top of page
MPYE-009: Philosophy of Science and Cosmology

MPYE-009: Philosophy of Science and Cosmology

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MPYE-009 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Philosophy of Science and Cosmology, you have come to the right place. MPYE-009 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MAPY courses of IGNOU.

Looking to download all solved assignment PDFs for your course together?

MPYE-009 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: MPYE-009/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MPYE-009

Assignment Name: Philosophy of Science and Cosmology

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor



i) Answer all five questions.

ii) All five questions carry equal marks.

iii) The answer of questions no. 1 and 2 should be in about 500 words.


1. Write a note on the commonality and difference between scientific and philosophical methods. 20





What is uncertainty principle? Discuss the philosophical implications of uncertainty principle. 20

Ans) The known momentum is less precise the more precisely the position is determined. The quantum mechanics uncertainty principle is best expressed in this manner. It is impossible to simultaneously measure a particle's position and momentum with arbitrary high accuracy. The sum of the uncertainties from these two measurements has a minimum. The product of the uncertainties of the energy and time also has a minimum. This result derives from the wave properties present in the quantum mechanical description of nature, not from the unreliability of measurement tools or the excellence of experimental techniques. Even with ideal tools and technique, there will always be some degree of uncertainty.


The measurement process inherently disturbs the state that is being measured, which is a manifestation of the uncertainty principle. Therefore, a shorter wavelength of light is required to observe a smaller particle, increasing both the energy of the light and the perturbation it causes the particle to undergo during the measurement process. Although useful for visualisation, this interpretation has some drawbacks. It implies that the particle under observation does indeed have an exact position and an exact momentum, which we are unable to determine due to the shoddy measurement technique. The Uncertainty Principle actually tells us that there must be some ambiguity in order for the concepts of position and momentum to coexist. Contrary to what naive realist philosophers had believed, there is no precise state of momentum and position that is independent of the act of measurement. For all practical purposes, this quantum mechanical uncertainty is insignificant in significant, everyday situations. It is frequently verified by experiment in the subatomic world and is crucial to the stability of matter. The Heisenberg Uncertainty would vanish, and we would expect to be able to measure the position and momentum of any object with perfect accuracy using perfect instruments (of course, in practise this is never possible) if we consider the limit where the quantum aspect of the world is ignored (so Planck's constant, h, is set to zero) (Barrow 2006).


The Uncertainty Principle has had a significant impact on determinism and the philosophy of science. It implies that it is impossible to accurately predict the current state of the world (or any small portion of it). We wouldn't be able to predict the future even if we had access to the mathematical laws that can accurately predict the future from the present. Under a certain level of observational scrutiny, the Uncertainty Principle introduces an irreducible indeterminacy, or graininess, in the state of the world. It is thought that during the early moments of the universe's history, the inevitable degree of graininess in the state of matter resulted in the production of irregularities that eventually developed into galaxies (Barrow 2006). The specific predictions made by such a theory regarding the variations in the universe's temperature that are currently being tested through space experiments. Energy and time are the most frequently brought up pair of the other physical quantities that Heisenberg demonstrated cannot be measured simultaneously with arbitrary high precision. Since time is not an observable in the same way that energy, position, and momentum are in quantum mechanics, this pair is not strictly speaking a true indeterminate pair like position and momentum.


2. Write a note on realistic and idealistic account of space and time. 20

Ans) The proponent of idealistic theory of space and time is Immanuel Kant. In his essay The Critique of Pure Reason, he discusses his ideas on space and time. He claims that our perception, which he refers to as a "phenomenon," is divided into two parts: that which is caused by the outside world, which he refers to as "sensation," and that which is caused by our own subjective apparatus, which he claims causes the world to be arranged in a certain way. He refers to the latter portion as the phenomenon's form. Since we carry this part with us, it is constant and a priori in the sense that it is not based on prior experience. It is not a sensation in and of itself and is not affected by environmental accidents. "Pure intuition" refers to a pure form of sensibility; there are two such forms: time and space, one for the inner sense and one for the outer sense, respectively. The mind assigns spatio-temporal properties to the objects of perception as pure forms of intuition. As a result, the outside objects do not possess space and time. They are the irrational, subjective projections of the inner mind. By utilising antimoniacal concepts, Kant establishes his idealistic view of space and time.


The proponent of the realistic theory of space and time is Samuel Alexander. The fundamental ideas in Alexander's system can be traced to the great scientists and philosophers of his time, but his brilliance lies in combining them into a unique form that is all his own. Alexander was a naturalist and an empiricist like Lloyd Morgan. However, Alexander takes the concept of emergence a step further and demonstrates how the entire universe, including all physical events, life, mind, and even deity, can be conceived to evolve out of Space-Time. Whereas Morgan starts with physical events related in space and time and tries to demonstrate how, out of these, all inorganic material substance, life, and mind can be conceived to emerge, Alexander pushes the idea of emergence a step further. The higher levels of emergent evolution—matter, life, mind, and deity—emerge from the basic "Pyramid" structure of space-time. The pyramid is topped by deity, and evolution is characterised by animosity toward the deity. This explains why the process is moving upward. Alexander believes that epistemology is not a prerequisite to metaphysics and that the mind is a natural phenomenon. Every experience can be broken down into two district components and their interactions. The act of mind or awareness and the thing it is aware of are the two things that make up the terms of the relationship; their relationship is that they are present together in the world that has been encountered up to this point. My awareness and the awareness of it that I am aware of are one and the same. However, I am aware of an object, which is separate from awareness and exists before it. Alexander uses the terms enjoyment and contemplation to clearly distinguish between subjective and objective knowledge. While the mind is having fun, it is also thinking about things like a true (in perception), an image (in memory), etc. For Alexander, ideas are reality, whereas for Berkeley, reality is ideas.




Write a note on, 10+10= 20


a) Conceptual Problems in Science,



b) Philosophical implications of uncertainty principle



3. Answer any two questions in about 250 words each. 2*10= 20


a) What are the philosophical implications of the Bayesian theory of Probability.10

Ans) A Practical Approach: In an effort to provide a rational foundation for inductive reasoning in science, Thomas Bayes, an English non-conformist clergyman, renowned mathematician, and fellow of the Royal Society, proposed the Bayesian theorem. Bayes lived between 1702 and 1761. The probability of the result serves as a gauge for how certain a conclusion to an experiment is. Bayes defined probability as "a rational acceptance: The probability of any event is the ratio between the value at which an expectation based on the occurrence of an event ought to be computed, and the value of the thing expected upon it's occurrence" (1763, 376, as quoted by Barry Gower, 1997, 96). Salmon cites five eminent philosophers: Carnap, Reichenbach, L. J. Salvage, Nelson Goodman, and Popper as having either a direct or indirect interest in the Bayesian theorem (Wesley Salmon, 2002, 397- 99). The Bayseian confirmation is succinctly explained by Howson and Urbach. It is important to understand how the hypothesis relates to the empirical data (evidence), as this will determine whether the hypothesis is accepted or rejected. A piece of evidence may support or refute the tested hypothesis, or it may be neutral. Suppose that h is the hypothesis, e is the evidence, P(h) is the prior probability, and P(h|e) is the posterior probability. If P(h|e) > P(h), then e confirms h, and if P(h|e) P(h), then e disconfirms h. In other words, if the posterior probability is higher, then the evidence supports the hypothesis, and vice versa. P(e|h) = 1 and h logically implies e when the confirmation is at its maximum. P(e|h) = 0 and h is refuted when the disconfirmation is at its greatest.


b) Compare Historicism and Logical Positivism in the domain of science. 10



c) What is your opinion on the view that ‘philosophy is a second order discipline’? Substantiate your opinion. 10



d) What is cause-effect relationship? 10

Ans) Philosophical interest lies in the relationship between causes and effects. a) Logical necessity: Some events that are effects are necessary as a result of causes. The relationship of causal necessity between specific events makes one an inevitable consequence of another because causes are sufficient for their effects. The cause and its effect are inextricably linked, so the effect must occur whenever and wherever the cause does. If laws are universally applicable, then there must be a necessary relationship between the phenomena; as a result, when water is heated, it must also evaporate in addition to evaporating normally. b) Constant Conjunction (Hume): There are only "constant conjunctions" (exceptionless regularities) between cause and effect; there is no logical justification for any necessary connection. Because of how these patterns in our experiences have conditioned us, we mistakenly believe that the second pool ball must move when the first ball strikes it in addition to just being likely to do so. The notion that they must be connected is purely psychological in nature and has nothing to do with sense impressions. Any cause can be imagined (without absurdity) without its usual effect or even with an effect that never follows because all causes are perfectly separable from their effects in our minds. Only through my own experience have I discovered that when water is heated, it boils rather than freezing, though nothing prevents the latter from occurring. Since anything could potentially cause anything, an effect cannot be inferred from a cause because they are conjoined but unrelated. c) Empirical Necessity: Given a set of natural laws, the cause-and-effect relationship is only a hypothetical or conditional necessity. Water boiling when heated is simply a result of natural law.


4. Answer any four questions in about 150 words each. 4*5= 20


a) Critically evaluate the feminist account of science. 5

Ans) Feminist accounts of science not only point out the gender bias in scientific theories, procedures, and presumptions, but most of them also demonstrate how androcentric prejudices affect the very idea of reason, objectivity, and science. They provide case studies to support their assertions that there have been systematic exclusions or distortions of women's or gender issues, leading to flawed conclusions. Case studies demonstrate that, in order to assert the superiority of men in terms of wit, intelligence, and physical toughness, even contradictory claims are made. According to Fausto-Sterling, some evidence is consistently disregarded, some questions are never raised, some hypotheses are not taken into consideration, and some experimental controls are never implemented when making the case for women's natural propensity to play subordinate roles in society and the family (Okruhlik, 2001). The gender bias of Darwin's theory that only men, the hunter-gatherers, are capable of evolutionary development is highlighted by feminist critiques. This androcentric bias is used as an auxiliary theory in other fields, such as anthropology, to explain the social roles and behaviour of men.


b) What are the main problems against Hume’s notion of ‘constant conjunction’? 5

Ans) Issues with Hume's concept of constant conjunction includes the inability to distinguish between true causal relationships and accidental conjunctions. Constant conjunctions are not always indicative of causal connections. (For instance, "It always rains when the Minister comes to my town. Even if this were always the case, the Minister's visit could not have been the reason for the rain. ii) According to the Humean understanding, it is impossible to determine the direction of causation because constant conjunction only involves a symmetrical relationship while causation involves an asymmetrical one. Problem with Hume's similarity of notion: Things similar to A always happen after events similar to B. The concept of "similarity" is ambiguous. Is it an exact match? If so, then the only thing that is exactly like an event is that event, which cannot be duplicated precisely because at the very least the space-time variables will vary; or is it "more-or-less" similar? The similarity, according to Humeans, must exist in a few important and pertinent ways.


c) Write a note on the Aupanishdik understanding of cosmology. 5



d) Write a note on the contribution of Kepler to cosmology. 5

Ans) Kepler attended the University of Tübingen (now in Germany) on a scholarship to study mathematics and astronomy. He was born into an unremarkable and impoverished family. He continued on to theological college with the goal of becoming a Lutheran minister. He was soon asked to leave and begin teaching mathematics at a Graz school (now in Austria). Here is where he conjured up his Platonic solids-based quixotic world model. Despite being false, the theory cemented his fame. Kepler visited Tycho Brahe in Prague after he relocated there from Denmark. Kepler appreciated Tycho's extensive observations because they were more precise than any earlier ones. Following Tycho's passing in 1601, he received both the emperor’s favour and the data that Tycho had accumulated. Kepler examined the data and discovered numerous other alleged regularities, some of which were true and others of which are now forgotten. These later became known as his three laws (Levy 2000). Kepler believed that a harmonious and orderly universe was a product of God the Creator.


e) What are the postulates of general theory of relativity? 5

Ans) His greatest contribution was the general theory of relativity. It transformed the concept of gravitation and launched the brand-new discipline of cosmology, or the study of the cosmos. In contrast to the general theory, which took Einstein nearly ten years from the first draught to the final, elegant equations, the special theory of relativity was produced by him in a matter of five weeks. Albert Einstein first introduced "The General Theory of Relativity" in a paper in 1915. Its main goal was to turn "The Special Theory of Relativity" into a special case of general relativity by incorporating the effects of gravity.

Postulate I

Absolute motion cannot be quantified through any experiment. Therefore, there isn't a special frame of reference in the universe that can be used to measure absolute motion. Because of this, natural phenomena will be the same for two observers moving at any uniform speed in relation to one another.


Postulate II

The speed of light is an absolute quantity that never changes. It is unaffected by the observer's or the source's motion.


f) Write a note on the philosophical implications of quantum mechanics? 5



5. Write short notes on any five in about 100 words each. 5*4= 20


a) Idea of incommensurability 4

Ans) Incommensurability affects scientists during the revolutionary era (i.e., communication breakdown). It develops as a result of the denial of an outdated theory, changes to the problem domain, standards of solution, and even some fundamental scientific principles. Despite the fact that the earth and the sun are 150 million kilometres apart, when scientists from the Copernican and Aristotelian paradigms speak of the centre of the universe, they are actually referring to very different realities. According to Kuhn, there is no way to overcome the communication gap because the interpreter will have to live in two realities and go insane as a result.


b) Space-Time Curve 4

Ans) Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, which explains how matter and energy bend space-time, can be used to model the expansion of the universe. We experience the gravitational force as that curvature. General relativity generates relatively straightforward equations to describe how space curves and expands under the assumption of the cosmological principle (that the universe is uniform on the largest scales). These models suggest that the shape of the universe could resemble a sphere's surface or a saddle's surface. However, observations imply that it is actually poised between the two, nearly flat. The inflationary theory is one explanation.


c) Paradigm Shift 4



d) Elimination of Metaphysics 4

Ans) Beyond perception and experience are metaphysical entities (transcendental). All metaphysical claims, in A.J. Ayer's opinion, are absurd because they do not all satisfy the requirements of verifiability. He claims that philosophy is merely the study of language. There is a super phenomenal reality, which is the fundamental tenet of metaphysics. Since protocol propositions can be empirically verified, no statement that cannot be reduced to a protocol proposition can have any significance. By definition, metaphysical claims make claims about the existence of unprovable, non-empirical entities.


The first type of nonsensical proposition is made by metaphysicians primarily under the assumption that there must be a real entity somewhere that corresponds to every word or phrase that can be the grammatical subject of a sentence. Because many of these "entities" have no place in the empirical world, a unique non-empirical world is created just to accommodate them.


e) Deductive Explanation 4

Ans) The explain is a universal law from which an explanation for an explanandum is inferred in the deductive type of explanation. For instance, why does the sum of odd numbers always result in a square?


1 = 12

1= 3 = 2 2, 1+ 3+5 = 32, 1+ 3+ 5+7 = 42 etc….

Here, an explain, or universal law of mathematics, is used to explain the explanandum. For instance, why does a glass tumbler always have moisture on the outside when we pour ice water? Here, the premise's Explain is a physical law (law of thermodynamics). The cooler portion of a glass tumbler comes into contact with atmospheric water vapour when iced water is poured into it. The water vapour condenses into water droplets, leaving a layer of moisture on the tumbler's exterior.


f) Hubble’s Law 4

Ans) First off, we can say with some confidence that the universe had a beginning. Second, it appears that galaxies are departing from us at velocities proportional to their separation. After Edwin Hubble (1889–1953), who discovered this phenomenon in 1929, this is known as "Hubble's Law." This observation indicates that the universe was once compacted and supports the theory that it is expanding. Third, if the Big Bang theory is correct and the universe was initially extremely hot, we should be able to detect some evidence of this heat. The observable universe is filled with a 2.725-degree Kelvin (-454.765-degree Fahrenheit, -270.425 degree Celsius) Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB), which was discovered in 1965 by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson.


g) End of the universe 4



h) Problems of induction 4


100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40  written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Learn More

Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery

Learn More

Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!

Learn More

Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!

Learn More

Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!

Learn More

Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!

Learn More

Download Premium PDF

Assignment Question Papers

Which Year / Session to Write?

Get Handwritten Assignments

bottom of page