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MPYE-011: Philosophy of Art (Aesthetics)

MPYE-011: Philosophy of Art (Aesthetics)

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MPYE-011/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MPYE-011

Assignment Name: Philosophy of Art (Aesthetics)


Verification Status: Verified by Professor



i) Give answer of all five questions.

ii) All five questions carry equal marks.

iii) The answer of questions no. 1 and 2 should be in about 500 words.


1. Critical Exposition of,


a) rasanumitivada



b) Concept of Sahridaya 10+10= 20





Compare Intuitionist Theory of Art and Content Theory of Art 20

Ans) The "Croce-Collingwood theory of art" refers to the ideas of R.G. Collingwood and Benedetto Croce. This does not imply that Collingwood's views or Croce's theory are flawed, but rather that their contribution, which is regarded as significant, is based on two factors. Although of lesser importance, it clearly describes one potential artistic process in addition to I am describing the work as an intentional object. According to Croce, "language and aesthetics run parallel," "Art must be language," all linguistic scientific problems are equivalent to aesthetic scientific problems, and the truths and errors of one are equivalent to those of the other. In a similar vein, Collingwood's assertion that "we can answer the question" of "what kind of thing must art be, if it is to have two characteristics of being expressive and imaginative? "Reveals his agreement with Croce. Both contend that a work of art can be described as an intuitive or imaginary object, and both agree that it is not a craft because it is an expression of intuition and imagination. The physical object on display to the audience is not the only aspect of the work of art. It is an intentional object that is the focus of one or more mental acts and about which no existence claims are made. Every mental act (noesis) has a corresponding object (noema), according to phenomenology, toward which consciousness is directed. Without some corresponding mental act or intuition that grants the object, internal or external, the name "art," art per se is nothing.


In contrast to Croce-viewpoints Collingwood's on art, the content theory takes a different stance. Is an artwork considered to be a physical object? The physicality (or non-physicality) of art and its status (or non-status) as an object are the two parts of this question that require dual analysis. According to Wollheim, a theory of the status of a work of art would address problems with physicality and categorization. The existence of art, according to Collingwood, is rooted in the artist's mind, which cannot be seen or heard but is something imagined. Artists create art in order to express themselves, but their emotions before they are expressed are intangible. Dilworth adheres to the content theory, which holds that the only things that constitute art are physical objects, such as marble clumps, canvases covered in pigment, sound wave sequences, or marks on paper. The "physical object hypothesis," as Wollhein refers to it, has also drawn criticism from a variety of sources, including Collingwood, among others. However, unlike Collingwood, J. P. Sartre does not think of works of art as "imagined activities, but rather as imaginary or 'unreal' objects, created and sustained by acts of imaginative consciousness, and existing only as they remain the objects of such acts." He also believes that works of art are never "real" objects. Do we have compelling evidence to support the claim that works of art are tangible things? Should artworks be recognisable as merely physical objects that can only be described in terms of physics? The majority of the time works of art have intentional, meaning-oriented, and/or aesthetic qualities, but it is highly improbable that they are purely physical things. Scholars contend that it is impossible to dispute the physical nature of all works of art, whether in the strong or weak sense.


2. Explain and evaluate three elements of Descartes' philosophy of Art. 20





Explain and evaluate Advaita Vedāntik Idea of Art Experience. 20

Ans) The Supreme Brahman is referred to as "Anandam Brahma" in the Upanisads. Ananda, a rasa that denotes taste, is a savour; an essence; or a sap. Brahma and the self are one and the same. Ananda is heavenly joy and bliss. Self must share in the essence of Ananda, the supreme joy, when self or Atman and Brahman are one. Ananda cannot be intellectually understood because there can be no mediated Ananda. Rather, Ananda is the realisation of the harmony of the universe in one's experience. As long as Avidya is present, the distinction between the self and the non-self persists, and the true harmony of all things has not yet emerged. The jivan Mukta man achieves the unity in diversity and takes pleasure in genuine Ananda. The man who has not attained that poise finds beauty in symbols and material objects. The key to real beauty is to use your "inward eye." As the term "outer beauty" is used, it is ephemeral and reflects individual character. It is not at the stage of transcendence yet. Life, according to Sankar, is avidya-Kama karma, and Ananda is a stage of desire lessness and selflessness. Ananda, also known as bliss, is inner joy. Even though life is made up of perpetual cycles of Kama and Karmas, these can be done away with by eliminating avidya. As long as avidya's veil is not ultimately removed, it still exists in some dormant form. While the saintly attitude is one of true enlightenment and not necessarily passivity, but rather unselfishness, the artistic attitude is one of "disinterested contemplation" and not of true enlightenment.

The Vedantic theory of rasa experience suggests a detached attitude that one can have when viewing artistic creations that demand and require the necessity of rhythm, symmetry, etc. The perfect knower knows Brahma by understanding himself, or atman. "Brahma-vit, Bhavati of the Brahma." This is an issue that transcends the empirical plane. One discovers the truth of art in the earlier stage. One fully understands the natural truth on the higher planes. A perfect knower delights in the perfect bliss of unity amidst the diversity of nature. True pleasure comes from seeing everything as one, sarva-bhuta-hiteratah, or Suhrid-Sarvabhutatma. Hiriyanna notes that there is still a striking similarity between the two attitudes: "We may well compare the person who appreciates art to a jivanmukta. He does indeed experience a glimpse of Moksha, but it is not Moksha in reality because it is fleeting and not founded in absolute knowledge.


Bharatanatyam is a form of yoga; a religious practise used to tame the wandering mind and train it to be calm and unperturbed by thoughts. Due to their skill, artists can quickly transition between various moods and achieve the poise of yoga. Even when there is no activity, it is challenging to focus on one thing while thinking. Actions are not avoided in Bharatanatyam; rather, it is the harmony of many different actions that leads to the desired concentration. Detachment from all earthly ties is symbolised by dance. All other thoughts simply vanish from the dancer's mind as she becomes so absorbed in the rhythm, producing the sound the percussionist is playing and focusing on her balance, that she experiences the highest level of bliss.


3. Answer any two questions in about 250 words. 2*10= 20


a) Write a note on the contribution of Bharat Muni in Aesthetics. 10



b) Compare Utpattivada and Bhuktivada about Rasa. 10



c) Compare Formalistic theory and Representation theory of Art. 10

Ans) It assumes that the way a piece is made, it’s purely visual components, and its artistic medium all contribute to its artistic value. Instead of emphasising realism, context, and content, formalism emphasises compositional elements like colour, line, shape, and texture. It views context, the motivation behind its creation, historical context, the life of the artist, etc. as a supporting factor. A method of understanding art known as formalism can be traced back to Plato, who claimed that a thing's "eidos" (or shape) included our perception of it as well as those sensory aspects of it that the human mind can take in. For this reason, Plato's "Eidos" contained components of imitation and representation. The eidos is impossible to replicate and is inherently deceptive. Clive Bell distinguished between an object's "actual form" and "significant form" in his 1914 book "Art."


Many ancient and contemporary philosophers have referred to "man as the representational animal homo symbolicum," the creature whose distinctive characteristic is the creation and the manipulation of signs - things that "stand for" or "take the place of" something else. People organise the world and reality through representation by giving its components names. In order to express relationships and create semantic constructions, signs are organised. (1955 Mitchell W) According to Mictchell, "representation is an extremely elastic notion, extending from stone depicting a man to novel." It is related to expansive fields. It has developed into a significant part of language and is defined in three ways in literacy theory: I to look like or resemble; (ii) to stand in for something or someone; and (iii) to present a second tune to re-present.


d) Critically evaluate theory of imitation advocated by Plato. 10

Ans) Plato added little to the ideas of his time, but he did emphasise the theory of imitation in his work "Republic" (categorised under late dialogues), particularly in Books III and X. The explanations for the poets' expulsion from the schools are provided in Book III. When used properly, music and gymnastics were regarded as value-builders for young people. Plato demonstrates that when establishing an ideal state, young boys and girls who demonstrate talent in music and gymnastics should be chosen as rulers. Poets, musicians, and playwrights were thought to have a negative influence on children.


Additional justifications for keeping the poets outside the state are outlined in Book X. The strongly advocated theory of imitation by Socrates serves as the cornerstone for the Platonic perspective on art and the artists. Plato elaborates on the imitation principle in forms of art such as poetry, painting, and other art forms and thus criticises them. Plato answers the question of what imitates art by saying that it imitates empirical objects that are copies of the Forms. Art is a copy of a copy, so to speak. The key idea that highlights the connection with artistic creations is mimesis or imitation. An artist is viewed as someone who copies things and is therefore a liar; at best, an artist is only interested in representing appearances rather than reality itself. As a result, the artist is considered a partner in eikasia. The things that are perceived already resemble their forms, and art imitates imitation, which deviates too far from knowledge. Plato demonstrates the absurdity of art at each stage.


4. Answer any four questions in about 150 words. 4*5= 20


a) Write a note on Plotinus’ idea of Intellectual Beauty. 5

Ans) The technical aspects of dramatic production were handled by later philosophers. Aristotle instructed the dramatist in his Poetics and further supplemented in Rhetoric. Plotinus (AD 205-270) continued the lineage of Aristotle by focusing on the discussion of the culmination of art, which is the artistic experience. The Six Enneads, Plotinus' work, contains the theory he advanced. (They are known as the Enneads because each of the six books contains nine sections; the word ennea in Greek means nine.) Plotinus addresses the subject of "Beauty" in the sixth tractate of the first Ennead. In this regard, he asserts that if the beautiful thing is essentially symmetrical or patterned, it amounts to saying that only a compound and not an object without parts can be beautiful. Plotinus continues by asking, "What is symmetry?" Plotinus questions how symmetry fits in here based on the Greek belief that all virtues contribute to the beauty of the soul. In an effort to apply his theory of beauty to the metaphysical intellectual being—which he characterises as primarily the solitary—he makes this claim.


b) Analyse Susanne K. Langer’s view on Art. 5

Ans) Langer views art as a form of expression. Art differs from other things in that it has the capacity to convey, articulate, or project the subjective aspect of our experience. The purpose of art is too "express" the life of feeling in such a way that art enthusiasts in general, nay, even artists themselves, may learn a little more about "vitality in all its manifestations, from sheer sensibility to the most elaborate phases of awareness and emotion." This is not to express the artist's own feelings or even to evoke any emotion in the contemplator. In other words, art's primary value is cognitive rather than affective or primarily subjective. A means of learning about the life of feeling, art. Langer, like other art philosophers, views "expression" as the key idea in his aesthetic theory. The expression of human feeling is what a work of art expresses. It is an expressive form made for our perception through sense or imagination. His theory emphasises the importance of "form," "expression," "feeling," "creation," and "perception."


c) Write a note on the Samkhya theory of Art. 5



d) Critically evaluate Kant’s idea of Sublimity. 5



e) Write a note on the contribution of Abhinavgupta in the development of Rasa theory.5

Ans) Although Abhinavagupta expanded the rasa theory into a systematic poetic principle, Bharata is credited with having invented it. The principal proponent of the Dhvani theory was Anandavardhana, but Abhinavagupta later made important contributions to it.

Both Anandavardhana and Abhinavagupta believed that great poetry has an implicit or suggestive rasa as its soul and that great poetry's language is not explicit but rather implicit.

According to Anandavardhana and Abhinavagupta, poetry's language transcends empiricism and the boundaries of both lakshana and abhidha. Anandavardhana asserts that the highest type of poetry is that in which the suggested element predominates. In this type of poetry, the implied meaning takes precedence over the expressed meaning. According to Abhinavagupta, poetry is inextricably linked to the allure of the implicit. While appreciating art, Abhinavagupta shifted his focus away from the linguistic elements and associated abstractions that had distracted even Anandavardhana and toward the inner workings of the human mind, particularly the mind of the reader or viewer of a literary work.


f) Write a note on the doctrine of Sadharanikarana. 5

Ans) The Sadharnikarana doctrine guarantees that a poet has successfully creatively de-individualized the emotions, stripped them of their pain-pleasure association, and made them universal enough to be savoured by everyone. Despite the fact that he did support some of Bhatta Nayaka's ideas and even adopted them in his aesthetic principles, Abhinavagupta has a lot of trouble accepting Bhatta Nayaka's viewpoints. Abhinavagupta, a fervent supporter of Dhvani, was highly critical of Bhatta Nayaka's Bhavnavyapara. It was well known that Bhatta Nayaka built his Hrdaya Darpan specifically to destroy Dhvani. Abhinavagupta wanted to accept Bhavana solely on the basis that it means "vyanjana," and he claimed there was no need to discuss a new concept when one of a similar nature already existed. Those who assert that Bhatta Nayaka brought the rasa debate to a head are completely correct. Actually, Bhatta Nayaka's three functions theory provided all of the answers to his processor's queries and helped to put the Rasa into proper perspective.


5. Write short notes on any five in about 100 words each. 5*4= 20


a) Raudra Rasa 4

Ans) One of the most significant rasas in Natyashastra is raudra. Krodh, or anger, is the Sthayibhava, or primary emotion, of it. It has its roots in the Raksasas, Danavas, and other particularly mischievous beings, with a typical battle serving as its immediate cause. Although the Vibhavas or determinants, much like Krodh, determine its outcome (anger). Dharsana (violation of modesty), Adheksepa (abuse), Apamana (insult), Anrtavacana (uttering lies), Vakpauruseya (use of harsh words), Dhroha (animosity), Matsarya (jealousy), and those of a like mind. It involves beating, tormenting, harassing, chopping, breaking, and piercing, striking, hurling missiles, inflicting bodily harm, confiscating weapons, and other similar activities. According to Abhinavagupta, there are two types of rasas: Sukhatmaka and dukhatmaka. Sukha causes pain, which is undesirable.


b) Idea of Sublimity 4

Ans) The nature of the sublime is then examined by Kant, who claims that the presentation of the sublimity that can be found in the mind is made possible by the objects. According to him, the sublime can only be contained in ideas of reason and cannot be found in any sensual form. Although it is impossible to present reason adequately, the very inadequacy that allows for sensuous presentation serves as the foundation for reason. In sublime, the mind is encouraged to set aside sensibility and focus on concepts with higher finality. He notes that nature primarily uses signs of magnitude and power to arouse ideas of the sublime. In contrast to beauty, he argues that the sublime concept in nature has richer consequences but is less significant.


c) Mimetic Theory of Art 4

Ans) The definition of "mimetic" includes the terms "using imitative means of representation" and "of or relating to an imitation, imitate." There are numerous art theories. Literary theory is divided into Minetic, Pragmatic, Expressive, and Objective categories by M.H. Abraham. H. Adams categorises ontology, epistemology, linguistics, and socioculture as the history of philosophy and criticism of literacy. The term "Mimesis" has been in use since Plato, but great theorists from the Renaissance to modern theorists have also used it. Plato and Aristotle both adhere to the mimetic theory of art, which defines art as imitation done in various ways. The explanation of ontological dichotomies of the "Universal" and "particular" provides the key to separating Plato's ideas from those of Aristotle.


d) Ancillary Feeling 4

Ans) Other emotions that typically go along with a feeling when it is being expressed in a poem as the primary mood are referred to as the feeling's ancillaries. No emotion, no matter how fundamental, ever manifests in its most pure form without drawing other emotions with it. Therefore, if love-in-union is the emotion being treated, a variety of other emotions will be attracted to it, including timidity, infatuation, agitation, eagerness, pride, and others. These supporting emotions are known as vyabhichari or sanchari-bhavas (transient or fleeting emotions) because they accompany the main emotions and aid in stabilising them by coming and going at will. No emotion can be transformed into an enduring mood without the reinforcement of the fleeting emotions.


e) Sthayi Bhava 4



f) Sringara Rasa 4



g) Sanchari Bhava 4



h) Denis 4

Ans) The pseudo-Areopagite Dionysius is also known as Denis or Pseudo-Dionysius. He is thought to be a theologian of mysticism. The Divine Names, his principal work, has thirteen chapters. He addresses the issues of Good, beauty, love, jealousy, and the nature of evil in chapter four. In this fourth chapter, Dionysius begins to define Good and gradually expands on the nature of Beauty in fourteen sections. The supremely divine deity, according to him, is fundamentally Good and extends its Goodness to everything. The Goodness of the Good is how he describes the cosmos' order. "The Good is Cause of the Celestial Movements in their Beginnings and Endings," he asserts.

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