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MPSE-001: India and the World

MPSE-001: India and the World

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

If you are looking for MPSE-001 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject India and the World, you have come to the right place. MPSE-001 solution on this page applies to 2023-24 session students studying in MPS, MAMIDI courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: MPSE-001/Asst/TMA/2023-24

Course Code: MPSE-001

Assignment Name: India and the World

Year: 2023-24

Verification Status: Verified by Professor



Answer five questions in all, selecting at least two questions from each section. Each question is to be answered in about 500 words. Each question carries 20 marks.


SECTION- I


Q1) What are the major features of India’s foreign policy? Explain.

Ans) India's foreign policy is shaped by various factors and principles that define its approach to international relations.


Some of the major features of India's foreign policy include:

a) Non-Alignment: India maintains a non-aligned stance in global affairs, refusing to align with any major power bloc. This policy was adopted during the Cold War to preserve independence and autonomy in international relations.

b) Strategic Autonomy: India emphasizes its sovereignty and the right to pursue its national interests without external interference. It aims to maintain strategic autonomy in its foreign relations.

c) Panchsheel Principles: India adheres to the principles of Panchsheel, emphasizing mutual respect for each other's sovereignty, non-aggression, non-interference in internal affairs, equality, and peaceful coexistence.

d) Promotion of Peace: India advocates for global peace, stability, and disarmament. It actively participates in various international forums to promote peacekeeping efforts, conflict resolution, and disarmament initiatives.

e) Focus on Regional Stability: India aims to maintain stability in its neighbourhood and the larger region. It works on building bilateral and multilateral relationships to address regional challenges and promote economic cooperation.

f) Economic Diplomacy: India prioritizes economic cooperation and trade diplomacy. It engages in economic partnerships, trade agreements, and investments to enhance economic growth and development.

g) Soft Power and Cultural Diplomacy: India leverages its rich cultural heritage, art, literature, and soft power to strengthen diplomatic ties and promote its interests globally. Initiatives like Yoga Day and cultural exchanges contribute to this.

h) Global Partnerships: India engages in strategic partnerships with various countries across the globe, emphasizing shared values, mutual interests, and collaborations in areas such as defense, technology, energy, and education.

i) Multilateralism: India actively participates in multilateral forums like the United Nations, BRICS, G20, and others. It advocates for reforms in global institutions to reflect contemporary geopolitical realities.

j) Climate Change and Sustainable Development: India is committed to addressing global challenges like climate change and sustainable development. It seeks collaborations and initiatives to mitigate environmental issues and promote sustainability.

k) Neighbourhood First Policy: India gives priority to its immediate neighbours through its "Neighbourhood First" policy, focusing on strengthening ties, enhancing connectivity, and promoting regional stability.


Q2) What are the major threats which China perceives from India? Explain.

Ans) China perceives several potential threats from India, mainly due to geopolitical, territorial, and strategic concerns. Some of the key threats as perceived by China include:


a) Border Disputes: The unresolved border issues, particularly along the Line of Actual Control (LAC), have been a longstanding concern. Both countries have competing territorial claims in regions like Arunachal Pradesh and parts of Ladakh, leading to occasional tensions and standoffs.

b) Strategic Competition: China views India as a regional power and competitor in the Indo-Pacific region. India's growing strategic partnerships with countries like the United States, Japan, and Australia, especially in the context of the Quad (Quadrilateral Security Dialogue), are perceived as an attempt to counterbalance China's influence in the region.

c) Tibetan Issue: China is wary of India's historical support for the Tibetan government-in-exile and the Dalai Lama, which China considers a threat to its sovereignty over Tibet. India hosting Tibetan refugees and allowing the Dalai Lama to reside in Dharamshala has been a point of contention in bilateral relations.

d) Infrastructure Development: China is concerned about India's infrastructure development in border areas, which it perceives as a strategic move aimed at bolstering India's defense capabilities and improving connectivity along the border regions, potentially impacting China's strategic interests.

e) Economic Rivalry: Economic competition and trade imbalances are another aspect of the India-China relationship. China's dominance in trade, its investments in South Asia through the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), and concerns over market access and trade barriers contribute to this perception.

f) Security Alliances: China views India's growing security alliances and military collaborations with other countries as a challenge to its regional influence. India's participation in military exercises, defense partnerships, and arms procurement from countries like the United States and Russia are seen as a strategic concern for China.

g) Nuclear Capabilities: India's nuclear capabilities and advancements in missile technology, including the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), are viewed with suspicion by China, raising concerns about a potential shift in the regional balance of power.


These perceived threats contribute to the complex and at times strained relationship between China and India, shaping their interactions and influencing their respective strategic calculations in the region. Diplomatic dialogues and efforts to manage and resolve these issues remain crucial for regional stability and peaceful coexistence.


Q3) Explain India’s major concerns in South Asia.

Ans) India's major concerns in South Asia are multi-faceted and revolve around strategic, security, economic, and geopolitical issues. Some of the prominent concerns include:

a) Regional Security: India's foremost concern in South Asia is maintaining regional stability and security. It aims to prevent the spread of terrorism, religious extremism, and separatist movements that can have cross-border implications.

b) Territorial Integrity: India is sensitive about its territorial integrity and sovereignty. Border disputes with neighbouring countries like Pakistan (regarding Kashmir) and China (along the Line of Actual Control) are significant concerns.

c) Influence of External Powers: India is wary of the increasing influence of external powers, particularly China, in South Asia. It seeks to prevent the establishment of strategic footholds by other countries that may pose a threat to its regional dominance.

d) Cross-Border Terrorism: India is concerned about terrorism emanating from across its borders, particularly from Pakistan. It accuses Pakistan of supporting and sheltering terrorist groups that carry out attacks in India, posing a threat to its internal security.

e) Economic Dominance: India aims to strengthen economic ties and become a dominant economic player in South Asia. It is concerned about barriers to trade, such as non-tariff barriers and infrastructure gaps, which hinder its economic integration with neighbouring countries.

f) Water Security: India shares transboundary river systems with several South Asian countries. Ensuring the equitable distribution of water resources and managing river disputes is a critical concern for India's agricultural and water security.

g) Stability in Afghanistan: India is invested in the stability and peace-building efforts in Afghanistan. It aims to prevent the resurgence of Taliban-led extremism and ensure that Afghanistan remains free from terrorist safe havens.

h) Neighbourhood Relations: India aspires to maintain amicable relations and foster mutual cooperation with its South Asian neighbours, such as Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, and the Maldives. India sees the region as an integral part of its extended neighbourhood and seeks to play a leadership role.


Addressing these concerns is vital for India's vision of a stable, secure, and prosperous South Asia. India's policies aim to promote regional integration, connectivity, and cooperation while safeguarding its own strategic interests in the region. Diplomatic engagements, economic partnerships, and multilateral forums are some avenues through which India addresses these concerns.


SECTION- II


Q4) Describe briefly the ‘Realist’ view of Indian foreign policy.

Ans) The Realist perspective is a crucial lens through which to understand Indian foreign policy. Realism, as a theory in international relations, focuses on power dynamics, state interests, and the pursuit of national security. Indian foreign policy is often analysed through the Realist paradigm due to its emphasis on strategic concerns, national security, and power politics.


Here's a brief overview of the Realist view of Indian foreign policy:

a) National Security and Sovereignty: Realism asserts that states prioritize their security and sovereignty above all else. In India's case, safeguarding territorial integrity, countering cross-border terrorism, and securing its borders against external threats are central concerns.

b) Strategic Autonomy: Realists emphasize the pursuit of strategic autonomy, advocating for independence in decision-making and foreign policy choices. India has historically sought to maintain an independent stance, avoiding alignment with any single power bloc during the Cold War and maintaining a non-aligned position.

c) Balance of Power: Realists emphasize the importance of balancing power in the international system to prevent hegemony by any single state. India, being in a region with complex power dynamics, including the rise of China and security challenges from Pakistan, aims to balance these powers by enhancing its military capabilities and diplomatic ties with other global players.

d) Regional Hegemony and Influence: Realism underscores the pursuit of regional hegemony and influence. India, being one of the major powers in South Asia, seeks to maintain regional dominance while ensuring stability and cooperation among neighbouring countries. However, it also faces challenges in managing relationships with smaller South Asian nations.

e) Strategic Partnerships: Realism advocates for forming strategic alliances and partnerships that serve the state's interests. India's foreign policy involves engaging with multiple global powers, including the United States, Russia, and other Asian nations, to enhance its strategic capabilities and economic interests.

f) Security Dilemma and Nuclear Policy: The Realist perspective acknowledges the security dilemma, wherein one state's efforts to enhance security may be perceived as a threat by others. India's nuclear policy, guided by Realist concerns, aims to ensure a credible minimum deterrence against potential adversaries.

g) National Interest as the Primary Driver: Realism places national interest at the core of foreign policy decisions. India's policies, whether in trade, diplomacy, or security, are often guided by its national interests, including economic growth, regional stability, and international standing.


In essence, the Realist perspective provides a framework to understand India's foreign policy, characterized by a balance of power, pursuit of strategic autonomy, and the prioritization of national security. However, it's essential to note that while Realism offers valuable insights, Indian foreign policy is multifaceted and influenced by various factors, including historical experiences, cultural ties, and economic aspirations, making it a complex blend of Realist and other perspectives.


Q5) Explain India’s geography, history, and tradition as determinants of its foreign policy.

Ans) India's foreign policy is profoundly influenced by its geography, historical experiences, and rich cultural heritage, shaping its approach to international relations:

a) Geography: India's strategic location between the Indian Ocean and the Himalayas significantly influences its foreign policy. Its vast coastline, access to vital sea lanes, and proximity to key maritime trade routes underscore the significance of maritime security. Additionally, India's land borders with several countries, including Pakistan, China, Bangladesh, and Nepal, have historical implications, often impacting its foreign relations.

b) Historical Legacy: India's history, including colonial subjugation and the struggle for independence, has left a lasting impact on its foreign policy. The legacy of colonialism shapes India's approach to international relations, emphasizing sovereignty, non-interference, and a commitment to multilateralism.

c) Tradition of Non-Alignment: India's tradition of non-alignment during the Cold War era reflects its foreign policy approach, advocating for an independent stance while engaging with various global powers without aligning with any bloc. This legacy of non-alignment still echoes in India's pursuit of strategic autonomy and diversified partnerships.

d) Cultural Heritage: India's cultural diplomacy plays a crucial role in its foreign policy. With a history of cultural exchange and philosophical contributions, India leverages soft power through initiatives like Yoga Day, Ayurveda, and educational partnerships, projecting itself as a vibrant and pluralistic society.

e) Strategic Imperatives: India's geostrategic concerns, including territorial disputes with neighbouring countries and security threats, drive its foreign policy decisions. For instance, historical conflicts with Pakistan and China influence India's defense and regional engagement strategies.

f) Economic Considerations: India's economic growth and aspirations as a global economic player influence its foreign policy priorities. Engaging with major economies, promoting trade and investment, and leveraging economic diplomacy are integral to India's international engagements.

g) Security Challenges: Historical conflicts and security challenges, including cross-border terrorism and regional instabilities, significantly impact India's foreign policy calculus. It leads India to prioritize initiatives for regional stability and security cooperation.


India's foreign policy, thus, is shaped by a complex interplay of historical legacies, geographical realities, cultural richness, and contemporary strategic imperatives. These determinants have led India to adopt a policy of strategic autonomy, emphasizing non-interference, maintaining a delicate balance between regional security concerns and global aspirations, and advocating for a rules-based international order.

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