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MPCE-031: Organisational Behaviour

MPCE-031: Organisational Behaviour

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MPCE-031/TMA/2022

Course Code: MPCE-031

Assignment Name: Organizational Behaviour

Year: 2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Section A


Answer the following questions in 500 words each.


Q1) Discuss the managerial implications of the expectancy theory and equity theory of motivation.

Ans) The expectancy theory and equity theory of motivation are two of the most popular motivational theories that offer unique managerial implications for organizations. Both theories focus on the relationships between employees and their work environment, including the work expectations, perceived fairness, and rewards.


Expectancy Theory of Motivation

The expectancy theory of motivation, proposed by Victor Vroom, suggests that individuals will be motivated to work if they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance and good performance will lead to desirable rewards. The theory posits that motivation is influenced by three factors: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. Expectancy refers to the belief that effort will lead to performance. Instrumentality refers to the belief that performance will lead to rewards, and valence refers to the value that individuals place on the rewards they will receive. The managerial implications of the expectancy theory of motivation are as follows:

  1. Managers should provide clear expectations to employees regarding their performance, and how it relates to the rewards they receive. This will help employees understand the relationship between their efforts and the outcomes they are likely to achieve.

  2. Managers should ensure that the rewards they offer are perceived as valuable by their employees. If employees do not value the rewards, they will be less motivated to put in the effort to achieve them.

  3. Managers should provide employees with the necessary resources and support to enable them to perform their jobs effectively. This will help to improve employee confidence in their ability to achieve good performance.


Equity Theory of Motivation

The equity theory of motivation, proposed by J. Stacy Adams, suggests that individuals are motivated when they perceive that they are being treated fairly in comparison to others. The theory posits that motivation is influenced by two factors: internal and external equity.

Internal equity refers to an individual's perception of fairness in relation to their own input and output ratios, while external equity refers to an individual's perception of fairness in relation to the input and output ratios of others. The managerial implications of the equity theory of motivation are as follows:

  1. Managers should ensure that the policies and procedures related to reward systems are perceived as fair by employees. For example, if two employees perform the same job, they should receive the same rewards.

  2. Managers should provide employees with opportunities to express their opinions and feedback on organizational policies and procedures. This will help employees feel that their opinions are valued and that their contributions are recognized.

  3. Managers should ensure that employees have access to relevant information about the organization's policies and procedures, as well as the reward system. This will help to improve employees' understanding of how the reward system operates, and how they can influence it.

  4. Managers should encourage employees to participate in decision-making processes related to their work. This will help employees feel that they have a sense of ownership in the organization, and that their opinions are valued.


Both the expectancy theory and equity theory of motivation offer useful managerial implications for organizations. By considering these theories, managers can create a work environment that is motivating and conducive to high performance. By providing clear expectations, valuable rewards, and fairness in the workplace, managers can help to increase employee motivation and job satisfaction, leading to a more productive workforce.


Q2) Discuss the characteristic features and classification of different styles of leadership.

Ans) Leadership is a critical component of effective management, and different styles of leadership are suited to different situations. There are many different approaches to classifying leadership styles, but one of the most common is based on the characteristics of the leader, including their personality, values, and beliefs. Here are some of the most recognized leadership styles and their characteristics:


  1. Autocratic Leadership: Autocratic leaders tend to make decisions without consulting their team members. They tend to be highly controlling and authoritarian in their approach to leadership. This style is often used in situations where there is a high level of urgency, such as during a crisis or emergency.

  2. Transformational Leadership: Transformational leaders inspire and motivate their followers to achieve their potential. They are visionaries who seek to make a difference in the world, and they are highly committed to their values and beliefs. They tend to be highly charismatic and inspirational, and they can inspire others to achieve great things.

  3. Democratic Leadership: Democratic leaders involve their team members in decision-making, and they value the opinions of their team members. This leadership style is characterized by an open and collaborative approach, where the leader seeks to build consensus and agreement among team members.

  4. Laissez-Faire Leadership: Laissez-faire leaders tend to be hands-off, providing minimal guidance and direction to their team members. This style is often used in situations where the team members are highly skilled and experienced, and where they can work independently with minimal supervision.

  5. Transactional Leadership: Transactional leaders focus on managing their team members through a system of rewards and punishments. They tend to be highly focused on achieving specific goals and targets, and they provide feedback and coaching to their team members to improve their performance.

  6. Servant Leadership: Servant leaders prioritize the needs of their team members above their own needs. They seek to support and empower their team members, and they take a collaborative approach to leadership.

  7. Bureaucratic Leadership Style: Bureaucratic leaders are a lot like autocratic leaders who want everyone on their team to follow all the rules to the letter. Under bureaucratic leadership, the organisation builds a clear hierarchy that shows what each team member is responsible for. They put a lot of importance on rules and structures and are very committed to the goals of the organisation.


In addition to these leadership styles, there are several other approaches to classifying leadership styles, including situational leadership and contingency theory. Situational leadership suggests that the most effective leadership style depends on the situation, and that a leader may need to adjust their style depending on the circumstances. Contingency theory suggests that the effectiveness of a leadership style depends on the match between the leader's style and the characteristics of the situation. In conclusion, there are many different leadership styles, each with its own characteristic features and strengths. The most effective leaders are those who can adapt their leadership style to the situation and the needs of their team members. By understanding the strengths and weaknesses of each leadership style, leaders can choose the most appropriate approach to meet their goals and achieve success.


Q3) Critically analyse the different models of organization.

Ans) Organizations are structured in different ways to achieve specific goals and objectives. There are several different models of organization, each with its own unique characteristics, strengths, and weaknesses. Here are some of the most recognized models of organization:


Bureaucratic Model

The bureaucratic model of organization is characterized by a hierarchical structure and a rigid set of rules and procedures. This model is often used in government agencies, large corporations, and other organizations where there is a need for consistency and standardization.

  1. Strengths: The bureaucratic model provides a clear chain of command and clearly defined roles and responsibilities, which can help to minimize confusion and increase efficiency.

  2. Weaknesses: The bureaucratic model can be slow to adapt to changing circumstances, and it can be difficult to innovate and make changes in a highly structured environment.


Flat Model

The flat model of organization is characterized by a decentralized structure with a minimum number of management layers. This model is often used in small and medium-sized businesses and startups.

  1. Strengths: The flat model encourages innovation and creativity, and it can be more responsive to changing circumstances.

  2. Weaknesses: The flat model can be challenging to manage, particularly as the organization grows and becomes more complex. Without clearly defined roles and responsibilities, it can be difficult to ensure that everyone is working towards the same goals.


Matrix Model

The matrix model of organization is characterized by a team-based approach, where employees are organized into cross-functional teams to work on specific projects or tasks. This model is often used in industries such as marketing and advertising, where there is a need for a collaborative approach.


  1. Strengths: The matrix model encourages collaboration and teamwork, and it can be an effective way to leverage the skills and expertise of employees from different departments.

  2. Weaknesses: The matrix model can be challenging to manage, particularly when there are conflicting priorities or competing goals. Without clear communication and coordination, it can be difficult to ensure that everyone is working towards the same goals.


Network Model

The network model of organization is characterized by a decentralized structure with a focus on building relationships and partnerships with other organizations. This model is often used in industries such as technology, where there is a need to collaborate and share resources with other organizations.


  1. Strengths: The network model encourages collaboration and innovation, and it can be an effective way to leverage the skills and resources of multiple organizations.

  2. Weaknesses: The network model can be challenging to manage, particularly when there are competing interests or conflicts between different organizations. Without clear communication and coordination, it can be difficult to ensure that everyone is working towards the same goals.


Each model of organization has its own unique characteristics, strengths, and weaknesses. The most effective model of organization will depend on the goals and objectives of the organization, as well as the industry and the external environment. Organizations must carefully evaluate the different models of organization and choose the one that is best suited to their needs and goals. Effective management and clear communication are essential to ensure that the organization can achieve its objectives and adapt to changing circumstances.





Answer the following questions in 200 words each.


Q4) Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation

Ans) Extrinsic motivation is related to tangible rewards such as salary and fringe benefits, promotion, contract of service, the work environment, and conditions of work. It refers to the drive to perform a behaviour or engage in an activity because of external rewards or pressures. This type of motivation comes from outside the individual and is often used to an end, rather than for the inherent enjoyment of the activity itself. Extrinsic motivation can be a powerful tool for encouraging people to act and achieve specific goals, as it provides clear and tangible incentives for behaviour.


Intrinsic motivation is linked to psychological rewards like being able to use one's skills, a sense of challenge and accomplishment, being appreciated, getting positive feedback, and being treated with care and kindness. People are intrinsically motivated when they want to do work that they enjoy, is interesting, satisfies their curiosity, lets them express themselves, or gives them a personal challenge. Intrinsic motivation, then, is when people do something because they find it interesting and get pleasure from it on their own. One theory in psychology says that very high levels of intrinsic motivation are shown by strong interest and involvement in the work, as well as a perfect match between the difficulty of the task and the person's skill level. This makes people feel like they are in a state of "flow," where they feel like they are becoming one with the activity they are doing.


Q5) Principles of management

Ans) The principles of management are a set of guidelines that outline the basic tenets of effective organizational management. The principles of management have been developed and refined over many years and are widely accepted as the foundation of modern management theory.


Some of the most recognized principles of management include:

Division of Labour: Giving tasks and responsibilities to different team members in order to get the most done in the least amount of time.

  1. Authority and Responsibility: Giving managers and employees the power to make decisions so they can carry out their responsibilities well.

  2. Unity of Command: Making sure that each employee only gets orders from one supervisor to avoid confusion and orders that contradict each other.

  3. Scalar Chain: It is the process of setting up a clear chain of command from the top of an organisation to the bottom.

  4. Order: Making sure that the flow of goods, services, and information within the organisation is clear and organised.

  5. Equity: Treating all employees fairly and consistently and providing incentives and recognition for good performance.

  6. Stability of Tenure of Personnel: Maintaining a stable work force by minimizing turnover and promoting employee satisfaction.

  7. Initiative: Encouraging employees to take initiative and to be creative in their work.

  8. Esprit De Corps: Fostering a sense of unity and cooperation among employees and promoting a positive and productive work environment.


Q6) Types of organizational commitment

Ans) Organizational commitment refers to the attachment and involvement of employees with their organization. It is the degree to which a person identifies with an organisation and its goals and is willing to put in effort to help the organisation reach its goals.


There are three main types of organisational commitment: affective, continuing, and normative.

  1. Affective commitment: It means that the person cares about the organisation and wants to stay a part of it. People who have affective commitment see their organisation in a positive light and are proud to be a part of it. They want to do their best because they feel like they belong and like the organisation and its goals.

  2. Continuance commitment: It refers to the idea that leaving the organisation would cost a lot. This type of commitment is often based on things like job security, financial benefits, and future career opportunities. People who have a continuance commitment stay with the organisation because they think the costs of leaving are too high.

  3. Normative commitment: It refers to a sense of obligation to remain with the organization, based on social pressure or a feeling of duty. People with normative commitment feel that they should stay with the organization because of the commitments they have made to it or because of social or moral considerations. This type of commitment is often based on an individual's personal values and beliefs.


Q7) Ethics in organization behaviour management

Ans) Ethics is a set of moral rules that people and organisations should follow. Ethics is a very important part of organisational behaviour management because it shapes the organization's culture, values, and how decisions are made.


There are several ethical considerations that organizations must take into account when managing their employees and operations, such as:

  1. Fair Treatment of Employees: Organizations should make sure that their employees are treated fairly, without discrimination or harassment based on race, gender, religion, or any other personal trait.

  2. Privacy and Confidentiality: Organizations should respect the privacy and confidentiality of their employees and customers, making sure that personal information is safe and not shared without permission.

  3. Conflicts of Interest: Conflicts of interest should be avoided by both employees and organisations. For example, employees and organisations should not take part in business deals that could affect their judgement or integrity.

  4. Responsibility to Stakeholders: Organizations have a responsibility to all their stakeholders, including their employees, customers, shareholders, and the wider community. They should make decisions that are in the best interests of everyone.

  5. Transparency and Accountability: Organizations should be transparent and accountable in their operations and decision-making processes and should take responsibility for their actions.


By incorporating ethics in their organisational behaviour management, organisations can create a positive workplace culture and encourage trust and respect among employees and stakeholders. This, in turn, can lead to better morale among employees, happier customers, and a better reputation in the market.


Q8) Attribution theory of motivation

Ans) The Attribution Theory of Motivation is a psychological concept that explains how people make judgments about the causes of their own behaviour and the behaviour of others. It is based on the idea that people want to understand why things happen, and they look for causes and explanations for events.


According to the attribution theory, people make three types of attributions:

  1. Internal Attribution: This refers to the belief that a person's behaviour is due to their own personal characteristics, such as their abilities, personality, or effort.

  2. External Attribution: This refers to the belief that a person's behaviour is due to external factors, such as the situation, luck, or other people.

  3. Stability Attribution: This refers to the belief that a behaviour is due to a stable or enduring characteristic of the person or situation or is due to a temporary and changeable factor.


The attribution theory of motivation suggests that people's motivation to perform a task is influenced by their attributions for success or failure. For example, if a person succeeds at a task and attributes that success to their own internal factors such as ability or effort, they are likely to be motivated to try again and continue to work hard. On the other hand, if they attribute their success to external factors, such as luck or the help of others, they may be less motivated to continue working hard in the future.


The attribution theory of motivation has several implications for managers and organizations. Managers can use the theory to improve employee motivation by helping employees understand the reasons for their successes and failures. This can involve providing feedback on specific aspects of their performance, as well as helping employees identify external factors that may be contributing to their success or failure.




Answer the following questions in 200 words each.


Q9) Flexible working hours

Ans) Flexible working hours refer to arrangements that allow employees to vary their start and finish times, work part-time or work from home. These arrangements give employees more control over their work schedule and allow them to balance work with personal commitments.

Flexible working hours are becoming increasingly popular in modern workplaces. They can help to improve employee satisfaction, reduce absenteeism, and increase productivity. By allowing employees to work during hours when they are most productive, businesses can benefit from having a workforce that is more engaged, efficient, and effective. Flexible working hours can take many forms, including:

  1. Flextime: This allows employees to vary their start and finish times as long as they work a set number of hours per day or week.

  2. Compressed Workweek: This allows employees to work longer hours over fewer days, which can provide more time for personal activities.

  3. Job Sharing: This involves two or more employees sharing the responsibilities of one full-time position.

  4. b: This allows employees to work from home or other remote locations.


Q10) Differences between primary and secondary motivation.

Ans) Primary and secondary motivations are two types of factors that drive human behaviour, and they differ in terms of their underlying psychological processes and the roles they play in determining our actions.


Primary motivation refers to the basic physiological and psychological needs that are essential for our survival and well-being, such as the need for food, water, safety, and social interaction. These needs are fundamental and tend to be innate, and when they are not satisfied, they can lead to negative emotions and behaviours. For example, hunger motivates us to eat, thirst motivates us to drink, and fear motivates us to protect ourselves.


Secondary motivation, on the other hand, refers to the more complex and varied motives that are related to our desires, values, goals, and beliefs. These motives are shaped by our experiences, culture, and social environment, and they can be both positive and negative. For example, the desire for achievement, the pursuit of power or recognition, the need for affiliation or social approval, and the fear of failure or rejection are all examples of secondary motivations.


The key difference between primary and secondary motivations is that primary motivations are more biologically based and automatic, while secondary motivations are more influenced by social, cultural, and individual factors. Primary motivations are essential for our survival, and they tend to be more powerful and urgent, while secondary motivations are more complex, varied, and subjective.


Q11) Types of reinforcement

Ans) Reinforcement theory tries to explain what kinds of consequences motivate different people to work. Traditionally, it can be traced back to B.F. Skinner, a pioneering behaviourist. It says that behaviour depends on what happens as a result of it. Behaviour that leads to good results is likely to continue, while behaviour that leads to bad results is unlikely to be repeated.


Reinforcement is a term used in psychology to describe the process of increasing the likelihood that a particular behaviour will be repeated or strengthened. There are four main types of reinforcement: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction.


  1. Positive Reinforcement: This means adding something to get a child to respond more, like praising them when they finish a task. This would make the child want to help with the job.

  2. Negative Reinforcement: This involves removing something to increase response, such as withholding payment until the person completes the job. The person would remain motivated till the end of the job to acquire the payment.

  3. Punishment: This involves adding something aversive to modify behaviour. For example, yelling at a child for misbehaving. In this example, the child would associate every negative behaviour with punishments. This would prevent the child from repeating such behaviour.

  4. Extinction: This means taking something away to change a certain response. This is known as extinction or negative punishment. For example, if a teenager gets home late, their parents might limit how much they use their phones. The teen would think before breaking the curfew the next time.


Q12) Effects of modelling on behaviour

Ans) Organization behaviour models have a big impact on how people in an organisation act. Some of the results of these models are:


  1. Consistency: Organizational behaviour models help make sure that employees act and behave in the same way by setting clear expectations, norms, and rules.

  2. Improved Communication: Models that emphasise open communication, teamwork, and collaboration help to make the workplace a good place to work and get people to talk to each other better.

  3. Increased Motivation: Models that recognize and reward good behaviour can lead to increased motivation and engagement among employees.

  4. Better Decision-Making: Models that emphasize ethical behaviour and decision-making can help employees make better decisions and avoid unethical behaviour.

  5. Conflict Resolution: Models that promote conflict resolution and effective communication can help to reduce conflicts and conflicts between employees and between departments.

  6. Improved Performance: Models can help employees understand what is expected of them by giving them a clear framework for behaviour. This can lead to better performance and productivity.


In conclusion, organisation behaviour models have a big effect on how employees behave and how well they do their jobs. By making clear expectations, norms, and rules, these models can help to improve communication, reduce conflicts, boost motivation, and encourage people to make decisions that are moral. Also, they can create a good atmosphere at work, which can help employees do their jobs better, be more productive, and be happier. So, organisations should think carefully about the organisational behaviour model they choose, since it will have a big effect on how well they do overall.

Q13) Types of conflict

Ans) In general, conflict refers to a situation where two or more parties have incompatible goals, interests, or values. There are several types of conflict, including:


  1. Interpersonal Conflict: This type of conflict occurs between individuals, such as friends, family members, or co-workers. It may arise due to differences in personality, values, goals, or communication styles.

  2. Intrapersonal Conflict: This type of conflict occurs within an individual, such as when a person experiences conflicting emotions or desires. For example, a person may feel conflicted about whether to pursue a career they love or a career that pays well.

  3. Intergroup Conflict: This type of conflict occurs between groups, such as between different departments in a company or between different cultural or ethnic groups. It may arise due to competition for resources, power, or recognition.

  4. Organizational Conflict: This type of conflict occurs within an organization, such as between employees and management or between different departments. It may arise due to differences in goals, values, or communication.

  5. Societal Conflict: This type of conflict occurs at a broader societal level, such as between different political or religious groups. It may arise due to differences in beliefs, values, or social norms.

  6. Environmental Conflict: This type of conflict occurs between human activity and the natural environment, such as over the use of natural resources, pollution, or climate change.


In summary, the different types of conflict include interpersonal, intrapersonal, intergroup, organizational, societal, and environmental conflict. Understanding the type of conflict can help in finding appropriate resolution strategies to address the issue at hand.


Q14) Laboratory seminar training

Ans) Laboratory seminar training refers to a type of training that is designed to provide participants with the knowledge and skills needed to conduct laboratory research. Laboratory seminar training typically includes both theoretical and practical components and is often provided to students, researchers, and laboratory technicians.


The theoretical component of laboratory seminar training may cover topics such as laboratory safety, experimental design, data analysis, and interpretation of results. Participants may also learn about laboratory protocols, procedures, and best practices.


The practical component of laboratory seminar training typically involves hands-on training in laboratory techniques, such as pipetting, centrifugation, microscopy, cell culture, molecular biology, or other specialized techniques relevant to the research field. Participants may also learn how to use various laboratory equipment and software, and gain experience in troubleshooting and problem-solving.


Laboratory seminar training may be conducted in a variety of formats, including lectures, presentations, interactive discussions, demonstrations, and workshops. The training may be delivered by experienced researchers or laboratory managers, or by external trainers who specialize in laboratory training.


The benefits of laboratory seminar training include improved knowledge and skills in laboratory research, increased confidence in laboratory techniques and procedures, and enhanced productivity and efficiency in laboratory work. It can also promote a culture of safety and best practices in laboratory research, which is important for maintaining the quality and integrity of scientific research.


Q15) Issues related to change management.

Ans) Change management is the process of planning, implementing, and managing changes to an organization to minimize negative impacts and achieve desired outcomes. Here are some common issues related to change management:


  1. Resistance to Change: One of the biggest challenges in change management is resistance from employees or stakeholders who are reluctant to adapt to new ways of doing things. This can be due to fear of the unknown, lack of trust in leadership, or simply being comfortable with the status quo.

  2. Inadequate Communication: Clear communication is essential during the change management process. Lack of communication or miscommunication can lead to misunderstandings, resistance, and ultimately, failure of the change initiative.

  3. Insufficient Planning: Inadequate planning can lead to poor implementation, delays, and cost overruns. Planning should include identifying the need for change, determining the objectives, creating a roadmap for implementation, and developing a contingency plan for unforeseen events.

  4. Inadequate Training and Support: Lack of training and support can result in a lack of knowledge or skills necessary to implement the change effectively. This can lead to frustration, resistance, and ultimately, failure.

  5. Ineffective leadership: Effective leadership is critical in change management. Leaders need to communicate the need for change, provide direction and support, and lead by example. Without effective leadership, change efforts can falter.

  6. Unforeseen Consequences: Change initiatives can have unintended consequences that may not be immediately apparent. These consequences can include reduced productivity, increased costs, decreased morale, and other negative impacts.

  7. Failure to Measure and Evaluate Success: Failure to measure and evaluate the success of the change initiative can make it difficult to determine if the change was successful and identify areas for improvement. Evaluation should include a review of the objectives, outcomes, and key performance indicators.

Q16) Importance of motivation in organization

Ans) Motivation is an important part of organisational behaviour and plays a key role in the success and growth of an organisation. There are a few reasons why motivation is important in organisations:

  1. Increased Productivity: When employees are motivated, they tend to work harder and more efficiently, which helps the organisation be more productive and get better results.

  2. Employee Satisfaction: Most of the time, a happy workforce is a motivated workforce. When employees are motivated, they are more likely to feel valued, engaged, and fulfilled in their work. This can lead to more job satisfaction and less turnover..

  3. Improved Quality of Work: When employees are motivated, they are more likely to put in the extra work that is needed to do good work, which can help the organization's reputation.

  4. Better Retention: When employees feel motivated, they are less likely to leave the organization in search of a better work environment. This can reduce recruitment and training costs for the organization and help maintain a stable workforce.

  5. Better Customer Service: Motivated employees are more likely to provide better customer service, which can lead to increased customer satisfaction and loyalty.


In conclusion, motivation is an important part of an organization's success because it can have a positive effect on productivity, employee satisfaction, quality of work, retention, and customer service. So, organisations should try to give their employees a place to work that inspires them.


Q17) Types of organization

Ans) There are various types of organizations, each with its own unique characteristics and purposes. Here are some of the most common types of organizations:

  1. Sole Proprietorship: This is a type of organization in which a single individual owns and operates a business. The owner has complete control over the business and is responsible for all its debts and obligations.

  2. Partnership: A partnership is a business structure in which two or more individuals own and operate a business. Each partner contributes to the business and shares in its profits and losses.

  3. Limited Liability Company (LLC): An LLC is a type of organization that provides the owners with limited liability protection. This means that the owners are not personally liable for the debts and obligations of the business.

  4. Corporation: A corporation is a legal entity that is separate from its owners. It is owned by shareholders who have limited liability and only risk losing their investment in the company. The corporation is run by a board of directors and officers.

  5. Non-Profit Organization: A non-profit organization is a type of organization that is established for charitable, educational, or religious purposes. It does not distribute profits to its owners or shareholders and is exempt from certain taxes.

  6. Cooperative: A cooperative is a type of organization in which the members share in the ownership and operation of the business. Members pool their resources to achieve common goals and share in the profits or benefits of the organization.

  7. Government Agency: A government agency is an organization that is established by a government to provide public services, regulate industries, or enforce laws.

  8. International Organization: An international organization is an organization that operates across national borders and is established to promote cooperation among countries and address global issues.


These are just a few examples of the many types of organizations that exist. Each type has its own unique features and is structured to achieve different goals and purposes.


Q18) Scope of Organizational Psychology

Ans) Organizational psychology, also called industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology, is the study of how people act in organisations from a scientific point of view. Organizational psychology looks at a wide range of topics and tries to figure out how people and groups act and interact in the workplace. Some of the most important things that organisational psychology covers are:


  1. Personnel Selection and Assessment: This involves the development and use of selection and assessment methods to determine an individual's suitability for a job, such as interviews, tests, and assessments of skills, abilities, and personality.

  2. Training and Development: Organizational psychologists study how to make, run, and evaluate training programmes that help employees learn new skills and do their jobs better.

  3. Motivation: This involves studying things like job satisfaction, job design, and reward systems that affect how motivated employees are..

  4. Organizational Culture and Climate: This involves the study of the norms, values, and beliefs that define an organization and the impact they have on employees and the organization.

  5. Leadership and Management: Organizational psychologists’ study different types of leadership and management and how they affect employee behaviour and the results of an organisation.

  6. Diversity and Inclusion: This involves the study of diversity in the workplace and how organizations can create inclusive environments that value and support all employees.

  7. Stress and Well-Being: This involves the study of factors that contribute to employee stress and well-being and how organizations can promote a positive work-life balance for employees.


These are just some of the areas that organisational psychology covers, and the field is always changing as new research and insights are found.

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