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MSD-017: Challenges to Sustainable Development

MSD-017: Challenges to Sustainable Development

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023

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Assignment Code: MSD-017/TMA/2023

Course Code: MSD-017

Assignment Name: Challenges to Sustainable Development

Year: 2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Q1) What are the major objectives of India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change? Explain

Ans) India released its National Action Plan on Climate Change on June 30, 2008. A strategy with two main parts is needed for the whole action plan. First, we need to figure out how to deal with climate change. Second, to make India's path to development better for the environment. In other words, the NAPCC is a plan for how India will deal with climate change while keeping its high growth rate, protecting the poor and vulnerable, and reaching its national growth goals.


To help lessen the effects of climate change, the NAPCC came up with eight missions and 24 initiatives. The goal of these projects is to promote technologies and actions in the energy, transportation, renewable energy, disaster management, building capacity, and other sectors. But there are no clear goals or detailed action plans for each mission in the report. The real challenge is putting these eight missions into action at the local level in different parts of India. Here are the eight suggestions for missions:


National Solar Mission: The Mission was started with the goal of making 20,000 Megawatts of solar energy in three steps. The Indian government also planned to use money from bilateral donors like the Green Climate Fund under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to help pay for solar power projects. This is because solar power could help coal-based power plants emit less greenhouse gases. To meet the goals set by the mission, the government started a number of programmes to promote solar power and reduce reliance on traditional sources of energy.


National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE): NMEEE wants to avoid adding 19,598 MW of capacity, save about 23 million tonnes of fuel per year, and cut 98.55 million tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions per year. NMEEE looks at how to grow the economy in a way that is sustainable and reduces the amount of energy and carbon used.


National Mission on Sustainable Habitat: It is a big plan to reduce the amount of energy people use in cities and, by extension, the risk of climate change. The mission calls for a change to the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) for the design of new commercial buildings and the management of both solid and liquid waste. The mission also includes both the management of water resources and the management of drinking water. One of the mission's most important goals is to make it easier for people to switch to public transportation.


National Water Mission: The National Water Mission is a large programme that aims to make sure that water is distributed fairly across the country and that people have the skills they need to take care of overused water blocks. Its main goal is to deal with problems like pollution and lack of water that are caused by global warming and climate change.


National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem: The health of the Himalayan Ecosystem is one of the main goals of the mission. To make sure that the Himalayas continue to provide for the rest of the country, the mission is trying to figure out how climate change affects the Himalayan Ecosystem and how that affects other parts of the country.


National Mission for a “Green India”: As a response to climate change, the goal is to protect, restore, and improve India's green cover. The mission's overall goal is to increase the amount of trees on 5 million hectares of land and improve the trees on another 5 hectares.


National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA): The National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture has a number of programmes to help the agriculture sector grow in a sustainable way. It includes programmes like Soil Health Card Scheme, Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana, Mission organic value chain development for North-East region, Rainfed Area Development programme, National Bamboo Mission, and Sub Mission on Agro-Forestry.


National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change: This sub-mission involves putting together knowledge networks among the existing knowledge institutions that do research and development in climate science and making it easier to share and exchange data through a good policy framework and institutional support.


As our country is very different, the effects of climate change on different geo-ecological conditions would be different. So, besides missions at the national level, it makes sense to have different action plans for each region. In this situation, different states have tried to come up with their own plans to deal with climate change. But if we look at all of these state plans, we find that they are still just documents and nothing important has been done with them.


Q2) Define ‘Energy Crisis’. Explain the major effects of energy crisis in achieving sustainable development in India?

Ans) When the demand for energy is higher than the supply, there is an energy crisis. This leads to widespread power cuts, blackouts, and higher energy prices. Energy is a key part of sustainable development, and a problem in the energy sector can have a big effect on the economy and society as a whole. When energy markets fail, an energy shortage develops. Electricity users may experience rolling blackouts that are planned and put in place during times of low supply or unexpected power outages, no matter what the cause.


Oil is important to the economies of industrialised countries, and efforts to limit the supply of oil would hurt the economies of oil producers. The price of natural gas, gasoline, and diesel for cars and other vehicles goes up for consumers. Stakeholders have already asked for reports, investigations, and commissions to be set up to look into the price of fuels. There are also efforts to make cities' infrastructure more environmentally friendly.


Changes in tourism and the number of people who own gas-guzzlers are both caused by the fact that when fuel prices go up, customers have to pay more. Things that weren't as popular at first, like nuclear power plants and the blanket sleeper, a garment for keeping kids warm, become more popular. Changes are made to the way buildings are built to lower heating costs, possibly by adding more insulation. Another effect of the energy crisis, which isn't so obvious to get the attention of world leaders, is that more attention is being paid to biofuels made from plants like Jatropha. This, in turn, is putting more pressure on corps and agriculture lands because large areas of productive farmland are being used to grow Jatropha.


The energy crisis in India has had a number of big effects on sustainable development:


Economic Impacts: Because of the energy crisis, energy prices have gone up, which has a ripple effect on the cost of production and, in the end, on consumer prices. Because of this, economic growth has slowed down and inflation has gone up, making it hard for households and businesses to make ends meet.


Energy Security: India imports a lot of its energy, and the energy crisis has shown how vulnerable the country is when it comes to energy security. It has also made people worry about India's ability to meet its future energy needs, which could hurt economic growth and national security.


Environmental Degradation: Because of the energy crisis, we depend more on fossil fuels, which are the main cause of greenhouse gas emissions. This has led to climate change, air pollution, and other environmental problems that make it hard to develop in a sustainable way.


Social Impacts: The energy crisis has had a big effect on people's lives, especially those who live in rural areas. Many rural areas still don't have electricity, and the ones that do often have blackouts and power cuts. This has led to less work getting done and more people living in poverty, which are big problems for sustainable development.


Energy Conservation: Because of the energy crisis, people are more aware of the need to save energy, and more work is being done to promote energy-efficient practises. The government has started a number of programmes to promote energy efficiency and encourage the use of renewable energy sources, both of which are important for lowering energy demand and achieving sustainable development.


Infrastructure Development: India needs to improve its energy infrastructure, which the energy crisis has shown. This includes increasing the amount of power that can be made, improving transmission and distribution networks, and finding new ways to get energy. These efforts are very important if India wants to have a safe and reliable source of energy in the future.


In conclusion, India's energy crisis has had a big effect on sustainable development and shown how much better planning and management of energy are needed. The government and other interested parties need to work together to improve energy efficiency, lower energy demand, and find new ways to get energy. This will help India have a safe and reliable source of energy and reach its goal of sustainable development in the future..


Q3) Write an essay on India’s Rural Sanitation Programme with special reference to your state or region.

Ans) Individual Health and cleanliness depend a lot on having enough water to drink and a clean place to live. So, there is a direct link between clean water, good sanitation, and good health. Many diseases in developing countries are caused by things like drinking unclean water, not getting rid of human waste properly, not keeping the environment clean, and not taking care of personal and food hygiene. India is no different in this way. A large part of the high infant mortality rate is also due to bad sanitation. In this situation, the Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) was started in 1986. Its main goal was to improve the quality of life for people in rural areas and give women privacy and respect. With these things in mind, the CRSP was made better. In the new format, CRSP is moving toward an approach that is "demand driven." The new version of the "Total Sanitation Campaign" (TSC) programme puts more emphasis on activities like information, education, and communication (IEC), human resource development, and capacity development. These are meant to make rural people more aware of the need for sanitation facilities and increase demand for them.


In India, almost 286 million people, or 55 million households, or 27.8% of the population, live in cities. By 2012, the urban population is expected to have grown to 368 million. About 45 percent of people in India have access to clean water and toilets. The rate of sanitation in rural areas is 26%, while the rate in cities is 85%. About 7.87% of urban households in India don't have access to toilets, so they have to go to the bathroom outside. More than 40 million people who live in slums don't have access to clean water and toilets. Nearly 8% of households use community toilets, and 19.49% of households use shared toilets. Only 39.8% of the homes are hooked up to open drains. Only 18.5 percent of homes have access to a drainage system. The situation for the poor in cities is even worse.



  1. Help the general quality of life in rural areas to get better.

  2. Accelerate the spread of toilets in rural areas so that everyone has access to them by 2012.

  3. Encourage communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions to support long-term sanitation facilities by raising awareness and teaching people about health.

  4. In rural areas, schools should have sanitation facilities by March 2008 and Anganwadis should have them by March 2009, and students should be taught about hygiene and how to keep themselves clean.

  5. Encourage sanitation technologies that are safe for the environment and don't cost too much.

  6. Develop solid and liquid waste management systems for the environment that are run by the community.

The Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP)

The Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP) was started in November 2015 as the Technical Support Unit (TSU) for the government of Tamil Nadu (GoTN) to improve the faecal sludge and septage management (FSSM) along the full cycle of sanitation (FCS) in Tamil Nadu.


Under the Jal Jeevan mission, there are 42 new drinking water projects and 56 drinking water projects that are being fixed at a cost of 18,000crore. In another win, Tennessee came in third in the country among states with a lot of people when it came to meeting sanitation goals in rural areas. Some of the things the TN government has done with money from the central government are: It is important to use Anganwadi as a place to help both the children and their mothers change the way they act. Each Anganwadi has a toilet that is safe for babies. In Tamil Nadu, 26,347.


So far, Rs. 16.81 crores have been spent on building Anganwadi toilets. In July 2003, the Honourable Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu announced the "Clean Village Campaign" Award for the best performing Village Panchayats in the field of sanitation. This was the first time in the whole country that sanitation was given the most attention. Based on this, the Indian government started giving out Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP) awards in 2005 to give the Total Sanitation Campaign a boost.


The main goal of Rural Sanitary Mart is to provide the materials, services, and advice needed to build different types of latrines and other sanitary facilities that fit the area's needs both technically and financially.


Under the Scheme of NBA, toilets are built in Anganwadis and all types of Government schools, including primary, secondary, and higher secondary schools. In girl schools, bathrooms get a lot of attention.


Village Panchayats that have already won Nirmal Gram Puraskar Awards will do work on solid and liquid waste management (SLWM).


The main things that can be done with help from MGNREGS for Solid Waste Management in the chosen Village Panchayat are making a compost pit for biodegradable trash and clearing out the jungle, including getting rid of the weed Parthenium.


So, the Tamil Nadu government, along with programmes paid for by the central government fund, gave rural people a lot of help.


Q4) Discuss the problems and impacts of land degradation in India at different scale.

Ans) India's biggest environmental problems right now are land degradation, depletion of resources (water, minerals, forests, sand, rocks, etc.), poor public health, loss of biodiversity, loss of ecosystem resilience, and the insecurity of the poor's means of survival.


India's main soil problems are soil erosion, loss of fertility, salinity and alkalinity, acidity, waterlogging, and deterioration of soil structure. Floods and droughts are also things that hurt the soil in the same way.



  1. Soil Erosion: Erosion is when the top layer of soil breaks away from the land and is either washed away by water, ice, or waves from the sea, or blown away by the wind. Rainfall, topography, plant cover, tillage, soil type, soil moisture, wind speed, and wind speed are some of the things that can cause soil erosion.

  2. Rainfall: Soil erosion is affected by how much, how long, how hard, and how often it rains. When raindrops hit the ground, they move the soil granules around and break them up into smaller pieces. Erosion is especially bad in places where it rains hard and often, but only for a short time.

  3. Topography: The amount of soil erosion on a site depends on its shape and location. The slope speeds up erosion because it makes the moving water go faster.

  4. Vegetation: Because the vegetation cover has a canopy over the soil surface, raindrops can't hit and spread out over the soil. It also gets in the way of moving water, making it less likely to erode the land. Plant roots I help build a better structure and (ii) help break up the soil, which makes it easier for water to get into the ground and lessens surface runoff.

  5. Tillage: It is known that proper tillage makes the soil better at letting water in and out and makes erosion less likely. But too much tilling is known to hurt the soil because it leaves it open to wind and water erosion.

  6. Nature of Soil: Soil's ability to wash away is affected by both its physical and chemical properties, such as its texture, structure, organic matter, type and level of salts, and whether or not it has a high water table.

  7. Soil Moisture: This has been one of the most important causes of soil erosion, both when there is too much of it and when there isn't enough. When there is a high water table, infiltration and permeability are stopped. This lets more water flow on the surface and makes erosion worse. On the other hand, long periods of dry weather make the soil loose and more likely to be worn away by wind.

  8. Wind Speed: The strength of erosion is directly related to the speed of the wind, since stronger winds can do more damage. Wear and tear from water and wind


Effects of Soil Erosion

Soil erosion hurts the quality of land in both a quantitative and a qualitative way. Here are some of the most important effects:

Loss of Soil: When different things cause soil to erode, the top fertile soil that has been built up over millions of years is often lost. When gullies and ravines form, they take away valuable land for farming.


Organic Matter and Soil Structure: When soil erosion takes away the top layer of soil, the amount of organic matter and other important nutrients and minerals in the soil drops. Loss of organic matter makes the soil structure worse, since organic matter is known to keep soil structure in place.


Soil Capacity and Productivity: When topsoil is lost, minerals and nutrients that could be used by plants are also lost. As erosion gets worse over time, the soil gets packed down and loses its ability to absorb water and minerals. This makes it harder for plants to get the water and minerals they need to grow. Also, microbial activity goes down, which leads to a lower yield.


Loss of Agricultural Lands: Because of wind erosion, arable and fertile lands get covered with sand carried by the wind. This makes the land less fertile and hurts crops.


Flood: India is getting more and more flooded because of things like cutting down trees in catchment areas, destroying surface vegetation, changing how land is used, more people moving to cities, and other development projects. Flooding is happening more often because of increased sedimentation and the fact that streams and rivers can't carry as much water as they used to.


How bad a flood is depends on how much water is going to be released and how much soil has been washed away by erosion. When there is more gully erosion and ravine formation, there is more runoff and a higher peak discharge when it rains. Adding more sediment to streams, canals, and rivers makes them narrower but less able to carry water. So, rivers and streams overflow their banks and flood the areas downriver. Most of the other rivers in India that flow through large areas of hills have the same problems.

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