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MRDE-003: Land Reforms and Rural Development

MRDE-003: Land Reforms and Rural Development

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MRDE-003 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Land Reforms and Rural Development, you have come to the right place. MRDE-003 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MARD courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: MRDE-003/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MRDE-003

Assignment Name: Land Reforms and Rural Development

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Note: The assignment has three sections. It contains questions, which require long, medium, and short answers. A long answer should not exceed 1000 words. Medium answers should not exceed 500 words each. Short answers should not exceed 100 words each.


Long Answers Questions


Attempt any One of the following:


Q1) Discuss the contribution of land reforms in poverty alleviation and economic equality.

Ans) In India, land reforms have been seen as a crucial tool for reducing poverty and promoting economic equality. The importance of land reforms in poverty alleviation and economic equality in India cannot be overstated, given that a large proportion of the population is dependent on agriculture and natural resources for their livelihoods. Over the years, various land reforms initiatives have been implemented in India with the aim of improving access to land, promoting sustainable agriculture, and providing livelihood opportunities for poor and marginalized communities.


One of the ways that land reforms have contributed to poverty alleviation and economic equality in India is by improving access to land for poor and marginalized communities, such as small-scale farmers, tribal people, and women. For example, the Forest Rights Act recognizes the rights of forest-dwelling communities over forest lands, and the PESA Act gives tribal people more control over their lands and resources. These reforms have helped to empower these communities and improve their access to resources, thereby reducing poverty and promoting economic equality.


Land reforms have also helped to promote sustainable agriculture in India by providing small-scale farmers with access to land and support services, such as credit and training. Small-scale farmers often face challenges in accessing resources and markets, which can limit their productivity and income. By providing these farmers with the resources and support they need to improve their agricultural practices, land reforms can help to increase their productivity, improve their incomes, and reduce poverty. This can also help to promote economic equality by reducing the income disparities between small-scale farmers and large-scale commercial farmers.


Another way that land reforms have contributed to poverty alleviation and economic equality in India is by providing livelihood opportunities and financial support to people living in rural areas. For example, the Joint Forest Management program in India gives communities the responsibility for managing and protecting forests, while also providing them with income-generating opportunities. This type of program can help to improve the economic well-being of rural communities and reduce poverty by providing alternative livelihood opportunities, particularly for those who are dependent on agriculture and natural resources for their livelihoods.


Land reforms have also helped to reduce landlessness in India by providing secure rights to land for people who do not have access to land. This can improve the living standards of poor and marginalized communities and reduce poverty, as secure land rights can provide a basis for people to build their lives, homes, and livelihoods. Additionally, by reducing landlessness, land reforms can also help to promote economic equality by reducing the concentration of land in the hands of a few and ensuring that land is more widely distributed among the population.


Finally, land reforms have helped to prevent land-related conflicts in India by providing legal recognition for informal land holdings and formalizing land rights. This can reduce the risk of disputes and evictions and help to ensure that poor and marginalized communities are not forcibly displaced from their lands. Land-related conflicts can have a significant impact on the economic well-being of communities, as they can result in the loss of homes, land, and livelihoods. By reducing the risk of land-related conflicts, land reforms can help to promote economic equality and stability in rural areas.


In conclusion, land reforms have made a significant contribution to poverty alleviation and economic equality in India by improving access to land, promoting sustainable agriculture, providing livelihood opportunities, reducing landlessness, and preventing land-related conflicts. By addressing some of the most pressing challenges facing communities and the environment, land reforms can help to promote sustainable and equitable land use and support the long-term economic and social development of the country. It is important that the Indian government continues to implement and enforce land reforms in a transparent and effective manner, in order to ensure that the benefits of these reforms are widely distributed and sustained over the long-term.


Medium Answers Questions


Attempt any Two of the following:


Q1) Explain the current status of land revenue administration in India.

Ans) The present-day method used to collect and administer land revenue in India is a convoluted and variable one. When it comes to the collection and administration of land revenue, every state has its own unique system. Despite this, there are a few aspects of the system that the majority of states share in common.


The majority of the work that needs to be done in relation to land revenue is handled by each state's respective department of revenue. This division's leadership is typically provided by either the Commissioner of Revenue or the Secretary of Revenue, depending on the circumstances. The Department of Revenue is responsible for collecting money from various locations, including farms, cities, and forests, amongst other locations.


In the majority of states, the revenue department is managed by a hierarchy of revenue officers, with the Tehsildar (revenue officer) at the bottom of the hierarchy, followed by the Nayab Tehsildar, the Assistant Collector, the Deputy Collector, and then the Collector. The position of Collector is the highest in the hierarchy. The Collector is the person who oversees and manages the revenue department in a district. The burden of ensuring that residents of that district pay their taxes falls on him or her.


The department of revenue is in charge of determining the value of a piece of land by taking into account a number of factors such as its location, size, and other characteristics. The amount of money that the landowner is required to pay can then be calculated using this number. The money is typically collected once a year, but depending on the circumstances, it could be collected once every two or three years instead.


Over the course of the past few years, India has taken a number of steps to modernize and simplify the administration of its land revenue system. One of these kinds of projects is the digitization of land records, which has been done in a number of different states. Because of this, it is now much simpler for the Department of Revenue to maintain records that are correct and up to date regarding who owns land as well as to monitor the amount of money that is collected.


Another significant endeavour is the Land Records Management and Information System (LRMIS), which is a centralized database that makes it possible for individuals to locate land records from all over the nation. This system has been put into place in a number of states, making it simpler for individuals and organizations to gain access to land records and make use of them for activities such as buying and selling land, obtaining loans, and mediating disputes.


In conclusion, India's land revenue administration is improving as the government works to make it more efficient, open, and user-friendly. But there is still a lot of work to do and many difficulties to solve, especially when it comes to making sure the money collected is used to enhance the lives of the people living in the country.


Q2) Discuss in brief the impact of tenancy reforms on rural society and economy in India.

Ans) "To hold" is the root of "tenancy." Tenancy governs property ownership and use.

Land is "leased in" when someone uses it. They "lease it out" when they rent it. Tenants' land rights vary by rental agreement.

Tenants can be categorized according to the rights they have in relation to the land:

  1. Superior Tenants: Hereditary, occupational, and permanent renters have similar rights to owners. Rent, mortgage, or sell land. Land inherits. Owners pay taxes and superior renters pay rent. No eviction.

  2. Inferior Tenants: It is also called "tenants at will," "subordinate tenants," or "temporary tenants." These people have limited rights to the land. They can't sell the land or take out a loan on it. They could be kicked out. They pay the owner rent.

  3. Subtenants: Their situation is less stable than that of the poorer tenants. They are renting the land from other people, so it is easy to get rid of them.

  4. Landless Labours and Sharecroppers: They have no right to the land. Workers are paid either in cash or in kind. Sharecroppers farm land in exchange for a cut. Equipment may be given by sharecroppers or landlords.


The U.P. Zamindari Abolition Act abolished tenancy, but it went underground and caused tenants extra troubles. Governments knew widows and military personnel couldn't farm, so they rented it out. Indian tenancy reforms focused on tenure security, rent regulation, and land ownership.


Tenure: First, protect renters against arbitrary eviction. Tenants have five-year tenure under the Five-Year Plans. Appu said tenant protection was determined by tenant definition, the owner's right to restart personal cultivation, voluntary surrender of tenancy, and land records. Acts excluded sharecroppers and tenants. The U.P. Act excluded sharecroppers, although West Bengal's Land Reform Act did. The West Bengal Act specifies that tenants, including bargadars, can't be evicted unless they don't work the land, don't want to work it, don't pay the landowner's portion, or don't work it.


Manage Rent: Landowners might expel tenants and cultivate anew. "Personal cultivation" benefited landowners and injured tenants. Landlords exploited renters' ability to leave. The Third Five-Year Plan required voluntary land surrenders to be registered and subject to legal reclaim. Tenancy rights require land records. Most land records were poor. Particularly in Permanent Settlement regions.


Land Ownership: The Plan protects landowners but allows tenants to own. The First Five Year Plan divided landowners into three groups—big, medium, and small—to meet these two goals. Big landowners benefit from land ceiling laws. Resting were tenants and landless peasants. The Plan preserved three family farms for small and medium-sized landowners. Farmable family land. Soil, water, etc. determine size. Tenants received half of the family's property under the Plan.


States offered tenants land ownership. Appu identified no tenant ownership rights in Tamil Nadu and parts of Andhra Pradesh. Rajasthan tenants who moved in after 1961 have no rights or security, while sharecroppers in Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal cannot own their land. Bihar, Punjab, and Haryana landowners under the ceiling cannot award tenants ownership rights. Renters own in all other states.

Short Answers Questions


Attempt any Five of the following:


Q1) Computerization of Land Records

Ans) The Committee noticed that the Indian government had given money to get started on computerizing land records. But progress in this area has been slow for the following reasons:

  1. The State Governments' lack of interest,

  2. Poor maintenance of hardware,

  3. Delays in software development,

  4. The lack of motivation of revenue functionaries, and

  5. A lack of computer staff.


The Committee recommended that the federal government's land record computerization initiative be continued with full grants-in-aid for the States and completed as soon as practicable in all districts.


Q2) Indigo Movement (1859-60)

Ans) Cultivators had several causes. To force the British government to meet economic demands. Indigo is the largest and fiercest anti-government movement. Cultivators protested their exploitation. European colonists compelled eastern Indian villagers to grow indigo. Disobedient peasants were kidnapped, illegally imprisoned, attacked, and their crops robbed, torched, and destroyed. British planters were privileged and untouchable. Indigo peasants revolted in 1860. By 1860, it covered Bengal from Govindpur village in Nadia district. Bengali intellectuals, missionaries, and journalists supported this campaign. It was Hindu-Muslim. In November 1860, the government told the rioters they could not be compelled to cultivate indigo and would address all concerns legally. Indigo peasants won. First Indian peasant strike succeeded. Indigo inspired India's independence.


Q3) Social Movements and Peasant Movements

Ans) Social movements have goals, ideology, programmes, leadership, and structure. Objectives are what the movement seeks to alter, while ideology aids analysis and solution. Mobilization, interest maintenance, and dealing with authorities are planned. Social movement leaders shape its ideology, programmes, and organisation. The movement's effectiveness depends on state and stakeholder compliance. Indian reform movements concentrated on religion, whereas transformative movements targeted middle-level structural reforms in power, status, and economic resources. Russia, China, Iran, and peasant movements want to overturn the system. Social movements vary. Government activities spark social movements. Gravity, players' time, money, energy, passion, risk-taking, and authorities' response are crucial. Leadership, strategy, resource mobilisation, communication, authority relations, and symbols determine social movement success.


Q4) Pattern of Operational Holdings

Ans) "Operational" or "cultivation" holdings improve agricultural efficiency. Leasing in and leasing out can make operational holdings more consistent with efficient technology, the laws of returns, and returns to scale, even with a poor ownership distribution. In fact, if large landowners leased out little and small landowners leased in little, operational holdings would look like ownership, with too many tiny farms and some too large for efficient cultivation. Land distribution remained unequal after land reform. In 1953-54, the worst 60% of holdings operated 15.5% of area; in 1960-61, the bottom 62% operated 19%. In 1953-54, the top 5.8% of holdings operated 36.6% of area, and in 1960-61, 4.5%.


Q5) Agrarian Structure in Pre-British India

Ans) Before the British took control, India had an agrarian structure, which structured and distributed land, labour, and resources. It has many land ownership structures, including zamindari, raiyatwari, and jagirdari (feudal). Most of the land was owned by small and medium-sized holdings, with only a minor amount by major landowners. Most people lived off farming, which helped create the agrarian caste system.

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