If you are looking for MVA-020 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Modern Art of India, you have come to the right place. MVA-020 solution on this page applies to 2023 session students studying in MADP courses of IGNOU.
MVA-020 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MVA–020/TMA/2022
Course Code: MVA–020
Assignment Name: Modern Art of India
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Attempt all the questions:
Note: Answer the following in short note (300 words per ques.) 10 Marks each.
Q1) Write a Note on Company School and its major centers. Submit your opinion about any 2 artists related to this School.
Ans) In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, The Company School, also known as the Delhi School of Art, was a significant hub for Indian art. It was established in India by British colonial administrators and was greatly influenced by the realism and naturalism of European academic traditions. The institution, which had important centres in Delhi, Bombay (Mumbai), and Calcutta (Kolkata), was instrumental in the advancement of Indian art during the colonial era.
One of the greatest painters in Indian history Raja Ravi Verma, an Indian painter and artist was a master of oil painting and renowned for his historical and portrait paintings, many of which feature Hindu gods and goddesses. Verma's art is renowned for its fusion of Indian and European styles, and his paintings are among the finest examples of Indian art from the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Abanindranath Tagore, an influential painter and art educator from India who belonged to the Bengal School of Art, was another significant figure in the Company School. He played a significant role in the Indian independence movement and played a crucial role in the revival of traditional Indian art forms like folk art and miniature painting. Some of the best examples of Indian art from the first half of the 20th century can be found in Tagore's works, which are distinguished by their delicate brushwork, intricate details, and vibrant colours.
The Company School was crucial to the growth of Indian art during the colonial era, and many contemporary Indian artists continue to draw inspiration from it. The school paved the way for the development of new styles and movements in subsequent decades as well as forging a solid tradition in Indian art. Raja Ravi Verma and Abanindranath Tagore inspired artists worldwide. The Company School, including these two artists, helped develop Indian art.
Q2) Write about Major Artists Groups of Indian Modern Art. Submit your opinion about any 2 artists related to each Artists Group.
Ans) The development of India's art scene has been aided by several artist collectives throughout the history of Indian modern art. Some of the significant artist collectives that have had a lasting influence on Indian modern art include the Bengal School, Progressives, Calcutta Group, and Bombay Progressive Artists' Group.
Early in the 20th century, the Bengal School was established, and it became well-known for reviving traditional Indian art forms like miniature painting and folk art. Several well-known artists who were part of the Bengal School sought to develop a new form of Indian art that was rooted in Indian culture and heritage while also responding to the times. These artists included Abanindranath Tagore and Nandalal Bose.
In India's modern art, the 1950s saw the emergence of the Progressive movement. The collective was well-known for experimenting with a variety of styles and methods while drawing inspiration from European modernist movements like Cubism and Surrealism.
Some of the most well-known artists associated with these groups are Rabindranath Tagore and Nandalal Bose from the Bengal School, as well as M.F. Husain and S.H. Raza from the Progressives. In addition to being a Nobel Prize-winning poet and author, Rabindranath Tagore was a skilled painter. Nandalal Bose was a prominent member of the Indian independence movement, and a teacher of art. M.F. Husain was well-known for his vivid paintings, and S.H. Raza created abstract pieces that incorporated aspects of Indian philosophy, spirituality, and geometry.
Hence, the works of Rabindranath Tagore, Nandalal Bose, M.F. Husain, and S.H. Raza continue to inspire and have an impact on artists in India and around the world. The Bengal School and Progressives also had a significant influence on Indian modern art. These artists and their organisations were instrumental in establishing the Indian modern art scene, and we will always remember and value what they contributed.
Q3) Write briefly on the influence of Folk, tribal and Traditional Arts on Indian Modern Art and Artists.
Ans) The development of Indian modern art was significantly influenced by folk, tribal, and traditional arts, and this influence is still felt by Indian contemporary artists today. These art forms are deeply ingrained in India's rich cultural heritage and have served as a rich source of inspiration for contemporary Indian artists.
Miniature painting and folk art shaped the early 20th-century Bengal School. Abanindranath Tagore and Nandalal Bose wanted to create a new Indian art that was rooted in culture but also reflected the times. They wanted to revive traditional Indian art and create a new Indian art that was rooted in Indian culture but also met modern demands.
Like how contemporary Indian artists have drawn inspiration from tribal and folk arts because of their vivid colours, straightforward forms, and potent symbolism. These artistic disciplines offer a distinctive viewpoint on the world and have greatly influenced the growth of Indian modern art. For instance, M.F. Husain was well known for his vivid, bold paintings that were influenced by Indian folk and tribal arts. His creations captured the spirit of rural India and contributed to highlighting the beauty of these art forms in the Indian art world.
Indian modern art has been greatly influenced by traditional and folk art. These artistic disciplines have given contemporary Indian artists a distinctive outlook on the world and enabled them to produce works that are both rooted in their own cultural traditions and pertinent to the modern era. Many contemporary Indian artists who continue to be inspired by these rich cultural traditions can be seen incorporating these art forms into their works.
Indian modern art has been significantly influenced by folk, tribal, and traditional arts, and this influence is still present today. These artistic genres have served as a rich source of inspiration for modern Indian artists and have significantly influenced the growth of Indian modern art. Their contributions to the Indian art scene will always be remembered and valued, and they continue to have a significant impact on contemporary Indian artists.
Q4) What were the various themes that were of interest of the British Travellers artists and why?
Ans) The rich cultural heritage, exotic landscapes, and diverse population of India drew the attention of British Travellers artists during the 18th and 19th centuries. The East India Company and the British government hired these artists to create paintings and sketches that exemplified India and its people.
The representation of India's landscape and architecture was one of the subjects that interested these artists. The majestic palaces, temples, and monuments of the nation captivated them, and they created numerous pieces that depicted these recognisable buildings. The beauty of India's rural countryside and the majesty of its coastlines were captured in the paintings these artists created of rural landscapes and seascapes.
The portrayal of Indian people and their customs was another subject that fascinated the British Travellers artists. The variety of Indians, from the affluent and powerful maharajas to the lowly villagers and labourers, captivated them. To capture the essence of Indian society and its people, these artists created portraits, scenes from everyday life, and representations of regional customs and festivals.
The wildlife of India also fascinated the British Travellers' artists, and many of their pieces included exotic animals and birds. From tigers and elephants to monkeys and birds, they were able to capture the beauty and majesty of India's wild animals, and they created numerous works that showcased the nation's extensive wildlife heritage.
The rich cultural heritage, exotic landscapes, and diverse population of India drew the attention of British Travellers artists, and their artwork perfectly encapsulated these themes. These artists created a vast body of work that is still valued and appreciated today and contributed to how we view India and its people. Their contributions to the field of art will always be remembered and valued, and their work helped to shape our understanding of India and its rich cultural heritage.
Q5) Write a note on Raja Ravi Verma, M. F. Pithawala, M.V. Dhurandar and Pestonji Bomanji and their works.
Raja Ravi Verma: Indian painter Raja Ravi Varma was born in 1848 and died in 1906. He is regarded as one of India's most notable painters. He was well-known for both his lifelike paintings of Indian royalty and his representations of Hindu gods and goddesses. As one of the forerunners of a new school of Indian art that came to be known as the Raja Ravi Varma style, Varma's work blended elements of European academic painting with Indian themes and styles.
M. F. Pithawala: Indian painter M.F. Pithawala worked between 1879 and 1953. He was raised in Bombay, India, and received his art training in the academic European style. Pithawala frequently portrayed historical and mythological scenes as well as portraits in his artwork. His mastery of colour and the use of light and shadow made him well-known.
M. V. Dhurandhar: Indian painter M.V. Dhurandhar worked between 1867 and 1944. In what is now Maharashtra, India, he was born in the city of Kolhapur. He studied under Raja Ravi Varma, and his work displays Raja Ravi Varma's influence. Dhurandhar was well-known for his portraits and illustrations of myths and legends from India. One of the first Indian painters to experiment with novel methods like lithography, he was also.
Pestonji Bomanji: Indian painter Pestonji Bomanji was born in 1853 and died in 1933, raised in Bombay, India, and received his painting instruction in the academic style of Europe. Bomanji was renowned for his portraits, landscapes, and representations of myths and legends from India. He was also a forerunner of the Pestonji Bomanji style of Indian painting, which came to be known.
These artists were among the key players in the growth of modern Indian art. Their works combined elements of the European and Indian painting styles to produce a new, specifically Indian painting style. Their technique, use of colour, and depictions of Indian themes and legends have left a lasting impression on Indian art and culture. They continue to serve as an inspiration for new generations of artists, and their works are now recognised as significant examples of Indian art.
Q6) Describe any five modern artists and their works.
Pablo Picasso (1881-1973): Pablo Picasso was a Spanish artist who is widely considered one of the most influential artists of the 20th century. He is known for co-founding the Cubist movement and his contributions to the development of modern art. Some of his most famous works include "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon" and "Guernica".
Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890): Vincent van Gogh was a Dutch post-Impressionist painter who is best known for his bold, vibrant use of colour. His works often feature bold brushstrokes and expressive use of light and shadow. Some of his most famous works include "The Starry Night" and "Sunflowers".
Frida Kahlo (1907-1954): Frida Kahlo was a Mexican painter who is best known for her self-portraits. Her paintings often reflect her personal experiences and struggles, including her physical disabilities, political beliefs, and relationship with her husband, the artist Diego Rivera. Some of her most famous works include "The Broken Column" and "The Two Fridas".
Salvador Dali (1904-1989): Salvador Dali was a Spanish surrealist artist who is best known for his dreamlike and irrational imagery. His works often feature bold, imaginative landscapes and fantastical creatures. Some of his most famous works include "The Persistence of Memory" and "The Temptation of Saint Anthony".
Jean-Michel Basquiat (1960-1988): Jean-Michel Basquiat was an American artist who rose to fame in the 1980s as a pioneer of the Neo-Expressionist movement. His works often feature a bold and graphic style, and explore themes of race, politics, and social injustice. Some of his most famous works include "Crown" and "Ten Punching Bags".
Each of these artists had a profound impact on the development of modern art, and their works continue to be highly influential and widely celebrated today. They represent a range of styles and movements, and their innovative approach to art has inspired countless artists and art lovers around the world.
Note: Answer the following in long note (600 words per ques.) 20 Marks each.
Q1) Write an essay on Bengal School. Elaborate with the art works of First- and Second-generation artists of Bengal School.
Ans) Early in the 20th century, a cultural movement called the Bengal School of Art appeared in India. It aimed to celebrate and reclaim Indian cultural heritage and artistic traditions. The Bengal School was a reaction to both the effects of Western art and culture on India and British colonial rule. Indian classical style was aimed at being modernised by artists like Abanindranath Tagore, Rabindranath Tagore, and Nandalal Bose.
The Bengal School, which deviated from the ornate Mughal-Rajasthani tradition, placed an emphasis on simplicity and minimalism. Additionally, its artists emphasised social and cultural themes, frequently portraying rural life and folklore. The Bengal School had a significant influence on Indian art and other art forms, and that influence is still felt today. Many artists have been influenced by its emphasis on simplicity, minimalism, and cultural themes, and its artists are regarded as significant figures in Indian art history.
The Bengal School had a significant influence on the Indian independence movement in addition to Indian art. The works of its artists served as a means of political and cultural resistance to colonial rule. The development of modern Indian art and the assertion of Indian cultural identity were both significantly influenced by the Bengal School.
First Generation of Bengal School
The Mughal-Rajasthani style of traditional Indian painting was revived by the First Generation of Bengal School artists, led by Abanindranath Tagore. These artists created works that combined elements of Western modernism with Indian classical art by utilising the traditional methods of miniature painting, such as delicate brushwork and the use of vibrant colours. One of the key figures in the Bengal School, Abanindranath Tagore is credited with popularising the Mughal-Rajasthani school of painting. "The Homecoming of the Princess," "The Lady of the Lotus," and "The Invitation" are just a few of his well-known pieces.
Rabindranath Tagore, another well-known member of the First Generation, was not only a painter but also a poet, playwright, musician, and recipient of the Nobel Prize. His paintings frequently featured scenes from Indian folklore and rural life and were distinguished using bold colours and fluid lines. The Peasant Family, The Harvest, and The Flood are some of his best-known works.
Second Generation of Bengal School
The Second Generation of Bengal School artists, under the direction of Nandalal Bose, were distinguished by their emphasis on straightforward forms and a more abstract painting aesthetic. By rejecting the conventional Mughal-Rajasthani aesthetic, these artists aimed to produce works that were more in line with current Western artistic trends.
A prominent member of the Second Generation, Nandalal Bose is recognised for having given the Bengal School of art new methods and aesthetics. "The Lotus Pool," "The Dance," and "The Harvest" are some of his best-known pieces.
Jamini Roy, a well-known Second-Generation artist, is best known for his use of vivid, flat colours and straightforward forms in his paintings. His artwork was influenced by traditional Indian folk art and frequently featured rural life and folklore. "The Bird and the Lotus," "The Storyteller," and "The Harvest" are a few of his well-known compositions.
In conclusion, the Bengal School of Art was a significant cultural movement in early 20th-century India that aimed to celebrate and reclaim Indian artistic traditions and cultural heritage. The traditional Mughal-Rajasthani painting style was revived by the Bengal School's First Generation of artists, whereas the Second Generation focused on more abstract, simplified forms. Abanindranath Tagore, Rabindranath Tagore, Nandalal Bose, and Jamini Roy are just a few of the artists who are regarded as some of the most significant figures in Indian art history and continue to have an impact on modern-day artists.
Q2) Describe about the following artists and their art works and styles:
(a) Amrita Sher-Gill
Ans) Amrita Sher-Gil, a 1913-born Indian painter, died in 1941. She was a major modern Indian artist. Her paintings combine Western and Indian styles with post-Impressionist influences like Cézanne and Gauguin. She was known for her portraits and rural Indian scenes. Bold brushstrokes, vivid colours, and strong light and shadow define her style.
(b) Jamini Roy
Ans) Indian painter Jamini Roy was born in 1887. Indian folk art inspired him instead of European academic art. He was known for his bold lines, flat planes of colour, and vibrant hues. "The Cowherd," "The Bride's Toilet," and "The Fruit Seller" are among his famous works. His Radha and Krishna paintings are also known for their bold colour and decorative style. Roy's contributions to Indian art continue to inspire artists and art lovers.
(c) Gaganendranath Tagore
Ans) Indian cartoonist and painter Gaganendranath Tagore was born in 1867. He introduced European Impressionist and Post-Impressionist styles to India and was known for his humorous and satirical cartoons. Using bold colours, simplified forms, and graphic lines, he painted portraits, landscapes, and cityscapes. His famous works include "Ladies and Gentlemen," "The Cyclist," and "The Smoking Scene." Tagore was a pioneer of modern Indian art, and his works are still popular.
(d) Manjit Bawa
Ans) Manjit Bawa was a 1941 Punjabi painter. He was a contemporary artist known for his bold and colourful paintings that blended Indian folk art with modern art. Bawa's vibrant colours, bold lines, and simplified forms depict rural and religious themes, such as Sikhism. His famous works include "Amritsar," "Nirvana," and "The Farmer."
(e) Ramkinkar Baij
Ans) Bengali sculptor and painter Ramkinkar Baij was born in 1906. He pioneered modern Indian art with his sculptures and paintings. Futurism and Cubism influenced Baij's early work. Later, he was inspired by Indian folk art to create sculptures that depict the lives and struggles of the common people. His paintings have bold colour, simplified forms, and expressionistic brushwork. Ramkinkar Baij's "Santhal Family," "Three Forms," and "Football Players" are well-known.
(f) Meera Mukhrjee
Ans) Meera Mukherjee was an Indian sculptor born in Bengal in 1932. Her abstract metal and industrial sculptures were pioneering. Fluid lines and organic shapes characterise Mukherjee's works, which often reflect her interest in rural and tribal art. Her steel "Staircase to the Sky" was over 20 metres tall. "Bamboo Palace," "Rainbow Walk," and "Shakti" are among Meera Mukherjee's notable works.
(g) Krishna Reddy
Ans) Krishna Reddy, a printmaker, sculptor, and painter from Andhra Pradesh, was born in 1925. He pioneered modern Indian printmaking with abstract works that blended Western modernism and traditional Indian art. Reddy's prints and sculptures use bold colour and form. In printmaking, he used the viscosity method to layer and mix colours to create rich, textured surfaces. Krishna Reddy wrote "Saraswati," "The Flute Player," and "The Lovers."
(h) Anupam Sud
Ans) Punjabi printmaker and painter Anupam Sud was born in 1943. Her abstract, colourful paintings often depicted women and household items. Sud's prints use bright colours and multi-layered compositions with multiple images and patterns. Her printmaking used unconventional materials like fabric and papier-mâché. "The Kitchen," "The Thali," and "The Wall" are Anupam Sud's famous works.
(i) A. Ramachandran
Ans) A. Ramachandran was an Indian painter born in 1935 in Kerala. He mixed Indian classical art and mythology with modern themes and techniques in his paintings. Ramachandran uses vibrant colours, intricate patterns, and delicate lines in his work. He was also known for his explorations of Indian mythology, such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, and his use of traditional Indian forms, such as the lotus flower, in his paintings. "The Storyteller," "The Bird and the Lotus," and "The Lotus Pool" are among A. Ramachandran's most notable works.
(j) P.V. Jankiraman
Ans) P.V. Jankiraman, a Tamil Nadu painter, was born in 1922. He was known for his paintings that blended Indian classical and traditional art with modern themes and techniques. Bold colours, abstract forms, and fluid lines define Jankiraman's work. He also explored Indian mythology like the Ramayana and Mahabharata and used traditional Indian motifs like the lotus flower in his paintings. P.V. Jankiraman's famous works include "The Lotus Pool," "The Bird and the Lotus," and "The Storyteller."
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