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MPSE-001: India and the World

MPSE-001: India and the World

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MPSE-001/ASST/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MPSE-001

Assignment Name: India and The World

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor




1. Explain historical linkages, economic and security cooperation between India and Central Asia.

Ans) Historical linkages between India and Central Asia as follows:


The Indus Valley civilisation, which had ties to the prehistoric civilization of Turkmenistan, is the origin of India's relations with Central Asia. One school of historians claims that the Aryans arrived in India from Central Asia. Prior to the arrival of Islam, Buddhism ruled the region. After Islam, the Sufi movement, which had its origins in Central Asia and spread back to India, was influenced by Buddhism. This area was traversed by the old Silk Route, which linked China to the marketplaces of Europe. India has ties to this trading route as well. When the British colonised India and the Russians overran Central Asia in the 19th century, this unrelenting flood of people was halted. The "Great Game" refers to the rivalry between the two empires. These ties were somewhat repaired after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the independence of India in 1947. India was one of the select few nations that the Soviet Union let to engage in commercial and cultural exchanges with this region.


Security cooperation between India and Central Asia as follows:


International worries about religious extremism and international terrorism are growing in response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the United States. It has particularly afflicted nations in and surrounding Central Asia, including India in Kashmir, Russia in Chechnya, China in Xinjiang, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan in the Ferghana valley. Islamist militants and the government fought a protracted civil war in Tajikistan, and President Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan narrowly averted an assassination attempt in February 1999. The US has received offers from Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan for military sites and other infrastructure. Even though the Taliban have been defeated, the battle is far from over. According to reports, they are still dominant in some parts of Pakistan and Afghanistan and are attempting to reorganise. In addition to drugs and arms trafficking, which also affect India and Central Asia, there are other issues, such as religious fundamentalism and international terrorism. India has established cooperative working groups on terrorism with the US, Russia, China, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan, among other nations. In June 2002, Atal Behari Vajpayee, the prime minister of India, travelled to Kazakhstan to attend the summit of the "Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia."


Economic Cooperation: Following are the major areas of cooperation.


Energy: India is now the world's sixth-largest energy consumer, and according to

According to one study, the amount of energy used is increasing at a 6% annual rate. The

Almost two thirds of the nation's petroleum needs are imported. The Caspian Sea and Central Asia

developing as a substitute for traditional sources of oil and natural gas. primary oil

and gas resources can be discovered in Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in Central Asia.

The Indian Oil and Natural Gas Commission is getting ready to take part in the prospecting.

of oil in the exploration blocks at Darkhan and Kurmangazi on the edge of the Caspian Sea in



Pharmaceuticals and Healthcare: An additional significant portion of India and Healthcare and pharmaceuticals are in Central Asia. Its effectiveness and economic benefit, in particular, India enjoys a competitive advantage in this industry on the international market. certain Indians Pharmaceutical exporters to Central Asia include Claris Life Sciences, Aurobindo Pharma, Lupin Laboratories, Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, Ranbaxy, and Lupin Laboratories. Some of these businesses intend to build factories right there in Central Asia. Kazakhstanpharma, a joint venture between Kazakhstan and India, has a pharmaceutical manufacturing in the completing procedure in Almaty.


2. Trace the evolution of India’s relations with South-east Asia bringing out the main features of the relationship.

Ans) When the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) was founded in 1967, it was done so with the intention of fostering regional business partnerships and trade. It turned out to be the hub of regional collaboration, was thriving, and was searching for new markets and business ventures. It discovered that Vietnam and India were complementary and now attracted business opportunities. Vietnam and India were seen as complements, improving the political and security character of the area. Vietnam had begun the Doi Moi (Renovation) initiative, which aspired to liberalise, privatise, and go worldwide. In contrast, India implemented the economic liberalisation programme in 1991 under the leadership of P V Narasimha Rao and Manmohan Singh, the country's prime minister and finance minister, respectively. The liberalisation, privatisation, and globalisation processes were also launched by India's new government. Tax-free incentives for overseas investors were also announced by India.


These measures prompted ASEAN to further strengthen its partnership with India. India received a sectoral dialogue cooperation invitation from ASEAN in 1992. As a result, four fundamental areas of cooperation—trade, investment, tourism, research, and technology—were recognised. The sectoral partnership played a key role in building the institutional connection between India and ASEAN, and it was so valuable that ASEAN upgraded it to a full dialogue partnership in 1995 after only two years. This made it easier for relationships to develop across a range of contexts with repercussions for the economy, security, and politics. India was asked to take part in the ASEAN's post-ministerial conferences as well as its security forum, the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF). Then, both India and ASEAN started referring to a shared vision and destiny.


The ASEAN-India Cooperation Committee was established to serve as a vital institutional structure for giving different areas of cooperation meaningful content. A working group between ASEAN and India was also formed to identify potential areas of collaboration in the fields of science, technology, trade, investment, and human resource development. The Joint Cooperation Committee acknowledged Indian prowess in science and technology, particularly in biotechnology and information technology (Information Technology). The industries of food processing, healthcare, agriculture, engineering, electronics, communication, and services all received proposals to collaborate.


The India-ASEAN fund would be established to promote cooperation in commerce, investment, tourism, computer technology, solar energy, and environmental protection, according to the decision made at the ASEAN-India cooperation committee meeting. The ASEAN Secretariat was given access to this money, which was managed by a joint management committee. The Joint Cooperation Committee also decided to form an ASEAN-New Delhi committee made up of the leaders of the ASEAN nations' diplomatic missions. Foreign Minister of India during the time, J.N. In her announcement of the scholarship programme, Dixit stated that each party might provide six post-doctoral fellowships with a maximum duration of six months in the field of science and technology. Along with this, India and the ASEAN area established distinguished individuals' ASEAN lecture series, through which notable ASEAN leaders and intellectuals gave lectures in India and vice versa. This has been helpful in fostering trust and a clear knowledge of the problems with ASEAN foreign policy and diplomacy with regard to dialogue partners.


3. Briefly describe international humanitarian laws and UN concerns for promotion and protection of human rights in India.

Ans) The International Humanitarian Law as follows:


Protection of armed conflict victims from violence and other human rights abuses is a concern of international humanitarian law. The four Geneva Conventions (1949) for the protection of war victims and the two Additional Protocols contain standards (1977). These tools work together to limit the use of force against people who are not participating in armed conflict and to outlaw forms of warfare that result in unnecessarily suffering people or harm to the environment. Four conventions—covering the sick and injured on land, the sick and injured at sea, prisoners of war, and civilian victims—have been ratified or acceded to by 181 governments. 125 countries have ratified the first Protocol, which addresses victims of international conflicts. Other agreements negotiated by the UN that are also a part of the international body of humanitarian law include the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948) and the Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict. The Second Protocol, which has been ratified by 116 states, aims to protect victims of internal conflicts (1974). The most recent instance of the UN using the Geneva Convention and Protocols was in relation to the conflict in the former Yugoslavia.


UN concerns for promotion and protection of human rights


The UN Charter mentions human rights seven times. One of the four objectives of the World Organization, as stated in Article 1.3, is to advance and defend fundamental liberties and human rights for all people, regardless of their race, sex, language, or religion. Article 1.3 para. 1 of the General Assembly's rules mandated that investigations be conducted and recommendations be made in this regard (b). The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) was given the same responsibility pursuant to Article 62. More explicitly and plainly than any other clause, Article 55 of the UN Charter lays out the organization's overarching objectives in the area of human rights. The resolution of "international economic, social, health, and related problems" as well as "universal respect for, and observance of human rights for all" are among them. Other goals include the promotion of "better standards of living, full employment, and circumstances of economic and social progress and development." Member nations "commit" in Article 56 to cooperate with the UN to achieve these goals both collectively and individually. The ECOSOC is required by Article 68 to create a permanent commission on human rights. The last but not least requirement of Article 76(c) is that residents in Trust Territories must be encouraged to exercise their basic freedoms. Four categories can be used to classify the pertinent UN initiatives in the domain of human rights over time:

  1. Creating standards involves outlining and defining each person's rights.

  2. Promotional activities that entail researching specific human rights or human rights in specific locations and suggesting solutions to further their realisation.

  3. Human rights violations victims' support is one example of a humanitarian function.

  4. Implementation that calls for guarding against infractions in particular circumstances.




Write a short note on each part in about 250 words.


4. a) Global implications of India and Pakistan nuclear tests 1998

Ans) In 1998, Atal Behari Vajpayee took office as prime minister, presiding over a coalition of 13 political parties. However, the government was only able to last for ten months. The National Democratic Alliance, led by the BJP, won reelection in the elections of October 1999. The coalition government in place now is the first to do so for almost four years.


Its primary foreign policy initiatives during these ten months focused on building up nuclear weapons capacity and attempting to mend fences with Pakistan. The BJP has been a strong advocate for India developing nuclear weapons. As soon as it took office, it began planning nuclear test explosions so that India could declare itself a nuclear weapons state. India shocked the world on May 11, 1998 by performing three nuclear tests. On May 13, two additional tests were carried out. India's Prime Minister Vajpayee claimed that the country has nuclear weapons and that no more tests would be conducted because all required information had been gathered. Vajpayee declared that India would only keep a minimal nuclear deterrent.


The Pakistani Prime Minister declared that this would be the year of the Kashmir decision during the conference in Lahore. The time for producing maps in the region has passed after fifty years of independence, according to Indian External Affairs Minister Jaswant Singh, signalling that changing the geography of the area is not an option.


The Kargil War broke out between the two countries in May 1999. The Pakistani Army was getting ready for battle while the two prime ministers were debating the direction of their bilateral relations. Given that it was the first military battle between the two countries since their acquisition of nuclear weapons in May 1998, the war is noteworthy. The Pakistani military made an attempt to change the situation along the Line of Control so that they could use it as a negotiating chip with India whenever talks are held.


b) Role of the Ministry of External Affairs in Indian foreign policy making.

Ans) Making foreign policy is a very difficult and involved task. One can easily choose options like purchasing it from overseas or controlling its price when it comes to a domestic policy issue, like preventing the price of a product, like an onion or potato, from rising. But the implementation of specialist knowledge is necessary in foreign policy. The straightforward explanation is that since foreign policy is in connection to another state or nations, India has no control over their behaviour. The best the Indian policymakers can do is estimate as to what another state may do in a certain situation.


Therefore, should India open negotiations with Pakistan now that it has persistently asserted that Pakistan must show its commitment to combating cross-border terrorism if talks are to be successful? Will the wager pay out in the long run? Is the Prime Minister correct when he says that if this is his last attempt, he will step down? Will a declaration of that nature affect Islamabad's decision-making? What if Pakistani policymakers decide to hold off until the next Indian election for another year in the hopes that a Congress government will win and offer Pakistan better terms? These inquiries can never have a definitive response.


As the repository of in-depth knowledge on international affairs, the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) is the government ministry that is expected to offer informed, precise responses to the issues above. The MEA is led by the Minister of External Affairs, also known as the Foreign Minister. He is a political appointment and a member of the Cabinet, although he is not necessarily an authority on foreign policy. But before they are put into effect, the Minister must approve or make changes to all policies and choices made by the Ministry's experts. Several policies that the Minister has approved need the Cabinet's final approval.


5. a) Religion in post-communist societies

Ans) The secularisation theory and Marxist analysis both held the notion that religion will eventually go away. Aggressive atheist propaganda and the related measures to stifle organised religion under communism failed after 70 years. Mikhail Gorbachev spoke of the "moral ideals that religion developed and embodied for millennia" and declared that the same "may help in the rebuilding of our society" when he began his radical restructuring (perestroika) and open public criticism (glasnost). In less than ten years, transformation raced through the former Soviet empire as a result of Gorbachev's efforts to promote and enable the revival of spiritual values in the USSR. The role played by religious groups in various nations is frequently disregarded in analyses of the startlingly rapid collapse of communist rule in Eastern Europe.


The Roman Catholic Church had taken risks in its resistance to the communist state long before forging an alliance with and giving asylum for the Solidarity movement in Poland, where the role of religion in the fall of communism is best recognised. In communities with little other possibilities to become real leaders, priests and pastors provided important leadership. There are numerous examples of spiritual rebirth in Russia. The restoration and reopening of Russian orthodox churches have garnered the most attention, but a 1991 international social survey of the country's Russian-speaking population also revealed signs of a religious renaissance: Depending on how the question is phrased, between fifty-five and seventy percent of Russians profess belief in God. One in five Russians now accepts both religion and God after previously rejecting both. According to in-depth examinations of states like Sri Lanka, Ukraine, and Sudan, the main modern patterns of racial, ethnic, and religious conflict are found within nations rather than primarily between civilisations.


b) India’s West Asia policy

Ans) India's post-independence non-alignment strategy reached out in goodwill to the nations of West Asia that were defying Cold War pressure to join an opposing military bloc. As a result, Nasser's Egypt and the Baathist Iraq developed close ties. Interestingly, Pakistan joined the US-backed Baghdad Pact in 1955 together with the UK, Turkey, Iran, and Iraq. India gained a positive reputation among the Arab States as a result of its constant support for the Palestinian cause. This has assisted India in establishing thriving connections with nearly all the countries in the region, in addition to the strong historical ties and trade relationships.


Palestine Issue: India has offered moral and political support for the establishment of a Palestinian state that coexists with Israel. India too believes that the Arab-Israeli conflict is fundamentally driven by the Palestine dilemma. In January 1975, India opened its office in New Delhi, making it the first non-Arab nation to recognise the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) as "the sole legitimate representation of the Palestinian people."


Israel: Despite the fact that India had acknowledged the Jewish State of Israel back in 1950,

until in 1992 were complete diplomatic ties established. Afterward, there was an increase in the

Given the shared worries about religious extremism, relations between the two countries

international terrorism


Iraq Crisis: In the 1970s and 1980s, India and Iraq developed close political and economic ties. Both, Iraq in 1972 and India in 1971, signed Friendship Treaties with the former Soviet Union. At one point, Iraq supplied 30% of India's oil requirements and was home to 90,000 Indian workers. It was the only Arab nation to constantly back India's stance on Kashmir. Indian companies received some of the largest contracts in the nation.


Iran: Iran has been the country closest to India historically, culturally, and geographically among the nations in West Asia. During the Shah's reign, India and Iran had cordial relations, which weakened following the 1979 Islamic Revolution. In the nineteen nineties, India and Iran have made efforts to create a multifaceted relationship.

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