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MSW-010: Introduction to Philanthropic Social Work

MSW-010: Introduction to Philanthropic Social Work

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MSW-010/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MSW-010

Assignment Name: Introduction to Philanthropic Social Work

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Answer all the five questions. All question carry equal marks. Answer to question No. 1 and 2 should not exceed 600 words each.


Q1) Discuss the nature of Philanthropy and explain its philosophical Foundations.

Ans) Philanthropy and charity are words that are frequently used interchangeably. According to Aileen Russ, attitudes toward the phenomenon of giving have changed to the point where charity now has a negative connotation and is increasingly giving way to the more acceptable idea of philanthropy. Unlike charitable donations, philanthropy places more of an emphasis on overall wellbeing than just alleviating suffering. The highly coordinated giving styles typical of contemporary industrialised nations seem to be better described as philanthropy.


According to Edward Grubb, philanthropy is closely related to charity and may even be thought of as charity grown-up, meaning that in certain people, the want to aid the less fortunate can develop from a passing feeling into a stable disposition and a consistent effort in life. The typical philanthropist is a wealthy individual who devotes a significant portion of his life to the task of bettering the condition of his fellow humans. While philanthropy looks deeper into the future as well as the present and aims to improve human life on a bigger scale, charity focuses primarily on the needs of individuals in the here and now.


The Philosophical Foundation of Philanthropy

Understanding the intellectual underpinnings of generosity might aid in appreciating the deeper significance attached to it. The documents from Mesopotamia and Egypt mentioned earlier may be the ones suggesting that charity in the sense of social justice was regarded as a principle that had been established by divine decree. Charity was viewed in ancient Egypt as both an attitude toward other people on the inside and a way to appease the gods in order to live forever.


Giving includes not only giving food to the hungry and thirsty but also clothing to the naked and even a boat to someone who has none. The thinking of the Babylonians, Egyptians, and other ancient East peoples had a significant impact on the early Hebrews. The Hebrew Bible focuses on three types of love: love between people, love between God and mankind. A person's love for God is an expression of thankfulness for God's love, which is also shown in their love for other people. Everyone is expected to practise charity since it is a virtue that the Lord will reward.


In mediaeval Judaism, helping the destitute rebuild their lives through financial assistance, partnership, or employment is considered the highest kind of charity because it results in the intended outcome while preserving the recipient's dignity. The idea so important to the western tradition was charity as a synonym for love, either as God's love or as man's reciprocal love for God exhibited in deeds of love for fellow men. Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam do not make this explicit in any way.


Love and compassion for other people are intrinsic to the Buddha's Four Noble Truths. According to Buddhism, suffering is an unavoidable reality, but one that has a cause. Three principles can be used to alleviate suffering: metta or maitri, actively pursuing loving kindness; karuna, compassion; mercy, which does not repay evil with evil; and mudita, an attitude of approval of other people's good conduct. These ideals are demonstrated in social welfare projects including public works initiatives and the upkeep of hospitals and hospice shelters.


Q2) Define Philanthropic Social Work in Contemporary era.

Ans) The practise of philanthropy or generosity has traditionally been emphasised by all major world religions, but the current tendency is institutionalisation and professionalisation. These days, philanthropy is a more organised practise. Political organisations operating under the auspices of the welfare state also provide charitable and humanitarian aid. The most recent development in philanthropic social work is the practise of corporate charitable giving through corporate social responsibility.


Philanthropic Social Work in Modern Europe

The first Elizabethan Poor Law was passed in 1601, and between the fall of the Roman Empire and that time, charity was characterised by a number of hierarchical ties within the feudal system. Royal donations played a major role in providing aid to the less fortunate, but wealthy individuals also contributed significantly. Many people got into charitable activity because of their religion and hereafter worries.


Churches continuously elevated their standing in society and started to play a significant part in charitable endeavours. The church's function changed with time and is now one of the primary conduits for philanthropic activities. Helping others was considered as emotionally and socially invigorating, therefore charitable activity was influenced by a wide range of personal motives. Despite the fact that much was accomplished during this time, generosity was frequently irregular and occasionally fell short of fulfilling recipients' needs.


Religious Motive in 19th Century Philanthropy

Religious tradition that had been in place for generations served as the foundation for philanthropy in the 19th century. In the past, wealthier members of society donated to the less fortunate as a Christian obligation. Charity was viewed as a means of both aiding those in need and saving one's own soul. Protestants believed that social conscience required social engagement, especially those with strong evangelical leanings. They believed that they could connect with Christ by experiencing human nature, especially that of those in need.


Philanthropy and Ramakrishna Mission

In India, the Ramakrishna Mission started its charitable endeavours by the end of the 19th century A.D. As old as the Mission itself, the Ramakrishna Order's humanitarian efforts have a long history. The Ramakrishna Math and the Ramakrishna Mission have been swiftly organising ameliorative and healing services since their inception whenever the country has faced sudden calamities brought on by freaks of nature, follies of men, or scourges of epidemics, in addition to their numerous ongoing constructive works.


Philanthropic Organisations

Through charitable trusts and societies, philanthropic social work is carried out within organisations. A specific kind of voluntary organisation is a charity, or benevolent organisation. An organisation created for charitable, social, philanthropic, or other goals is known as a voluntary organisation. It is not a part of any governing department, local authority, or other statutory body, and it is required to spend any profit or excess strictly for the organization's goals. Despite the fact that not all voluntary organisations are charities, all charities are voluntary organisations.


Corporate Strategic Philanthropy

The most recent development in philanthropic social work is the practise of corporate charitable giving through corporate social responsibility. Contributions to stakeholders and societal concerns that are crucial to the accomplishment of business strategic aims are directed by strategic philanthropy. To succeed by doing good is the goal. Corporate philanthropy is increasingly being practised professionally.


Women and Philanthropy

Giving to institutions of culture, society, and education with money, materials, and ideal resources is known as philanthropy. These goals were increasingly achieved throughout the 19th century through bequests, contributions, membership groups, limited dividend corporations, foundations, and other means, mostly thanks to middle-class and upper-class individuals.


Q3) Answer any two of the following questions in about 300 words each: 10x2


a) Define meaning of Corporate social responsibility and Corporate Philanthropy.

Ans) Corporate philanthropy refers to social welfare initiatives carried out by commercial businesses for the benefit of the community in order to address their immediate needs and promote their overall well-being. Though the term philanthropy refers to charitable giving by individuals or institutions to satisfy the needs of others, there are certain religious overtones associated with it. Corporate social responsibility, also known as corporate responsibility, corporate citizenship, corporate conscience, responsible business, sustainable responsible business, or corporate social performance, is a term that literally means doing the right thing. It is a type of business model integration that incorporates corporate self-regulation.


The ideal CSR policy would serve as a built-in, self-regulating mechanism via which business would monitor and guarantee its adherence to the law, moral principles, and local, national, and worldwide conventions. As a result, business would assume ownership of its actions' effects on the environment, customers, workers, communities, stakeholders, and all other members of the public sphere. CSR-focused companies would actively advance the public good by fostering community growth and development and voluntarily phasing out activities that damage the public good, regardless of legality.


CSR essentially refers to the intentional consideration of stakeholder interests in corporate decision-making as well as the respecting of the triple bottom line of people, planet, and profit for ethical and sustainable business practises. It implies that the industry cares about people and the environment in addition to making a profit, which is essential for the success of sustainable business. Friedman and Lodge have both made the argument that politics, not private industry, sets values. Individual businessmen will receive preferences similar to those granted to other citizens, but they shouldn't abuse their power or positions of authority outside of what is considered acceptable behaviour in society.


Although probably not as effectively as wisdom, conscience can help people become more aware of these standards. Many reformers believe that the company must give up some of its profits in order to further the social objective. According to conservative economists like Neil Chamberlin, there are not enough earnings to forgo in order to make a significant difference. In other words, why should the industry sacrifice its profits since they contributed to the money needed for corporate expansion and goal-achieving growth?


There are countless arguments for and against CSR, but the main one is that business has a social responsibility because it is a social system that depends on and coexists with modern society. And for this reason, corporate social responsibility, or CSR, has become a crucial component of business enterprises. It also improves the worth of the organisations. As the nature of services and the spirit of service frequently intersect, corporate philanthropy and charity are equated with the concept of service of such philanthropic institutions and charitable organisations. Since the institutions receive funding from the people, some of the funds should be returned to them.


This demonstrates the current corporate sector's concern for social development. In reality, all companies that use ethical business practises will invest a little portion of their profits or all of them in social development programmes as part of their corporate social responsibility. Due to the need for ISO certification, which enhances the company's reputation, some level of legal compliance is also associated with the firm. Today's firms combine charity and professional knowledge to promote sustainable human development by providing funding, resources, and equipment to non-profit groups that support the needs of the most disadvantaged people.


b) Explain changing trends in Philanthropic social work.

Ans) During the Middle Ages, royal donations played a major role in providing aid to those in need, but wealthy individuals also contributed significantly. Many people got into charitable activity because of their religion and hereafter worries. Churches continuously elevated their standing in society and started to play a significant part in charitable endeavours. The church's function changed with time and is now one of the primary conduits for philanthropic activities.


Helping others was considered as emotionally and socially invigorating, therefore charitable activity was influenced by a wide range of personal motives. Despite the fact that much was accomplished during this time, generosity was frequently irregular and occasionally fell short of the beneficiaries' requirements. Among their many traits, philanthropists of the Victorian era were active in charity organisation movements. Prior to and during this time, nation states began to form, and when they did, poverty and social welfare progressively found their way into the law.


State-supported reform was frequently frantic, extremely bureaucratic, and degrading to the underprivileged who received assistance. However, as the responsibilities of governments grew, philanthropists and relief organisations also boosted their organising efforts. As civil and religious institutions for helping the destitute merged, philanthropy became increasingly bureaucratic and structured. As donors and the government tried to categorise and identify social issues as well as learn more about the specific needs that would address these issues, social sciences started to receive increasing attention.


The application of social science within social welfare groups increased the effectiveness of charitable endeavours.


Changing trends of philanthropic social work can be analysed as the following:

  1. From philanthropy on an individual level to philanthropy in institutions and organisations.

  2. Including secular and humanitarian considerations as well as religious motives.

  3. Ranging from private gifts to corporate contributions.

  4. Everything from individual initiative to public sponsorship and grant-in-aid programmes.

  5. From covert, unofficial, and anonymous giving to formal, organised, and authorised giving.


Q4) Attempt any four of the following in about 150 words each: 5x4


a) Define roles and skills of Philanthropic social worker.

Ans) Social professionals that are philanthropic are extremely important to society. They might act as the protector of societal virtues. They are first and foremost incredibly helpful people. According to the demands of the people and the circumstances, they take on the roles of enabler, leader, facilitator, advisor, counsellor, teacher, manager, philanthropist, instructor, trainer, advocate, father, friend, philosopher, and guide. Philanthropic social workers' main responsibility is to promote social reform, social change, and social advancement.


The following abilities are necessary for generous social workers:

  1. Abilities to comprehend the person and his or her issues.

  2. Abilities to diagnose societal issues, notably in the sphere of philanthropy.

  3. Abilities to create a charitable programme that would target the highlighted societal issues.

  4. Ability to connect with the clients he serves in his job

  5. Knowledge of participatory planning, implementation, monitoring, and evolution techniques.

  6. Leadership and motivational abilities.

  7. Communication skills.

  8. Knowledge of documentation.

  9. Soft skills in human relations.

  10. Abilities in a range of professional social work techniques as well as integrated social work practise.


b) Describe civil society, its concept, and definitions.

Ans) There is little consensus on the precise definition of civil society, and the phrase has been used in many different ways. Over the past 20 years, it has emerged as one of the most well-liked ideas among academics, decision-makers in government, non-governmental organisations, and activists. The emphasis that definitions place on various components of state authority, politics, and individual freedom varies widely, while others place a greater emphasis on the activities of the economy and ideas of social capital and cohesion.


In respect to the roles of the state and the market, citizens, and the society they form play a key role in civil society. The phrase is interpreted academically in a way that is intertwined with citizenship and the role that citizens are supposed to play in connection to the state's neglect or dominance over society in general and market pressures that may negatively impact underprivileged populations in particular. In a sense, it alludes to restricting state power and regulating the market economy.


c) Discuss the relationship between the philanthropic sector and government.

Ans) In the second half of the 20th century, mutually reinforcing ties between the realms of private initiative and government became apparent on a worldwide scale. The expansion of the welfare state in the decades after World War II matched the greatest and fastest growth for charity and other non-proprietary organisations. The majority of these were non-stock businesses in the US that had been registered with the federal government as non-profit, charity organisations.


The number of charities and non-profit organisations has increased dramatically throughout time. It should come as no surprise that the central/federal or state governments provide financial funding, tax breaks, and other incentives to foster its growth. Even though the government is primarily responsible for social welfare, the private sector, which includes NGOs, individual business owners, and corporate entities, continues to play a crucial role in its delivery. The government acts as a promoter and a regulator in this industry.

d) Highlight the various stages of CSR in India.

Ans) Since the 1950s, debates on corporate social responsibility have been ongoing. People didn't begin to comprehend its significance, influence, and meaning until much later. The pyramid is one of the most widely accepted corporate theories of CSR because of its capacity to explain the concept of CSR in four domains.

  1. Economic Responsibility: The bottom of the pyramid stands for a company's primary duty, which is to be profitable. Employees would lose their employment even before the company began its CSR initiatives if it were unable to make a profit.

  2. Legal Responsibility: The requirement for the company to abide with the law is the second tier of the pyramid. Out of the four levels, this one is the most crucial because it will reveal how businesses operate in the market.

  3. Ethical Responsibility: The ethical layer of the pyramid is defined as upholding moral principles, acting justly in all circumstances, and avoiding harm. A corporation should conduct itself ethically in addition to according to the law.

  4. Philanthropic Responsibility: Philanthropy is at the summit of the pyramid, taking up the least amount of room. Businesses have historically faced criticism for their use of natural resources, carbon impact, and other factors.


Q5) Write short notes on any five of the following in about 100 words each: 4x5


a) Philanthropy and Buddhism

Ans) The Buddha mentioned six categories of persons in the Sutta-Pitaka who had a special need for generosity: recluses or hermits, members of religious orders, the poor, wanderers, the homeless, and beggars. Other early sutras discuss helping the ill and others in need as a result of catastrophes. The Buddha made it abundantly clear throughout his teachings that one should not run from suffering but rather take all necessary steps to alleviate it. But charitable giving was a private concern for the most of Buddhist history. Despite the innumerable good deeds performed by monks and nuns, monastic orders rarely ran organised charities unless there was a pressing need, such as in the wake of a natural disaster. Buddhism doesn't desire attention for charity, according to Buddhists, which is why one doesn't hear much about it.


b) Donor Agency

Ans) Donor agencies are organisations that raise money for particular causes and provide it to other non-profit volunteer organisations for the welfare and advancement of people, groups, and communities. In other words, a donor agency is a company that provides funding for macro and microeconomic development projects. The donor groups were only recognised as charitable organisations up to the 1950s. Corporate donor groups that have existed since the 1950s are mostly corporate and industrial establishments. These businesses are now focusing on social advancement in addition to their commercial endeavours through CSR and ethical business practises. Since these two do not operate in a vacuum, concern for people and the environment is also referred to as corporate citizenship or corporate conscience. In actuality, the planet and its inhabitants are what made the company possible.


c) Elements in Philanthropy Social Work

Ans) Social work and philanthropy have many characteristics. Here are a few instances of how similar they are:

  1. Philanthropy and social work have the same objectives of social service and social welfare.

  2. Social work and philanthropy are beneficial endeavours.

  3. Social work and philanthropy partially address and resolve the needs of the populace.

  4. Social work and philanthropy are both community endeavours, and people are primarily the beneficiaries of both.

  5. Social work and philanthropy demand a high level of dedication and selflessness from those who deliver the services.

  6. Social work and philanthropy are need-based services. The needs of the persons receiving the service are taken into account.


d) Women and Philanthropy

Ans) Giving to institutions of culture, society, and education with money, materials, and ideal resources is known as philanthropy. These goals were increasingly achieved throughout the 19th century through bequests, contributions, membership groups, limited dividend corporations, foundations, and other means, mostly thanks to middle-class and upper-class individuals. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the middle class expanded, which led to more women taking part in public life. Working for philanthropic organisations and groups gave women a feeling of purpose and direction outside the house and provided them with a pathway into elite society. Women had advanced in education by the 19th century, and some facets of society saw them as underutilised resources. Because charity work seemed to be a natural extension of women's maternal qualities into larger society, it was thought that philanthropic work was the ideal setting for the integration of women.


e) Social Movement

Ans) Rajni Kothari made the following observations about the failing Indian State: "The role of the State in social transformation in India has gotten undermined, 'development' has led to a striking dualism of the social order, and 'democracy' has become the playground for growing corruption, criminalization, repression, and intimidation for large masses of people whose very survival is made to depend on their staying out of the political process and whose defiance is being used against them." Under the direction of local leaders and left-wing intellectuals, people and people's organisations mobilise themselves in large numbers to oppose the administration and other formal institutions of the government as well as non-state actors in order to counter the forces that are a hindrance to the development of people and in the commission of injustice.

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