental, and supportive interventions may aid cognitively impaired older adults in reducing negative behaviours and excessive disabilities, increasing, or maintaining positive behaviours, improving memory, or learning coping mechanisms to manage cognitive decline, improving quality of life, reducing an excessive burden on health-care delivery systems, reducing symptoms of depression or anxiety, or assisting in the adjustment to multiple losses.


Q3) Explain the process of counselling in Roger’s client centred therapy.

Ans) According to Rogers, the counsellor should create an environment that would allow for self-discovery and support the client's innate desire for personal development. According to Rogers, the fundamental elements of counselling are congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy. These elements are thought to be both required and sufficient for therapeutic personality change.


One of the most common styles of psychological counselling is still the person-centered approach. It offers a framework, if not more so than a counselling technique. From Carl Rogers' original vantage point, customers are portrayed as persistently pursuing self-actualization. This upbeat outlook encouraged the spread of a counselling style in which clients are seen as their own best resources for development and change. Early non-directive therapy practised by Rogers evolved into client-centered treatment that placed an emphasis on accuracy in empathy. The Person Centered approach emphasises the reciprocal nature of the assisting relationship in its current form. A well-known set of assumptions about human nature and how the helping relationship, as opposed to the counselling process, works are at the foundation of this theory.


Consequently, rather than any specific technical expertise in Person-Centred Counselling, competent practitioners are those who have a high level of self-awareness and the ability to engage in a meaningful helpful relationship. Person-centered counselling, which values the distinct phenomenological perspective of the client, nevertheless adheres to the early work's hopeful and upbeat value foundation but today elaborates a more complex model of humanity.


The early work of Rogers is intrinsically related to the idea of fundamental conditions. The nomenclature has altered since then, but the idea behind the concept of basic conditions has largely not changed. The basic conditions are both required and sufficient for clients to experience therapeutic change, according to the model's original strong form. Later post-modern or sophisticated iterations of person-centered counselling incorporate additional, larger needs and assert that the conditions are the foundations for change.



It alludes to the counsellor’s capacity for in-depth comprehension of the client. In order to describe the client's particular experience of personal issues, Rogers uses the term "internal frame of reference." The counsellor must pay close attention to what is being said at every level of counselling in order to remain inside the client's internal frame of reference. Once the counsellor is aware of the client's emotions and experiences, the client needs to be told the same thing.


In order to explain the lack of comprehension and interaction, Rogers frequently uses the term external frame of reference. There is minimal possibility that a client's point of view will be clearly heard when a counsellor views the client from an outside frame of reference. This hinders the client's ability to gain from counselling.


Unconditional Positive Regard

People require warmth, acceptance, respect, and love from others, yet sadly, these qualities are frequently withheld. Rogers argued that for clients to feel understood and welcomed, counsellors should show them unconditional positive regard or warmth because so many people who seek counselling had encountered these attitudes. This implies that clients are valued unconditionally, regardless of how they perceive themselves to be—bad, negative, afraid, or abnormal. Clients are more likely to accept themselves and grow more confident in their ability to manage when warm, accepting attitudes are present during counselling.


Genuineness and Congruence

The therapeutic alliance in person-centered therapy must always be sincere. In the counselling interaction, the counsellor must be sincere and genuine. Person-Centered Therapy cannot be practised by those who are unable to embrace others or who refuse to listen and make an effort to comprehend. The therapist must exhibit the attitude of authenticity, empathise with the client from the client's internal frame of reference, and have unwavering positive esteem for the client. The client's tendency to actualize is encouraged when they sense the therapist's empathetic understanding and unconditional positive regard.



If there are any unfavourable thoughts about a client, they will be expressed because of transparency. The therapist expresses a non-possessive affection for the patient and, with time, develops the empathy necessary to comprehend the patient well enough to walk in their shoes.



The next requirement, concreteness, refers to the counsellor's ability to direct the client's conversation toward specific instances, ideas, and emotions that are significant while preventing intellectualised narrative telling. Concreteness serves as a safeguard against the rambling that can happen when the other three elements are applied without giving the client's subjects enough thought. The client will be free to uncover and express the positive essence of his being if the counsellor is wholly receptive of each client as a person, relates emphatically to the client's reality, and conducts in a genuine manner. Clients will perform better as they begin to view themselves more favourably in the nurturing setting. Counsellors act as role models for their clients, showing them how to interact with others in a healthy way and creating the caring environment that is lacking in their lives.



It is debatable to what extent person-centered therapists may reveal and express themselves in person-centered interactions. There is considerable consensus, nonetheless, that readiness to be known, self-expression, and self-disclosure are distinct from congruence. From the therapist's point of view, the therapist responds to the client. The therapist should be open to discussing the development and outcome of therapy. Many people hold the opinion that, occasionally and in certain circumstances, disclosing one's own identity to a customer may be a good idea. This topic is frequently discussed.


Cultural Awareness in Client Centered Counselling

Recognizing the importance of culture can enhance therapy and lead to good treatment for all clients in culture-centered counselling. This strategy calls for acknowledging cultural presumptions and developing the knowledge and abilities to go past them, which can be done regardless of the type of therapy a therapist employs. Being conscious of cultural variations includes understanding how different cultures may utilise different standards for volume, delivery speed, silence, eye contact, gestures, attentiveness, and reaction rate during communication.





Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5x5=25


Q1) Explain dysfunctional thinking.

Ans) A belief is said to be irrational if it prevents a person from attaining their goals, produces intense, enduring feelings that discomfort and immobilise a person, and motivates actions that are harmful to oneself, other people, and one's life in general. It includes illogical methods for judging oneself, other people, and the outside environment.


The Three Levels of Thinking

Human beings appear to think at three levels Inferences; Evaluations; and Core beliefs.


Seven Inferential Distortions

Events and conditions in daily life set off two levels of thought: inferring and assessing. At the most basic level, we hazard educated predictions or judgments about what we believe has occurred, is occurring, or will occur. Inferences are assertions about reality. Irrational inferences frequently include distortions of reality like the following:

  1. Black and White Thinking: This is a reference to having a binary perspective on things, where everything is either good or awful, perfect, or useless, success or failure, right or wrong, moral, or immoral, etc.

  2. Filtering: This is the act of focusing only on the negative aspects of oneself or the outside environment, while dismissing any advantages.

  3. Over-Generalisation: When someone builds up one aspect of themselves or their life, they may come to believe that it encompasses everything.

  4. Mind-Reading: Making assumptions about what other people are thinking.

  5. Fortune-Telling: Ideas regarding the future should be viewed as actual realities rather than as hypothetical conjectures.

  6. Emotional Reasoning: This relates to the belief that something is the way it is just because we feel that way.

  7. Personalising: This entails presuming, without proof, that one is to blame for events that occur.



Irrational evaluations, according to REBT, can be classified into one or more of the following four categories: The following four are covered:

  1. Demandingness is characterised by the way people utilise absolute musts and unconditional shoulds, believing that certain things must happen or must not, and that certain circumstances are absolutely necessary.

  2. Awfulizing: Making something seem as if it would be the worst possible outcome by exaggerating its effects on past, present, or future events.

  3. Uncomfortability intolerance is also known as can't-stand-it-itis: This is predicated on the notion that some situations or events are intolerable. It frequently comes after awfulizing and results in requests that specific events not take place.

  4. The evaluation of one's full self is referred to as people rating. Alternatively, attempting to assess a person's whole worth or value. It shows an oversimplification. The individual assesses a particular quality, behaviour, or action in light of some criterion of desirability or value.


Core Beliefs

A person's essential beliefs serve as a guide for their conclusions and assessments. The fundamental, overarching ideas and principles that direct how people respond to situations and events in their life are known as core beliefs. They go by a number of titles in the CBT literature, including schema, general norms, major beliefs, and underlying philosophy. Both REBT and CT put out somewhat distinct core beliefs.


Q2) Describe the different types of groups.

Ans) There are numerous group types in the field of group psychotherapy. Group therapy may employ verbal, expressive, psycho-dramatic, and other modalities. The methods might range from behavioural to Gestalt to psychoanalytic, as well as encounter groups. The types of groups range from traditional psychotherapy groups, where the focus is on the process, to psycho educational groups, which are more like classes. Relationships, anger, stress management, and other common areas of concern are typically the focus of psychoeducational groups. In a managed care setting, they are typically more time-limited and so very enticing. Each strategy has benefits and downsides, therefore the participant should ask the expert which one best suits her or his particular personality. Unusual groups include:

  1. T-Groups: These teams are practise teams. These are comparatively loosely structured groups where the learners take ownership of what they learn and how they learn it. The idea that learning is more successful when people build genuine relationships with one another is a fundamental one that applies to T-groups.

  2. Sensitivity Groups: It is a type of T-group that concentrates on a person's personal development as well as interpersonal and personal difficulties. Sensitivity groups provide a strong emphasis on self-insight, which implies that each individual participant is the main focus rather than the group as a whole and its progress.

  3. Encounter Groups: These groups belong to the T-group family as well, but they focus more on treatment. This group places a strong emphasis on interpersonal connection building and improvement through interactive group processes. These groups aim to help members reach their full potential.

  4. Marathon Groups: Marathon groups are a common name for extended encounter groups. The participants' defences are breached by the marathon encounter group over an extended period of time using a combination of exhaustion and massed experience.

  5. Task Groups: These groups are set up either to serve the purposes of the organisation through task forces or other organisational groups, or to satisfy the needs of the clients directly through initiatives like social action groups. These organisations usually find these groups to be helpful when looking for methods to enhance their operations.

  6. Psycho Education Groups: These provide an emphasis on the development of cognitive and behavioural skills in settings designed to impart these abilities and information. These organisations focus more on guidance than counselling or treatment.

  7. Mini Groups: A micro group typically has a maximum of four clients and one counsellor. There may be certain benefits due to the more regular and direct connection of its members due to the lower number of participants.

  8. In Groups and Out Groups: These classifications may be based on virtually any criterion, including social standing, artistic or athletic prowess, a particular talent, etc. In-groups are characterised by associations that are primarily limited to peers who have similar qualities, whereas out-groups are made up of people who are not included in in-groups.


Q3) Discuss therapeutical approaches in case of terminal illness

Ans) Psychotherapy with terminally ill patients had received relatively little systematic consideration prior to Elisabeth Kubler-Ross' ground-breaking book, "On Death and Dying." The humanistic method outlined by Bowers, Jackson, Knight, and LeShan in their book "Counselling the Dying" was a significant exception to this neglect. But Kubler-Ross, who offered an integrated theoretical and therapeutic approach for use with the dying patient, was undoubtedly the main driving force.


The Psychodynamic Approach

The emotional problems and coping strategies of the individual are the main topics of the psychodynamic approaches. This method addresses the unique conflict and defence concerns that occur in the dying person in the hopes of fully resolving the psychic crisis. As the culmination of ego growth, death is accompanied by severe intrapsychic upheaval. Erik Erickson, a psychoanalyst, refers to the final stage of ego development as "ego integrity versus despair" and associates it with the crisis brought on by facing one's mortality. The fear of dying may cause previously integrated ego functioning to break down, leading to a dejected and disgusted attitude.


The Humanistic Approach

The humanistic concept of therapy obviously incorporates a philosophy of human nature in which death plays a crucial part more so than other approaches. The humanistic approach has been significantly influenced by the philosophy of existentialism, which holds that facing death's reality is a necessary part of living a happy life. Understanding death allows us to define our beliefs and life's purpose and inspires us to live each day to the fullest. The greatest existential fear is death, which compels us to realise the limitations of our life goals and to confront emptiness.


The Behavioural Approach

The behavioural approach to treatment focuses on teaching patients better coping mechanisms to assist them handle the death crisis. Anxiety and sadness are strong emotional reactions that are brought on by the extreme stress of impending mortality and prevent people from living out the rest of their lives in a way that is satisfying. Some common behavioural strategies can help you partially control the symptoms of the dying patient.


Family Approach

The entire family is in a state of panic when a family member's death is imminent. For each member of the dying person's family, death poses a dangerous circumstance. The function of the dying family member, the family's developmental stage, and the nature of the relationships between family members are only a few of the numerous variables that affect the degree of family disturbance. A family systems approach sees the whole family as in need of therapy, not just the dying individual. This strategy aims to provide the family unit a chance to develop coping mechanisms after the disaster. After the patient has passed away, some therapists will still see them and provide grieving support to the survivors.


Q4) Explain the features of psychodynamic technique.

Ans) The characteristics of psychodynamic treatment are discussed in the list of features that follows.

  1. Psychodynamic therapy promotes conversation and exploration of a patient's whole spectrum of emotions. The therapist assists the patient in putting feelings into words, including conflicting emotions, unsettling or threatening emotions, and sentiments that they may not initially be able to recognise or admit. It is also acknowledged that emotional understanding, which resonates deeply and inspires change, is distinct from intellectual insight.

  2. People make many efforts, both consciously and unconsciously, to avoid unpleasant aspects of experience. This avoidance may manifest in crude ways like skipping sessions, showing up late, or acting evasively. It may manifest in subtle ways that are challenging to spot in everyday social discourse, such as subtly changing the subject when certain ideas come up, focusing on incidental rather than psychologically significant aspects of an experience, paying attention to facts and events at the expense of affect, focusing on outside factors rather than one's own role in shaping events, and so on.

  3. Finding and exploring recurrent themes and patterns in patients' thoughts, feelings, self-concepts, relationships, and life events is the goal of psychodynamic therapy. Sometimes, a patient may be vividly aware of repeated habits that are uncomfortable or counterproductive but feel powerless to change them.

  4. The understanding that past experience, particularly early encounters with attachment figures, affects our relationship to and experience of the present is related to the identification of recurrent themes and patterns. Early experiences, the connection between the past and the present, and the ways in which the past tends to persist in the present are all topics covered by psychodynamic therapists.

  5. Psychodynamic treatment focuses a strong emphasis on the connections and interpersonal experiences of its patients. In the framework of attachment relationships, both adaptive and nonadaptive parts of personality and self-concept are formed, and psychological issues frequently appear when dysfunctional interpersonal patterns obstruct a person's capacity to meet emotional needs.

  6. The therapeutic connection is a crucial interpersonal one that has the potential to be intensely significant and emotionally fraught. If a person exhibits recurring patterns in their relationships and interactions, these patterns frequently surface within a therapeutic engagement. Exploration of fantasy life: In contrast to other therapies, psychodynamic therapy encourages patients to speak freely about whatever is on their minds. This is in contrast to other therapies, in which the therapist may actively plan sessions or follow a predetermined agenda. Patients that engage in this naturally have thoughts that cover a wide spectrum of mental states, including wants, worries, fantasies, dreams, and daydreams.


Q5) Explain integrative psychotherapy with examples.

Ans) An overview of the numerous theoretical approaches to therapy that theorists and practitioners have attempted to incorporate. We might feel more at ease considering how we might pursue this same path after looking at how others have combined their therapy with various notions and strategies. A variety of techniques, such as technical eclecticism, theoretical integration, assimilative integration, common factors, multi-theoretical psychotherapy, and helping skills integration, have been employed by clinicians to integrate the various counselling theories or psychotherapies.



Eclecticism may be summed up as a way of thinking that uses a variety of hypotheses to explain occurrences rather than adhering firmly to one paradigm or set of premises. Eclectics are occasionally criticised for their lack of coherence in thought.


Differences between Eclecticism and Psychotherapy Integration

Eclectic therapists frequently don't require or have a theoretical foundation for comprehending or applying a certain technique. They choose a counselling strategy since it is effective and successful.


Theoretical Integration

As Dollard and Miller did with psychoanalysis and behaviour therapy, the objective is to incorporate not only therapy practises but also the underlying psychological theories. Because it involves a synthesis of many models of personality functioning, psychopathology, and psychological transformation, theoretical integration is said to give fresh perspectives at both the theoretical and practical levels.


Assimilative Integration

While establishing a solid foundation in one system of psychotherapy, the assimilative integration approach to psychotherapy aims to strategically include techniques and viewpoints from various systems. Assimilative integrationists base their work on a single, cohesive theoretical framework, but they also draw on a wide range of technical innovations from other frameworks. Gold, who offered assimilative psychodynamic therapy, Castonguay et al., who supported cognitive-behavioural assimilative therapy, and Safran, who promoted both interpersonal and cognitive assimilative therapy, are all practitioners who identify as assimilative integrationists.


The Common Factor Approach

The common factors approach has been influenced by the studies and awards of eminent psychotherapy pioneers like Carl Rogers and Jerome Frank. It is evident that Rogers' contributions to common factors research have been so widely recognised by clinicians that his key principles are now covered in the foundational education of the majority of helping professions. Rogers' essential and sufficient requirements have been expanded upon by researchers and theorists to construct the therapeutic partnership.


Multi-Theoretical Approaches

Multitheoretical therapeutic techniques have been developed by therapists. Theoretical synthesis of two or more theories is not a goal of multitheoretical frameworks. Instead, there is a push to preserve the important discoveries of major systems of psychotherapy while bringing some structure to the chaotic variation in the area of psychotherapy.


The Transtheoretical Model

The transtheoretical model created by Prochaska and DiClemente has been the most well-known model using a multitheoretical framework. The transtheoretical model is a behavioural change paradigm that has served as the foundation for the creation of successful interventions to support positive behavioural change. Important concepts from different counselling models are incorporated. The approach explains how clients alter problematic behaviour or how they adopt constructive habits.





Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10x3=30


Q1) Transference

Ans) As it arises in a psychotherapy setting, it is one type of projective identification. However, by including many instances in which a typical person's perceptions and affective responses toward the self and others are significantly influenced by the activation of significant relationship representations from the past, the term has been expanded to almost be synonymous with projective identification.


Q2) Psychosocial tasks of middle adulthood

Ans) Most people associate middle adulthood with the iconic midlife crisis, a period of self-reflection that causes people to doubt their core principles and beliefs. A person's midlife crisis may also lead to a divorce, a change in employment, or a move from the city to the suburbs. As middle-aged people become aware of their mortality and the fact that they have not yet achieved all of their desired goals in life, the crisis typically starts to develop in their early to mid-40s.


Q3) Weisman’s four stages of dying


  1. Existential Plight: The realisation of one's own mortality shocks the dying individual emotionally to the core.

  2. Mitigation and Accommodation: After initially knowing that the condition is terminal, the person tries to continue a normal life.

  3. Decline and Deterioration: This stage starts when a person's sickness and its treatment start to completely take over their life and normal living becomes impossible.

  4. Pre-Terminality and Terminality: This last stage denotes the point at which treatment is ineffective and the "death watch" starts.


Q4) Unconditional positive regard

Ans) People require warmth, acceptance, respect, and love from others, yet sadly, these qualities are frequently withheld. Rogers argued that for clients to feel understood and welcomed, counsellors should show them unconditional positive regard or warmth because so many people who seek counselling had encountered these attitudes. This implies that clients are valued unconditionally, regardless of how they perceive themselves to be bad, negative, afraid, or abnormal. Clients are more likely to accept themselves and grow more confident in their ability to manage when warm, accepting attitudes are present during counselling.


Q5) Active Listening

Ans) Active listening and its reflection of information and feelings is the primary method prioritised in client-centered treatment. In order to show empathy for the customer, listening skills must be extremely attentive and interactive. Leaning in toward the clients while facing them and maintaining eye contact are normal physical actions in this situation. The therapists and clients will at least initially come into touch through this position and the usage of facial and bodily expressions that are relevant to the client's comments. The therapists then hear and observe what is said.


Q6) Timing of events model

Ans) To explain such events as the midlife transition and the midlife crisis, the science of life span development appears to be shifting away from a normative crisis model and toward a timing of events model. In contrast to the latter model, which characterises psychosocial activities as occurring in response to specific life events and their timing, the former model describes psychosocial tasks as occurring in a clear age-related sequence.


Q7) Multisystemic Therapy

Ans) This is a holistic and integrated strategy to treating antisocial behaviour and difficulties with teenage conduct. MST strives to restructure several layers of the youth's environment in order to promote pro-social functioning, in contrast to traditional, comprehensive treatments that remove the adolescent from his or her social milieu by placing them in residential treatment settings. The ecological model of development proposed by Bronfenbrenner places individual behaviour in the context of numerous, layered settings.


Q8) Stress Inoculation

Ans) The first is stress inoculation combined with anger management training. This intervention is based on the premise that young people with aggressive and delinquent behaviours have significant challenges expressing and controlling their anger. The goal of therapy is to teach young people how to recognise the cues that trigger their anger, how to control their immediate reactions to anger with self-instruction, how to control their level of arousal with relaxation or self-instruction techniques, and how to think through the effects of aggressive behaviour or explosive anger.


Q9) Narrative Therapy

Ans) This treatment uses how we make meaning of experience by building personal narratives. Therapy stimulates contemplation and can turn problem-filled narratives into good ones. The emphasis on language might be off-putting for children, but externalisation tactics can make the child feel less blamed and engage the child with the family in addressing the problem. Narrative therapists consider problem-solvers as experts, which may help children feel engaged and less blamed. The emphasis on narrative suggests linkages with stories and storytelling themes common to children. Narrative therapists also look for unique outcomes and positive exceptions, which may help children feel less blamed.


Q10) Schema

Ans) In relational databases, the term schema refers to the arrangement of data as a blueprint for how the database is built, divided into database tables. Integrity restrictions placed on a database serve as the formal definition of a database schema. Schema is the database's overarching description. Schema refers to the fundamental organisation of the data that will be kept in the database.

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