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MTTM-02: Human Resource Planning and Development in Tourism

MTTM-02: Human Resource Planning and Development in Tourism

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023

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Assignment Code: MTTM 2/MTM 2/TMA/2022

Course Code: MTTM 2/MTM 2

Assignment Name: Human Resource Planning and Development in Tourism

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


1. Explain the concept of Manpower Supply. Discuss the database requirement for Manpower Supply Forecasting.


Concept of Manpower Supply

Labour force and manpower are frequently used interchangeably. However, there is a minute difference. Manpower refers to all members of the labour force, excluding only the purely unskilled, whereas the term "labour force" refers to all members of the population who are economically engaged. No of the level of expertise gained, manpower is the skilled component of the labour force. Manpower supply then refers to the sum of all available labour, including employed and unemployed.


Data Base for Supply Forecasting

Macro and micro supply projections have various data base needs. Data bases required for macro and micro supply projections are examined separately with this in mind.


Data Base for Macro Supply Forecasting


Age at Entry and Age at Exit

By category of personnel, information on age at entry and age at exit is needed. The age at entry and exit for positions in the civil service, the military, and the majority of other salaried positions is predetermined. Age at entering is known for highly professional areas of labour, however age at exit varies and is unknown.


Annual Enrolment and Out-turn

All courses in the formal education/training system have annual enrolment and outcome data that is often released. With the aid of the records kept by the relevant departments, any gaps can be filled. To gather information on annual enrolment and outcomes for informal education and training, it is necessary to survey all pertinent institutions.


Attrition Rates

Most of the categories of workforce lack easy access to attrition rates. They must be assembled based on the retirement, migration, and mortality patterns.



The mandatory retirement age for positions with the government is 58 years old. Other salaried positions might allow workers to stay on the job until they are 60 years old. Only in the case of professional categories of labour is it possible to continue working professionally well past the age of 60.


Migration and Morality

Information on migration by education cannot be found in any public sources. To determine the scope and other features of immigrants by education, specific studies on Indian migrants living abroad are required.


Labour Force Participation Rates

Estimating labour force participation rates by education is made possible by comprehensive labour force investigations carried out by other organisations and decennial population censuses.


Data Base for Micro Supply Forecasting

Since external supply is driven by factors unrelated to the company or enterprise in question, supply forecasting at the micro level mainly consists of internal supply forecasting. For internal supply forecasting to be successful, a comprehensive Manpower Information System (MIS) is required at the company or enterprise level. MIS is created based on each employee's personal history records, and it is updated annually.


The following modules make up MIS:

  1. Personal Data Module: Identification information, educational information, educational credentials, and Recruitment Module: Date of hiring, score on leadership and aptitude exams, overall score, and, if applicable, career preferences and options.

  2. Job Experience Module: placement history, grade advancements, grade-level activities completed, notable contributions, etc.

  3. Performance Appraisal Module: Performance reviews for each position held, job experience evaluations in light of job descriptions, ratings of interpersonal communication, ratings of group behaviours, dedication to corporate goals, etc.

  4. Training and Development Module: The type of instruction received at each level, how each person assessed the instruction's effectiveness, what is being done right now, etc.

  5. Miscellaneous Module: Record of compensation and benefits received, health status, details about any personal issues that require the authorities' attention, security requirements, etc.

2. Describe the Quantitative and Qualitative Dimensions of Human Resource Planning. 20

Ans) The quantitative and qualitative dimensions of human resources are as follows:


Quantitative Dimensions of Human Resources Planning

Only one of every economy's two components of the population may be thought of as human resources, or the productive power of people. The other group consists of those who lack any ability to produce anything.


Population: When referring to a country's population, the term "population" is used to refer to all of its inhabitants collectively. When seen in this light, the idea of population seems extremely basic. However, in practise, depending on the goal of the inquiry, definitions are utilised differently not only from country to country but also within a country.


De jure and de facto definitions of population are the two broad categories into which they can be divided.

  1. Since human resources are an essential component of the population, their expansion is inevitably correlated with population growth.

  2. The three elements that affect population growth are migration, population structure, and population policies.


Labour Force Participation: Human resources do not alter as a result of population change. Instead, the shift in the population's proportion of economically engaged people has an impact on the expansion of human resources. It is possible to categorise the population into workers and non-workers based on economic activities.


The component of the population known as the labour force, also known as the economically active population, is responsible for producing the commodities and services that are needed by the entire population. Typically, those between the ages of 15 and 64 are regarded as being in the productive age bracket. Not everyone in the productive age group is, however, actively employed. In other words, the term "labour force" can be used to describe both employees and non-workers who are "unemployed but available for work" and who are in the productive age range.


Tourism: In the event of domestic or international tourism, the host population of the destination has a role to play in the production of goods and services in addition to the labour force. This is due to the fact that, in addition to economic activity, the attitudes of the local populace play a significant role in fostering a tourist- and tourism-friendly environment. There are places where the locals welcome four times as many tourists as they do themselves, and everyone in the community contributes in some way to this; a warm smile also helps.


Qualitative Dimensions of Human Resources Planning

Education and Training: The most important factors influencing the knowledge and skill level of human resources are education and training. Both individual and social goals are served by education and training. In order to achieve economic freedom and social advancement, it has for the individual both vocational and cultural relevance.


Health and Nutrition: A major factor in creating and maintaining a productive human resource as well as raising the average life expectancy and quality of life, health and nutritional status are among the most critical measures of human resource quality. In the process of developing human resources, education, health, and nutrition are interconnected and mutually beneficial.


Equality of Opportunity: Investments in the development of human resources do not necessarily guarantee the proportionate development of all facets of the population. Discriminations are inevitable in the absence of deliberate policy intervention. It is possible to state that social, economic, and regional discrimination are the three main types of prejudice that affect emerging countries.


3. What are the various leadership styles? Differentiate between a successful and an effective Leader.

Ans) Leadership styles refer to the behavioural approach employed by leaders to influence, motivate, and direct their followers. A leadership style determines how leaders implement plans and strategies to accomplish given objectives while accounting for stakeholder expectations and the wellbeing and soundness of their team.


The Most Common Leadership Styles are:

Democratic Leadership: A democratic leadership style is where a leader makes decisions based on the input received from team members. It is a collaborative and consultative leadership style where each team member has an opportunity to contribute to the direction of ongoing projects. However, the leader holds the final responsibility to make the decision.


Autocratic Leadership: Autocratic leadership is the direct opposite of democratic leadership. In this case, the leader makes all decisions on behalf of the team without taking any input or suggestions from them. The leader holds all authority and responsibility. They have absolute power and dictate all tasks to be undertaken. There is no consultation with employees before a decision is made. After the decision is made, everyone is expected to support the decision made by the leader. There is often some level of fear of the leader by the team.


Laissez-Faire Leadership: Laissez-faire leadership is accurately defined as a hands-off or passive approach to leadership. Instead, leaders provide their team members with the necessary tools, information, and resources to carry out their work tasks. The “let them be” style of leadership entails that a leader steps back and lets team members work without supervision and free to plan, organize, make decisions, tackle problems, and complete the assigned projects.

Transformational Leadership: Transformational leadership is all about transforming the business or groups by inspiring team members to keep increasing their bar and achieve what they never thought they were capable of. Transformational leaders expect the best out of their team and push them consistently until their work, lives, and businesses go through a transformation or considerable improvement.


Transactional Leadership: Transactional leadership is more short-term and can best be described as a “give and take” kind of transaction. Team members agree to follow their leader on job acceptance; therefore, it’s a transaction involving payment for services rendered. Employees are rewarded for exactly the work they would’ve performed.


Bureaucratic Leadership: Bureaucratic leadership is a “go by the book” type of leadership. Processes and regulations are followed according to policy with no room for flexibility. Rules are set on how work should be done, and bureaucratic leaders ensure that team members follow these procedures meticulously. Input from employees is considered by the leader; however, it is rejected if it does not conform to organizational policy.


Servant Leadership: Servant leadership involves a leader being a servant to the team first before being a leader. A servant leader strives to serve the needs of their team above their own. It is also a form of leading by example. Servant leaders try to find ways to develop, elevate and inspire people following their lead to achieve the best results.


Difference between a successful and an effective Leader:

4. Write a detailed note on Human Resource Audit emphasising on its purpose, scope and process.

Ans) The strengths, weaknesses, and developmental needs of the organization's current human resources are systematically evaluated in the context of organisational performance.


Purpose of HRA

The foundation of the human resource audit is the idea that by sticking with the current methods, opportunities are being lost. It believes that the human resource management process is dynamic and that it needs to be constantly refocused and revitalised in order to be responsive to the constantly changing needs.


HRA is a form of feedback on the responsibilities and performance of the managers and other organisation personnel. It is a form of quality control for an organization's human resource. A department or the entire organisation may be the subject of an HRA. It promotes a more professional image and aids in highlighting issues that aren't always related to an organization's human resources department. HRA improves action consistency and clarifies a department's function within an organisation.


An audit of the organization's current human resources is known as a human resource audit. The audit will need to be provided with data that is thorough, quantitative, and qualitative in order to accomplish that. In other words, the effectiveness of this phase of human resource planning depends entirely on how information on workers and other sources of data are managed. The human resource audit must start from the ground up with the existing situation in order to plan for the future. The information requirements of such a crucial endeavour must therefore be satisfied.


Scope of HRA

The scope is chosen for each human resource audit that will be conducted. A specific aspect of human resource management, such as training and development, remuneration, performance evaluation, etc., may be the focus of the audit, which need not be extensive. However, regardless of breadth, the goal and strategy of HRA mostly stay the same. During routine audits, auditors are hired to confirm the accuracy of financial data and the validity of an organization's accounting methods. The auditors occasionally offer inputs during these audits that may serve as indicators of the situation with regard to financial planning and accounting practises, drawing senior management's attention.


Generally speaking, human resource audits are not commonplace. In actuality, these are unusual studies. Self-directed surveys, task forces within the organisation, or outside consultants' engagement are all acceptable modes of conduct. The audit may take place once, periodically, or as part of a continuing audit function for operational divisions inside the organisation. For instance, in one business, the audit's main objective was to evaluate how much management


Auditing Process: Essential Steps in HRA

Briefing and orientation: Key employees are gathering here to prepare for:

  1. Talk about certain topics you think are important.

  2. Lay out the auditing processes.

  3. Create audit plans and programmes.


Scanning material information: The examination of all personnel-related information, including personnel handbooks and manuals, guides, evaluation forms, materials on recruitment, computer capabilities, and other information deemed relevant, is required for this.


Surveying employees: Interviews with key managers, functional executives, top organisation functionaries, and, if necessary, employees' representatives are conducted as part of an employee survey. The goal is to identify problematic situations, existing strengths, impending needs, and managerial perspectives on human resources.


Conducting interviews: What queries should I pose? The route that audit must take is determined by the problems that emerge from the scanning of the data obtained for the purpose. However, the auditing activities will gain momentum if clarity is attained regarding the crucial aspects of human resource management chosen for audit and the pertinent issues that must be looked at.


Synthesising: The information acquired in this way is combined to present the

  1. Present circumstances

  2. Priorities

  3. Staffing patterns

  4. Challenges noted.


Reporting: The audit results are addressed with the managers and staff specialists over the course of numerous rounds, much like the briefing and orientation planning sessions. The management is informed of the issues that emerge during the process in a formal report. After an audit, it's important to check in to determine if the solution plan put in place to address issues was successful.


5. Write short notes on the following in about 150 words each: 5 x 4=20


a) Labour Market Behaviour

Ans) Only the supply of human resources is regulated by the quantitative and qualitative facets of human resources. The use of human resources, which generates demand for them, is critically dependent on the efficiency and adaptability of labour markets. Employers and employees make up the majority of labour markets.


Employers can be either private persons, commercial businesses, or governmental organisations. On the other hand, employees can be specific people, teams of households, or their agents, such as labour union officials and labour contractors. The interactions between these many businesses and employee groups collectively define how labour markets behave.


The level of employment/unemployment and subsequently the demand for human resources are determined by the degree of rivalry between employers and employees, which reflects the degree of flexibility of labour markets. It may result in involuntary unemployment and, as a result, a decreased demand for human resources in an extremely rigid structure where employers dominate. Contrarily, if workers are in control of a restrictive labour market, it can lead to covert unemployment and increased demand for human resources.


b) Manpower Demand

Ans) Manpower demand refers the total human resource needs of an organisation for a given time period. The precise nature of an organisation's demand for manpower depends on various factors. Once the factors affecting the demand for manpower are identified, methods for forecasting can be designed and implemented.


According to economists, the term "demand" for a specific category of labour refers to a schedule of relationships between the quantities of that particular category of labour that are required and a range of potential compensation rates. Here, it is assumed that the amount of labour required changes with wage rates, more so at lower wage rates than at higher ones. The term "need" refers to the quantity of workers necessary to deliver the desired level of service. Because to structural, technological, and other limitations, the ideal is never realised.


The functional makeup of employment that will be required to produce goods and services within the parameters of the given social, cultural, economic, and technological aims (or limitations) is then referred to as "requirements." In the literature on manpower, the key phrases "manpower demand" (also known as "manpower requirements" or "manpower demands") denote the amount of labour necessary to achieve specific physical goals for Gross Domestic Product (GDP), industrial output, or sociocultural standing.


c) Manpower Supply

Ans) A manpower supply agency is involved in providing human capital. It matches skilled workers with organizations that need specialized employees. Manpower supply companies can offer a host of services, especially when it comes to job placement, pairing skilled workers on a temporary basis with organizations that are finding it hard to deal with an unexpectedly high volume of work in a particular department or function.

Here are some benefits of manpower supply:

  1. Cost-effective manpower supply services

  2. Help you reduce your burden associated with manpower supply

  3. Minimize risks associated with hiring

  4. Help you be more flexible

  5. Negotiate salaries on your behalf


Every business wants to maintain a competitive edge over its competitors. One way of doing it is to find a manpower supply agency that understands your company and industry well. 3 Point Human Capital is a manpower agency that puts effort into understanding your business needs and helps you hire the best and most talented temporary, permanent, as well as contract staff so that you can focus your energy on important business operations.


d) Job Evaluation

Ans) Establishing the worth of positions in a job hierarchy is the process of job evaluation. Job values may be negotiated or fixed on the basis of general market rate and internal relativity hypotheses.


Job evaluation is a comparative procedure based on a variety of jobs, responsibilities, and obligations, including the knowledge, abilities, and mental agility needed, as well as the employee's dependability and other traits. It tries to create pay structures that are fair and equitable in the sense of guaranteeing equal pay for tasks requiring what are thought to be generally comparable sacrifices and of fairly rewarding the higher efforts and sufferings involved in some jobs as opposed to others.


One will be able to compare jobs using a common criterion to determine the relationship of one job to another through the process of job evaluation. As a result, we may grade jobs and create a remuneration system. By doing this, it aims to reduce the unhappiness caused by income disparities and so promote more cordial workplace relationships.

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