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BPCG-174: Psychology and Media

BPCG-174: Psychology and Media

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for BPCG-174 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Psychology and Media, you have come to the right place. BPCG-174 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAG, BAPAH, BAEGH, BAPFHMH, BAECH, BAHIH, BAPSH, BASOH, BSCANH, BAHDH courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BPCG-174/ASST/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: BPCG-174

Assignment Name: Psychology and Media

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Total Marks: 100

NOTE: All questions are compulsory.


Assignment One


Answer the following questions in about 500 words each. 2 x 20 = 40


Q1. Explain the relationship between psychology and media. Discuss the role of media psychologist.

Ans) Media is not just something that people all over the world use for fun. It tells you what's going on in the world, keeps you up to date on the news, helps people find jobs, and does a lot of other important things that we would miss if we didn't have it. Also, newer forms of media have given the general public a voice, which has both good and bad effects. The only goal is not to keep in touch with people you already know. It's much more than that now. How often do you change from one form of media to another? From the TV to surfing the web on your phone or laptop, you get a lot of information all the time, which can be overwhelming. It has become a place where businesses can sell things, where people can become "influencers," where people can find entertainment, and many other things.


The above case study shows how the media can influence or stir up a large number of people to do something they might not have done otherwise. The truth is, though, that this could be used for the good of society on the one hand, and it could also hurt society on the other. As of right now, there is more and more worry about the spread of fake news, which has even caused people to die. Geysha Gonzalez, the associate director for the Eurasia centre at the Atlantic Council, said in 2018 that fake news has been a problem for as long as people have been spreading rumours and gossip. With the rise of new platforms, fake news spreads like wildfire. In India, for example, false information spread through a messaging app led to mob lynchings that killed innocent people.

There are a lot of other examples like this that support the idea that the media affects people's minds in many different ways. David Giles (2003) says that this makes it clear that the relationship between the media and psychology is not a good one. This is because Psychology warns against studying media in more depth, and media is not usually studied in school. In other words, it doesn't get as much attention as it should or the respect it deserves.


So, media psychologists have to do more than just make people more aware. They also have to help make sure that governments and other large groups know how much power they have over the public. They work as consultants and experts to help advertisers, influencers, and anyone else with a strong media presence be more effective. It is true that the media has a lot of power over people, but most research has focused on the negative effects. The media are not the problem that needs to be fixed in the world. Instead, the field needs to be better understood. Media psychologists do just this, and then they share their knowledge and experience with other people to help them understand how to interact with media.


Q2. Elucidate the characteristics of a parasocial relationship. Discuss the factors affecting parasocial relationship.

Ans) The characteristics of a parasocial relationship are:



Most parasocial relationships are one-sided, meaning that the person who watches or listens to media seems to know and care about the media image (character, actor, cartoon, etc.), but the media person doesn't know anything about the person who watches or listens to media.



As a customer, the person puts time, energy, and feelings into these relationships. This is shown not only by the fact that people can't stop binge-watching shows on Netflix and other over-the-top (OTT) services, but also by the fact that fans' emotional investment in these media figures can lead to terrible things, as shown in the examples below.


These relationships are voluntary

PSR are relationships that people choose to be in, just like other relationships we have in real life. We can choose which media figures to invest in and which ones not to. We can also decide to stop paying attention to a media figure we used to like but no longer do.


Factors affecting interpersonal attraction apply to PSRs

PSRs are also based on factors that are similar to those of interpersonal attraction. We are more likely to form a PSR with someone who is like us and shares our culture and ideas (Turner, 1993). The media trends that are most popular make things seem "closer" and easier to get. Whether or not you would do a PSR with a public figure also depends on your age, gender, and race.


Provides companionship

Like social groups and friends, parasocial relationships also give the viewer someone to hang out with. PSRs happen over time, and as time goes on, they get worse. The more the viewer "knows" the persona, the more they can "predict" what they will do. This gives the impression that the person is "predictable," which is something we can only do with people we are very close to. All of this closeness, intensity, and predictability, even though it only works one way, is like a real friendship.

Needs maintenance

PSRs also need to be taken care of, just like real-life relationships. In most social relationships, people stay in touch by sending messages, calling, or meeting in person. In parasocial relationships, people keep in touch by watching the media person, following them on different social media sites, and sometimes going to events where they can meet the celebrity in person (through concerts, meet and greets, etc.).


Assignment Two


Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. 3 x 10 = 30


Q3. Define media. Explain the significance and functions of media.

Ans) The Oxford dictionary says that "media" means "the main means of mass communication (broadcasting, publishing, and the Internet) taken as a whole." The word "media" is the plural form of the word "medium," which means a way to share something. But can you picture how it must have all started? Let's look at the past so we can understand things better. People have a strong desire to share what they know and what they strongly believe. We all do our part to help the people around us learn from our experiences. Robert K. Merton, an American sociologist, says that the functions of mass communication can be either obvious or hidden. The effects of the first are easier to see than the effects of the second, which might not be what was intended. Harold Lasswell (1948) and Charles Wright (1960) broke down the roles of mass media into the following parts:

  1. The environment is being watched: The job of the media is to make people aware of and informed about what's going on in the world. It gives information about problems that the world, a country, or a region might be facing. It also shows different sides of a storey to help people understand what's going on.

  2. The Function of Correlation: At first, before the internet and social media, the only way to get news or information out was through the channels that already existed. These channels also decided how journalists and experts interpreted the news. This function of the media shows how certain news stories are chosen over others.


Q4. Explain the theory of Social Constructionism and differentiate it from Symbolic Interactionism.

Ans) Social constructionism is based on the idea that people create their own realities. Social constructionists have different ideas about what reality is, ranging from those who think there is some objective reality to those who think everything is socially constructed. Even though some social constructionists believe that there is an objective reality that is not affected by who is looking at it, they also say that it is hard to understand. Even though they have different points of view, all social constructionists agree that there are different social realities that are built together through interactions with family, friends, and even the media.

If something has more than one meaning or more than one reality, it may be hard for the audience to understand what is going on in the world. When we read contradictory news in different newspapers, we can become confused about what is going on in the world. Then it's up to us to decide which newspaper to trust and which not to trust. News that is reported the same way in several reliable newspapers is often taken as "truth" by the general public. For a long time, the way the media shows family life has been a way for us to measure our own successes and lives. In many Indian serials, the ideal family is one that is rich, beautiful, and successful. We take these ideas and use them to form similar ideas about ourselves. Symbolic interactionists look at these and other kinds of symbols we use in our everyday lives. Like social constructionism, symbolic interactionism says that all knowledge is socially made and that there is no such thing as an objective reality.


Q5. Describe the role of media in development of education.

Ans) Media has had a huge effect on how teachers, journalists, producers, and other professionals, as well as children, are trained. It has helped improve learning and educational opportunities by giving the user two ways to look at things (as a beginner and sometimes as an educator, as we've already talked about). One of the most important things that the media do is help the education and community sectors grow. They help people understand each other's cultures, beliefs, castes, creeds, ethnicities, and socioeconomic backgrounds so they can communicate and work together well. So, media has helped us learn about the problems that people from different cultures and backgrounds face.


People can get information from an unlimited number of sources, types, and types of information online. Information about politics, current events, and trending news is always being shared. These platforms have a lot of information, so there are a lot of ways to learn from them. But in the end, a person's choices for educational and informative content get smaller because there are so many options and sources of information. Because the internet is "Pull-media," it is unlikely that people will watch informative content on it. The study showed that scrolling through social media platforms gives people a sense of being well-informed. By seeing a new headline, post, or content related to news or current events, a cognitive schema is activated that gives the impression that someone has learned something useful or educational on social media, whether they actually read the content or not.


Assignment Three


Answer the following questions in about 100 words each. 5 x 6 = 30


Q6. News framing

Ans) After the people in charge of the media have decided what will be shown to the public, different frames can be made through the language, symbols, and emotional tone of the presentation, etc., to bring attention to certain parts of the issues and downplay others. "Framing" means making small changes to the content so that it shows an event from a certain point of view. This, in turn, changes the way the target audience thinks and feels. Several researchers have found key frames in the news that affect how people understand the news. Iyengar (1991) made a distinction between a thematic frame and an episodic frame. The first one is about a person and a specific event, while the second one is about social issues rather than a single event.


Q7. Classification of cybercrime

Ans) Cybercrime against an individual- committed by cyber criminals against a person like:


  1. Email spoofing is when someone fakes an email header so that the message looks like it came from a known or legitimate source other than the real source.

  2. Spamming is sending junk email or messages to a large number of people through spam bots that search the internet for email addresses.

  3. Cyber defamation is when someone's reputation is hurt by what other people say about them online.

Cybercrime against property- includes vandalism of computers as well as intellectual crimes of copyright, patents, and trademark. They include:

  1. Software piracy- unauthorised copying

  2. Copyright infringement- use of copyright materials like music, software, or text

  3. Trademark infringement- unauthorised use of service mark or trademark


Q8. Media and well-being

Ans) Media has a role to play in a person's overall well-being and emotional support, especially through the likes and comments that show appreciation on media platforms that offer emotional support options. It also gives people a chance to find out who they are by letting them choose what they want to share with others and by helping them through social networks. Media gives people a sense of social support, emotional support, and mental support, which is good for their overall well-being because it gives them a greater sense of purpose in life, more happiness, better mental health, and a sense that they are loved, wanted, listened to, supported, and encouraged.

Q9. Health education and mass media

Ans) Health education is meant to help people and groups take better care of their health by giving them more information and changing how they think about health. But health education isn't just about what you learn in school. Its goal is to get people to do the right things to improve their health. People need to know about the many things that affect health, such as social, economic, and environmental conditions, in addition to their own risks and the health care system's facilities and services. Use of social media can improve health education communication strategies and give public health new chances. Health educators and professionals now use social media tools to get their names out there and stay in business.


Q10. Gaming addiction

Ans) In South Korea, people who are addicted to video games have been called a public health crisis. It was called a national problem after a number of gamers died from exhaustion after playing for days straight without stopping. The government runs a lot of programmes and boot camps for kids, teens, and young adults to help them control their urges to use the internet and get a better handle on their lives. In Muju, South Korea, there is one called the National Center for Youth Internet Addiction Treatment. People get help at these places through things like group therapy, family counselling, physical activities, music and art classes, and different kinds of cognitive behavioural therapy. E-sports players are famous and make more money than we can imagine.

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