If you are looking for BESE-141 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject ICT in Education, you have come to the right place. BESE-141 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAG courses of IGNOU.
BESE-141 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BESE-141/TMA/2022-23
Course Code: BESE-141
Assignment Name: ICT in Education
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Answer the following questions in about 500 words each.
Q1) Explain the various components of a computer. Also differentiate between system software and application software by giving examples. 20
Ans) The two major components of a computer are hardware and software.
Hardware: The hardware is the parts of the computer that can be seen and touched, both inside and outside. Hardware is the part of a computer system that you can see and touch. This includes the monitor, mouse, keyboard, motherboard, etc. The following are parts of the hardware:
Central Processing Unit (CPU): The CPU is the computer's brain. CPU takes in information, processes it, and sends out information. The motherboard, the RAM (Read-Only Memory) and the RAM (Random Access Memory) are all parts of the CPU (ROM).
Input and Output Devices (I/O Devices): Input devices are pieces of hardware that let users send or insert data into a computer. Output devices, on the other hand, are pieces of hardware used to show, project, or physically copy the results of the data processed by a computer. Some of the input devices are the keyboard, mouse, microphone, etc., and some of the output devices are the monitor, speaker, printer, etc.
Storage Devices (Memory): Any part of a computer that can store data and then get it back to use it again is often called "storage" or "memory." A computer has two kinds of memory: primary storage (also called primary memory) and secondary storage (secondary memory). The CPU has direct access to the primary storage. RAM, ROM, etc. are some examples. The CPU does not have direct access to secondary storage. Some examples are hard drives, CDs, USBs, and so on.
Ports: Ports are ways for the computer and its peripheral devices to talk to each other. There are ports inside and outside. The monitor port, the mouse input port, the audio input port, and the USB port are all examples.
Software: The software is made up of parts that can't be seen but are necessary for the computer to work. Software can also be thought of as a set of instructions that tell the hardware how to do certain tasks. So, software is the set of instructions needed to turn on a computer, make a Word document or image, etc.
There are many different types of software:
System Software: System software is the first type. System software is, as the name suggests, the software that a computer needs to run. This includes Operating System (like MS Windows, Mac OS, Linux, Ubuntu, Android, and iOS), Device Driver (like BIOS Driver, Motherboard Drivers, Sound card Drivers, and USB Drivers), Firmware, which is software built into ROM (like BIOS, Computer Peripherals, Consumer Applications, Embedded Systems, Programming Language Translators (like Interpreter, Compiler, and Assemblers), Utility (like Antivirus, disc clean-up and management tools, compression tools.
Application Software: The application software is software that lets users do specific things, like make an image, record, edit audio/video, etc. Some of the application software includes Word Processors (like MS Word and Libre Office), Database Software (like FoxPro and MS Access), Multimedia Software (like Adobe Photoshop, VLC Media Player, and Windows Movie Maker), Education and Reference Software (like KidPix, MindPlay, and Tux Paint), Graphics Software (like Adobe Photoshop, CorelDRAW, and GIM), and Web Browsers (like Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Microsoft Edge, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Safari, UC Browser).
Q2) What do you mean by Open educational resources (OERs)? How are OERs developed? 20
Ans) In the past, teachers used audio-visual tools to help students learn. Audio-visuals are still used a lot by teachers when they teach. But later, audio and video aids were thought of as "learning objects." After that, the idea of reusable learning objects (RLOs) started to be used. The RLOs stand for reusable learning objects. For example, if a history teacher makes a PowerPoint presentation about a certain topic, it can be posted online so that other teachers can use it. So, RLOs are resources for teaching and learning that can be changed and used again. But if you use RLOs, you need to think about the law because they are protected by copyright.
So, if you want to use an RLO, you need to ask the person who made it for permission. With the widespread use of digital technologies, many educational resources are now available online (in the public domain) and can be accessed through digital devices like computers, mobile phones, etc. Open Educational Resources are these kinds of educational materials that can be used by anyone (OERs). The main difference between RLOs and OERs is that OERs have a legal copyright label or open licence that tells you how you can use them. So, OERs can be changed and used again based on the rights (licence) they come with. OERs are any teaching and learning materials that are in the public domain and have an open licence.
In general, open educational resources (OERs) are online materials that can be changed, reused, shared, and even sold. So, OERs are materials that can be used to teach and learn more than once. OERs can be as short as small text, audio, video, image, etc. files or as long as textbooks or whole courses. "Learning objects" are OERs that are put together in a logical and sequential way to help achieve certain goals.
Some made lesson plans and educational resources (tools for teaching and learning) for your teaching sessions. With the rise of OERs and the idea of sharing knowledge, teaching and learning resources are given to other people. Also, someone else's teaching and learning materials can be changed without their permission. So, the public can benefit from teaching and learning tools made by someone else and somewhere else. Sharing your teaching and learning materials lets other people use them. But there is something to watch out for.
When sharing teaching and learning resources, the person who made them has the right to decide how other people can use them. The person who made the teaching-and-learning materials attaches a licence to it when they share it. The Creative Commons licence is the most popular and most often used licence. So, whenever you make a resource for teaching and learning, you should attach an open licence to it. This makes the resource an OER. Then, other people can use and share your teaching and learning materials. If you follow the licence, you can share, remix, and make new teaching and learning materials from it.
Answers the following questions in about 250 words each.
Q3) Discuss the instructional delivery in Open and Distance Learning (ODL). 12
Ans) In Open and Distance Learning (ODL), students learn on their own using Self Learning Material (SLM) and other media resources like audio-visual programmes, etc. In India, the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)offers ODL programmes related to school education while Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) and state open universities are mandated to provide higher education related ODL programmes. These ODL institutions provide seamless quality education to millions of learners through the ODL mode, and they are popular.
Open and Distance Learning is another mode of delivering academic programmes. ODL refers to an education mode wherein learners learn through distance mode. You are aware that, in face-to-face learning, teachers and learners mostly engage in the teaching-learning process in the classroom. But ODL employs self-learning. The learners of ODL learn on their own by reading Self-Learning Materials (SLMs) developed by the ODL institutions. The learning material that you are reading now is also a SLM.
Therefore, the ODL institutions prepare the SLMS and are provided it to the learners for learning on their own. We can say that SLM is the major material used for delivering instructions in the ODL. Even though SLMs are the major instructional material, some learners may face difficulty to understand the content that is explained in it. Therefore, ODL institutions support their learners and provide them with various other learning resources like audio-video programmes, teleconferencing, etc. So, we can say that ODL also suitably blends various instructional materials and learning and assessment strategies for instructional delivery.
Q4) Discuss the role of ICTs in lifelong learning by citing suitable examples. 12
Ans) Lifelong learning is the "lifelong, voluntary, and self-motivated" pursuit of knowledge for personal or professional reasons. So, lifelong learning helps a person keep his or her knowledge up-to-date and skills. So, a person is a lifelong learner if they do any kind of learning, whether it's formal, informal, or not at all. If the learning is done in a formal way, it may help the person get awards, certificates, or degrees. Let's say that a person who has already earned a master's degree and is working can enrol in another master's programme and earn the degree. In the same way, a person who is 75 years old, for example, can sign up for any programme offered by an Open and Distance Learning (ODL) institution and earn a degree. But some people learn throughout their lives without the goal of getting a degree, but to improve their knowledge and professional skills.
Some of the ICTs that are helpful for lifelong learning are as follows:
Blogs: A blog is a website where people share information or their opinions about anything. Blogs are like personal diaries, but the posts are in reverse chronological order, which means that the most recent post is at the top. The blog shows the most recent posts first. On the Internet, you can find different blogs about many different things. These blogs can help people learn for the rest of their lives.
Social Media: Social media are specialised websites on the internet. and apps to stay in touch, talk to, and work with people who have similar interests, friends, or family. Social networking is the process of staying in touch with people who have similar interests, friends, or family members. Facebook, WhatsApp, YouTube, etc. are all well-known social media sites. With the help of social media tools, people can share information and learn new things.
Q5) Explain the ADDIE model of instructional design. 12
Ans) ADDIE stands for Analysis, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluate. This model was developed in the 70s and is still one of the most popular models of instructional design. The ADDIE model follows five phases for the development of instructional materials.
Analysis: Before designing any learning/instructional material, the instructional designer/content developer tries to find out the answer to some questions through analysis.
Pedagogical Analysis: What are the pedagogical considerations? and, what will be the learning objectives?
Design: This phase is the planning phase. In this phase, the instructional designers identify, design, and evaluate the strategies to be adopted for achieving the intended objectives. The structure of content, sequencing, format, etc. are planned in this phase.
Develop: During this phase, the material is created or developed. First, an early version of the teaching material is made. Then they are tested on a small scale, evaluated, and tweaked.
Implement: In this step, the materials that were made for teaching will be used. The teaching materials will be used to show students how to do things in the classroom. But at the same time, the designer also checks how well the instructional materials work by getting feedback from the people who use them. The instructional designer makes changes to the instructional material based on the feedback. This stage includes steps like redesigning, updating, and editing.
Evaluation: This phase evaluates the learning materials being created. Evaluation is part of every ADDIE model stage, even if it appears last. Thus, evaluation is formative and summative. The instructional designer evaluates numerous aspects, including whether the information is right for the learner. Clear goals? Whether students like the material. Whether it uses many mediums well. Material effectiveness?
Q6) Explain the steps followed in the development of video programmes. 12
Ans) To make audio-visual resources, you need to know about the different steps, such as planning the programme, writing the script, and making the programme.
Planning of the Programme: Planning is the first and foremost step in the development of audio-video resources. It is essential to plan each step very systematically. While planning you should consider the following aspects:
Script Writing: Script writing is the next step in the development of audio-video resources. The script is a carefully devised blueprint that charts out instructions for speakers, producers, editors, and technicians. Creativity, imagination, and cooperative efforts are the keywords of the scripting process.
Preparing a Storyboard: When making video resources, you need to decide how to start, what to say, how to end, what words will be used as support, what graphics and images will be shown in between, what music and sound effects will be played in between, etc.
Development of the Programme: After you have completed the storyboard, you will need to find an audio or video studio in order to record the programme. A soundproof room, a camera, a computer, a microphone, lighting, and other equipment such as these will be available at the studio in order to record the show. The production team at the studio will include personnel such as a producer, director, camera operators, make-up artists, and so on. Following the completion of the recording, the audio-visual programme that was recorded is then edited. After that, it is reviewed by a panel of specialists.
Answer the following questions in about 125 words each.
Q7) Discuss the factors influencing ICT integration. 6
Ans) When integrating ICTs into teaching and learning, consider the following.
Selection of Suitable ICT Tools: Teachers must choose appropriate ICT instruments. ICT tools vary on the content, instructional manner, learning outcomes, etc.
Section of Suitable Medium: Delivery medium matters too. Based on content, level, etc., the teacher must choose a medium.
Linkage with Learning Outcomes: ICT resources must meet learning goals.
Age Appropriateness: Teachers must evaluate learners' qualities while choosing ICTs to maximise their benefits.
Meaningful and Life-centric: Teachers must choose meaningful ICT tools that relate to students' experiences.
Ensuring Enriched Learning Experiences: ICT resources must enable active learning. Vicarious ICT-based learning improves retention and effectiveness.
Compatibility: ICT resources must be compatible. If the teacher creates a PDF e-text, students need PDF readers to read it.
Teacher Support: Selecting ICT resources should assist teachers present their topics and teach. It should also assist them meet educational goals.
User Friendly: Easy-to-use ICT materials must be chosen.
Economical: Teachers must consider cost while selecting ICT resources. ICT integration requires fiscal and economic concerns.
Q8) What do you mean by learning analytics? List a few ICT tools used for learning analytics.6
Ans) In a learning environment that uses ICTs, students can use a digital library, read e-books, search the internet, take part in a discussion forum, chat with other students and teachers, talk to experts, etc. When students use the internet to learn and do things to learn online, they leave a "digital footprint." Students' digital footprints and the activities they do in an ICT-enabled learning environment need to be tracked, collected, and analysed in order to understand how they are learning and make good decisions about how to improve teaching and learning. Learning analytics will help you do these things. Some tools like Google analytics, Search Metrics, Userfly, Tynt, Mixpanel, Snapp, TADA-Ed, Wiki metrics, Involver, Gapminder, Gephi, NetDraw, and LOCO-Analyst. metryx, etc. are used as learning analytics.
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