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DECE-1: Organizing Child Care Services

DECE-1: Organizing Child Care Services

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: DECE-1/TMA/2022

Course Code: DECE-1

Assignment Name: Organizing Child Care Services

Year: 2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


All Three Sections  A, B and C of this assignment are compulsory.


Total Marks: 100




Answer all questions of Section A. 60 Marks


Q1.Write about each of the following in about 200 words each. (3x5=15 marks)


1.(a) Critical Periods in development

Ans) An organism can learn vital survival skills at a specific and crucial period of time during its early development, which is referred to in ethology as a "critical period." The development of systems like hearing and vision, social bonding, and language learning are all impacted by these elements. The phrase is most frequently used in the context of imprinting studies, where it is held that young birds can only form a link with their mother within a specific time frame just after hatching. Prior to neural connections becoming more solidified and durable, critical periods in neuroscience are characterised by a high degree of flexibility in the brain. Particularly, critical times tend to end when synapses blocking the neurotransmitter GAGA expand.


Sensitive periods, also referred to as "weak critical periods," contrast with critical periods in that they happen when an organism is more vulnerable than usual to outside forces that affect behaviour, however this influence is not always specific to the sensitive period. The extent to which mature creatures may acquire particular skills, such as the ability to speak other languages with natural accents, has been a topic of debate among scientists. The critical period is a physiologically defined developmental stage at which an organism is best equipped to form a recognisable pattern of behaviour. By definition, this era won't come again in the future. It might be difficult, if not impossible, for an organism to learn specific skills later in life if it doesn't receive the stimulation it needs to learn them during a critical phase. This is because passive experiences are unable to create significant changes in the brain due to a number of functional and anatomical variables.


1.(b) Sensory capabilities of a new-born

Ans) All five senses—sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch—are present at birth. There are several incompletely formed senses. The senses of a new-born are listed below.

  1. Sight: Babies' eye movements during the first few months may not be coordinated. They might even have crossed eyes. Babies can only focus at close range when they are born. The distance between a mother's face and the new-born in her arms is around 8 to 10 inches. In the first few weeks of life, infants are able to follow or track an object of art.

  2. Hearing: Many moms discover that during pregnancy, the baby may kick or bounce in response to loud stimuli and may calm with peaceful, calming music. New-borns have complete hearing development. Babies with healthy hearing should flinch at loud noises. These infants will also listen intently when their parents speak.

  3. Smell: According to studies, babies have a keen sense of smell. Infants favour their mother's scent, particularly the aroma of her breastmilk.

  4. Taste: Babies choose sweet flavours over those that are sour or unpleasant. Additionally, nursing and human milk are strongly preferred by infants. This is particularly true if they are offered formula or a bottle after being breastfed for a while.

  5. Touch: Touch is a comfort to infants. Your kid may feel safer if you put your hand on his or her abdomen or if you cuddle up to them. Another technique for making a baby feel comfortable is to wrap them tightly in a blanket (swaddling). To make swaddling simpler, you might purchase a specialised blanket.


1.(c) Growth monitoring

Ans) Growth refers to a rise in the physical size of the body, whereas development refers to an improvement in an individual's abilities and functions. Together, they signify a person's overall health on all fronts: physical, mental, emotional, and social. Only in the presence of adequate nutrition, an absence of ongoing infections, and freedom from harmful environmental factors can normal growth and development be observed.

  1. Determinants of Growth and Development: Height, weight, mental ability, social development, and personality are all influenced by genetics. Nutritional needs before and after birth - Infant retardation is a sign of malnutrition.

  2. Age: Growth rate is maximum during fetal life, first two years of life and during puberty.

  3. Sex: Typically, guys are bigger than women. During puberty, guys grow more than girls, while girls develop faster and earlier.

  4. Infections and Infestations: Torch infection during the foetus' intrauterine development slows growth. Growth will be negatively impacted by recurrent diseases like diarrhoea and measles, especially in a malnourished child.

  5. Physical Surroundings: Sunshine, good housing, lighting ventilation have their effect on growth and development.

  6. Psychological Factors: Love, tender care and proper child parent relationship are all found to influence growth in a child.

  7. Economic Factors: Higher the family income better is the nutritional status of an infant.

1.(d) Animism

Ans) Animism is the belief in countless spiritual creatures who are involved in human events and have the power to advance or undermine human goals. The term "animism" refers to a worldview that is consistent with a variety of religious rituals and beliefs, many of which may persist in more intricate and hierarchical faiths rather than a single credo or dogma. Animism is a topic of discussion in contemporary scholarship at the same time as the issue of a rational or scientific interpretation of religion. After the period of exploration, Christian missionaries frequently provided Europe with the most accurate knowledge on the newly found populations in the Americas, Africa, Asia, and Oceania.


Some missionaries in the 19th century took a scientific interest in ideas that looked to indicate an early sort of religious faith, inferior but ancestor to their own, although typically being indifferent to what was considered to be "primitive superstition." Tylor consolidated this focus in Primitive Culture, which is mostly devoted to the account of unusual religious behaviour. It may be inferred that animistic emphasises predominated the world in the ancient era because all of the "major" faiths of the world have arisen in historical times. A closed belief system was less likely to thrive in civilizations devoid of any doctrinal establishment than an open one. However, there is no reason to believe that monotheistic and polytheistic beliefs were left out. However, what is obvious today—that no historically established faith has an indisputable hold on the educated mind—had hardly taken root in scholarly discourse more than a century ago.


1.(e) Significance of rhythm, music and movement

Ans) From the earliest phases of their development, children respond to sound. The new-born falls asleep when comforted by soft sounds, adoring tones, and lullabies. In order to calm a crying baby, we usually rock her, clap our hands, click our fingers, or make rhythmic noises like "kakakake. These constant sounds and movements are soothing, comforting, and serene to the infant. When a small child is alone in a room and feels anxious, the sound of her mother's footfall rapidly calms her.


Moms typically sit the child on their lap as they rock and pat them to sleep. Rocking, swaying, and other rhythmic movements are used in children's music as well as in cribs and playthings like swings, rocking horses, and wheel toys. Why do kids find rhythm to be so appealing? The unborn child is exposed to rhythmic movement from the moment of creation because life depends on the rhythms of the heartbeat, breathing, and pulse. The unborn child finds comfort in this routine movement. As a result, children find comfort in the rhythm of songs and dances since it is akin to their initial physiological experience in the womb.


Could you list some justifications for why early childhood programmes ought to include music and movement activities? Yes, in addition to providing enjoyment and excitement, these activities give kids a platform to explore their creative side. Music and dance help people express themselves and learn more about themselves. Children should be encouraged to react to music in their own special way and to come up with own words, tunes, and movements. Dancing and music can help people express their feelings and moods.


Q2. You are running a summer camp and have a group of ten pre-schoolers who are between 4 to 4.5years of age. Describe one activity each that you will plan to facilitate: (3x4=12 marks)


Q2.(a) cognitive development

Ans) This year, children's capacity for thought and learning extends beyond the fundamentals of their environment. They begin to consider and comprehend things they cannot see or touch. Children may begin to "have an idea" more frequently than you had previously observed. The majority of 4-year-olds are learning how to:

  1. Start sorting things by attributes like size, shape, and color.

  2. Compare and contrast by things like height, size, or gender.

  3. Begin to understand the difference between real and make-believe, but may still confuse them.

  4. Understand that pictures and symbols stand for real things.

  5. Recognize shapes in the real world.

  6. Count to at least 20 and point to and count items in a group.

  7. Explore relationships between ideas, using words like if and when to express them.

  8. Start thinking in logical steps, which means seeing the "how-tos" and consequences of things.

  9. Get abstract ideas like "bigger," "less," "later," "ago," and "soon”.

  10. Put things in order, like from biggest to smallest, shortest to tallest

  11. Stick with an activity for 10 to 15 minutes.


Q2.(b) physical-motor development

Ans) Your small child is more able to converse if they are curious and interested. Your child's language and cognitive abilities are also growing. In addition to being able to respond to plain inquiries clearly and simply, your child should also be able to express their feelings more effectively. Most children at this age like singing, rhyming, and making up words. They are animated, funny, and sporadic noisy and rude. The following language and cognitive milestones may also be reached by your child in the upcoming year:

  1. Communicate effectively by utilising longer, more complicated language.

  2. Count at least ten things.

  3. at least four colours and three shapes correctly.

  4. Recognize a few letters and, if necessary, write their names

  5. A better understanding of time and how routine events, like breakfast in the morning, lunch in the afternoon, and dinner at night, fit into the day.

  6. Utilize the future tense, as in "We will visit the park shortly."

  7. Possess a longer attention span.

  8. Adhere to directives that are two- to three-parts. "Put your book away, clean your teeth, and then get in bed," for example.

  9. Recognize common verbal cues, such as "STOP”.

  10. If taught, be familiar with their address and phone number.

  11. Recognize daily items such as food and money.


Your four- to five-year-old should be playing, which is how children learn. At this age, your child should be able to climb, swing, toss and kick a ball, all with ease. Your child may also reach the following mobility milestones and hand-and-finger development milestones in the upcoming year:

  1. For more than 9 seconds, stand on one foot.

  2. Perform a somersault and leap.

  3. Without assistance, climb and descend stairs.

  4. Easily walk forward and backwards

  5. Tricycle Pedal

  6. Duplicate a triangle, a circle, a square, or another form.

  7. Create a human figure with a body.

  8. Stack a minimum of ten blocks.

  9. Make use of a fork and spoon.

  10. Dress and undress independently, brush teeth, and use the toilet.


Q2.(c) socio-emotional development

Ans) Even if your 3-year-old understands emotions, she is powerless over them. Anything hilarious will make them howl. When distressed, they cry. Impulsivity is lacking in preschoolers. They react emotionally. This may involve stealing a toy from another youngster or displaying irrational outrage when informed that a snack must wait until dinnertime. They want it now, not tomorrow. Children ages three and four may fight by pushing, biting, or punching. They have not yet developed a sense of right and wrong behaviour. You must teach your child appropriate emotional expression and conflict resolution techniques. Your child will soon understand the negative effects of emotional outbursts. Tantrums could get you put in "time out" or mean you lose your favourite toy. These consequences will teach your 4-year-old that temper tantrums are unacceptable. Your four-year-old is hilarious. They enjoy making jokes and giggling. Kids under the age of four enjoy calling their peers "poo-poo heads" and giggling excessively. At age 4, empathy begins to develop. Children as young as four can feel for sad or hurt pals. They might want to console a friend who is sobbing.


Your child has matured emotionally at age five. They can now manage their feelings and talk about them. They have more self-control now. Before taking, they take their time and inquire. When upset, your 5-year-old is more likely to express himself verbally than to throw a fit. They might use racial slurs when they're enraged or upset. Your pre-schooler might be interested in sexuality at this age. They may inquire as to the baby's lineage. They might play with or touch their genitalia out of body interest. They might be fascinated by other people's genitalia. Although it is common, you should teach your 5-year-old what is appropriate. Children under three begin to imagine. At this age, your pre-schooler will spend a lot of time in their own imaginary world. Their stuffed animals and dolls are given names and characteristics. They might converse with fictitious friends. Parents worry that children with imaginary friends are lonely or isolated, yet this is untrue. Through imaginative play, kids can develop their social skills. It entails "real-world" application. When a child has little influence over their reality, they create the worlds of their dreams. They control. Your pre-schooler might begin communicating with a fictional companion and developing a phobia of the monster under their bed at the same time. These concerns are prevalent. Don't laugh; they mean business. Tell your youngster they are safe. As your child gets older, imaginative play will still be important, but they'll learn to discriminate between imagination and reality.


Q2.(d) facilitate language development.

Ans) According to studies, young children who are read to and spoken to frequently as compared to those who do not have greater vocabulary and better grammar. Here are a few easy strategies for supporting your baby's language development.

Discuss. Explain the day. say to your child "We'll wash up. Is your stomach cosy? We'll dress and start walking after we've dried off."

  1. Read. There is never a bad time to read to a baby. Reading success is predicted by parental reading. Beginning with board books, parents can go to picture books and longer chapters. When preschoolers visit the library or a bookstore, they can develop a love of reading.

  2. Exchange music. Children like movement and music. Children learn about the world and linguistic rhythm by listening to upbeat songs like "Old McDonald Had a Farm."

  3. Narrate. Write richly textured tales with characters, conflict, adventure, and a happy conclusion. Make sure the tales are appropriate for your child and aren't too frightening.

  4. Go with your child. Describe a book illustration that your youngster enjoys. If she shows an interest, demonstrate and talk about boats. Ask questions and recite her babbling. Try recording your child and listening to it afterwards.

  5. Don't comment on your child's speaking. Instead, accurately echo his words. Reward your child for their efforts.

  6. Do not overuse the computer and TV. Youngsters under two should not watch television, while children two and older should only watch two hours of high-quality programming. Children can learn English through some educational programmes, but TV shows don't interact with or speak to them. Children's input is not taken into account in interactive video games.

  7. Put an end to ear infections. Children in group care are more likely to have ear infections, which can result in language and hearing loss. Make sure your child takes the antibiotic every day for the recommended amount of time if your paediatrician prescribes one. Visit your paediatrician to confirm that the infection has disappeared after your child has finished the prescription.

  8. Field trips the children's museum, zoo, or aquarium will broaden your child's horizons. In addition, she'll want to know the names of the fascinating species and entertaining activities she saw.


For each activity, mention the material(s) required, if any, and procedure to carry out the activity. For each developmental domain, state the specific aspect of that domain that will he fostered through the activity. (150-200 words per activity)


Q3.Explain the different styles of parental behaviour. Discuss how each style of parental behaviour influences the child's personality. (700 words)(8 marks)

Ans) Everything from your child's weight to her self-esteem can be impacted by your parenting style, including how much she weighs. Since the way you interact with and punish your child will affect her for the rest of her life, it is crucial to make sure your parenting style supports healthy growth and development. Researchers have distinguished four different parenting philosophies:

  1. Authoritarian

  2. Authoritative

  3. Permissive

  4. Uninvolved


Each style takes a different approach to raising children and can be identified by a number of different characteristics.


Authoritarian Parenting

  1. You believe kids should be seen and not heard.

  2. When it comes to rules, you believe it's "my way or the highway."

  3. You don't take your child's feelings into consideration.

  4. If any of those ring true, you might be an authoritarian parent. Authoritarian parents believe kids should follow the miles without exception.


When a youngster asks their parents why a rule is in place, authoritarian parents are infamous for responding, "Because I said so." Negotiations are not something they are eager to do. They emphasise submission. Kids are also not permitted to participate in obstacles or challenges that require problem-solving. Instead, parents set the guidelines and administer the punishments with little consideration for a child's viewpoint. Parents with a strict authority may substitute punishment for instruction. So instead of educating kids on how to make better decisions, they are more interested in making them feel bad about themselves. Rule-following is a habit that often develops in children raised by stern, authoritarian parents. However, they pay a price for their obedience. They might also turn hostile or violent. They frequently concentrate on the resentment they feel against their parents rather than how to improve matters in the future. Since authoritarian parents are frequently strict, their kids may develop a skill for lying as a way to escape punishment as they get older.


Authoritative Parenting

You work very hard to build and keep up a good relationship with your child. You provide the justification for your regulations. You set boundaries, assign punishments, and consider your child's feelings while doing so. You may be a strong parent if those phrases ring true to you. Parents who are authoritative enforce rules and impose penalties, but they also consider their children's viewpoints. They acknowledge their children's emotions while simultaneously emphasising that the adults are in charge in the end. Parents who are authoritative put time and effort into avoiding behavioural issues before they arise. Additionally, they employ positive discipline techniques like reward and praise systems to reinforce good conduct.


Permissive Parenting

  1. You set rules but rarely enforce them.

  2. You don't give out consequences very often.

  3. You think your child will learn best with little interference from you.

  4. If those statements sound familiar, you might be a permissive parent. Permissive parents are lenient.

  5. They often only step in when there's a serious problem.


They take a "kids will be kids" approach and are generally forgiving. When they do apply penalties, they might not make those penalties last. If a youngster begs for his or her privileges, they might return them, and if he or she makes a good enough promise, they might let them out of time-out early. Parents that are liberal with their children typically act more like friends than parents. They frequently encourage their kids to talk to them about their issues, but they typically don't make an attempt to prevent wrong decisions or bad behaviour. Children who have lenient parents are more likely to have academic difficulties as adults.


Uninvolved Parenting

  1. You don't ask your child about school or homework.

  2. You rarely know where your child is or who she is with.

  3. You don't spend much time with your child.


If you can identify with those phrases, you might be an uninvolved parent. Parents who aren't involved often don't know much about what their kids are up to. There aren't often many rules. There may not be enough parental guidance, care, and attention for the kids. Parents who aren't involved expect their kids to raise themselves. They don't put much effort or time into providing for the basic necessities of children. Even though neglect by absent parents might occur, it's not always on purpose. For instance, a parent struggling with mental health concerns or substance abuse disorders might not be able to consistently meet a child's physical or emotional requirements. Other times, parents who aren't involved don't understand how kids develop. Additionally, there are instances when people are just overburdened by other issues like employment, household management, and bill-paying. Self-esteem problems are more likely to plague children of absent parents. They frequently perform poorly academically. Additionally, they consistently display behavioural issues and are not very happy.


4 (a)List the six services offered by Integrated Child Development Service Scheme. Mention beneficiaries for each of these services.(200 words)

Ans) Around 158 million of India's population are children between the ages of 0 and 6. (2011 census). Future human resources for the nation are represented by these kids. A number of programmes are run by the Ministry of Women and Child Development to support childcare, development, and safety.


The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme, which was introduced on October 2, 1975, is one of the Government of India's hallmark initiatives and one of the biggest and most cutting-edge early childhood care and development programmes in the world. The Program helps 0–6-year-olds, expectant mothers, and nursing mothers. The goals of the Scheme are as follows: to improve the nutritional and physical health of kids between the ages of 0 and 6:

  1. to create the groundwork for the child's optimal psychological, physical, and social growth;

  2. to combat mortality, morbidity, hunger, and school dropout.

  3. to ensure excellent policy and execution coordination among the many departments in order to enhance child development; and

  4. to strengthen the mother's capacity to care for her child's normal health and nutritional needs via correct nutrition and health education.


Services covered by ICDS

  1. The ICDS Scheme is a collection of six services, including.

  2. Nutritional Supplements

  3. Non-formal education in pre-school

  4. Education on nutrition and health

  5. Immunization

  6. Health examinations and

  7. Consultation services


The Ministry/Department of Health and Family Welfare provides the final three services, which are health-related, through the NRHM & Health system. Since a given service's effectiveness depends on the support it receives from related services, the belief that offering a bundle of services will have a far bigger overall impact than doing so is based on this idea.


Q4 (b) Briefly state any 2 challenges of ICDS programme(200 words) (3+2=5 marks)

Ans) The largest community-based project in the world is the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme. Children under the age of six, expectant and nursing mothers, and women between the ages of sixteen and forty-four are all eligible for the plan. The project's objective is to improve the target community's health, diet, and educational standards (KAP). The plan has been in existence for 25 years after starting on October 2nd, 1975. The article provides a summary of the planning, successes, and failures of this national effort. It also points out a number of areas that need improvement.


Children's malnutrition has always been a problem for the country. The numerous vertical health programmes that the Government of India (GOI) periodically launched could not adequately reach the target audience. In 1974, India adopted a comprehensive national child policy. It was decided to launch a complete multicentric programme with a condensed bundle of services in line with this idea. The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) plan, one of the most known and important national human resource development programmes of the Government of India, was established as a result of this choice.


workers with inadequate abilities, a lack of equipment, inadequate supervision, and inadequate monitoring and evaluation. Community workers are overworked because they are required to give feeding services to all children under the age of six and pre-school education to children aged four to six.


Q5. Suppose that you have joined a preschool centre as a teacher and have been given the responsibility to or the indoor space of your classroom. Describe how will you arrange the space and what considerations will you keep in mind while doing so'? You can make a floor chart to show the space arrangement. (500 words) (5 marks)


Places for Group Activities

Even while play is how kids learn best, it's still vital to set aside spaces for activities or meetings with lots of people. Classroom community and literacy skills are developed through morning meetings and storey times. You may make the most of these times by designating specific areas for certain activities and making those locations as distraction-free as possible. This is not to say that you need a specific area for group activities. This is simply not viable in certain smaller classroom settings. No matter where you meet, it's crucial to consider things from a child's perspective. When we are successful, we all feel better. This can entail teaching a pre-schooler where and how to sit, where to focus their attention, and what to do. Children's personal spaces within the group might be clearly defined by nametags, seat cushions, mats, and other straightforward identifiers.

Areas with Privacy: Preschool classrooms are lively environments.


Places for Storage and Display

Preschool classes need a lot of supplies! Books, games, toys, and other items are frequently brought and put away from use. Preschool classrooms should be designed with at least three different types of storage: open storage that kids may access, closed storage for teacher materials, and storage for personal items (Dodge et al., 2010). Planning for the storage and display of children's assessment materials and artwork is also crucial.


Closed Storage

When not in use, tools including office supplies, kitchenware, and cleaning agents should be kept safely in storage. Again, it is crucial to specify and clearly indicate where these objects should be kept in secure areas. You can keep inventory and protect kids by doing this.



We discussed in the introduction lesson the multiple positive messages that top-notch preschool programmes give to kids. The minor details you add to the classroom that reflect the personalities of the students are one of the finest methods to convince kids that it is "a pleasant place to be."



When a child's educational environment resembles their home, they are more likely to feel comfortable being themselves and to feel like they belong. There are numerous ways to include personal touches into your classroom to give it a cosy atmosphere. You could, for instance, mention:

Soft furniture, such as a couch or large armchair

  1. Nontoxic plants

  2. Natural or soft lighting, through the use of window or lamps

  3. Throw pillows, cushions.

  4. Other decorative touches, such as area rugs or repurposed furniture

  5. Family photos from the children and staff

  6. Inexpensive frames to hang children's artwork on the walls.

  7. Neutral paint colors


Inviting Engagement: Provocations

Additionally, by providing objects of beauty or wonder in the classroom, you can encourage children's inquiry and participation. A provocation is a scene, event, or thing that sparks curiosity, thought, inquiries, or inventiveness (Edwards, 2002). We shall discuss many factors to take into account when choosing resources for your classroom in the session on materials that comes next. Provocations can assist in "provoking" kids to use, consider, or view resources in novel ways. It can be helpful to consider how you will incorporate provocations when planning your classroom. The children's current interests and learning objectives will frequently serve as your sources of inspiration for what provocations to present. Provocations could include:



Including images of children's hobbies can help students explore ideas further and demonstrates to them how much you value their input in your classroom. As much as feasible, use images of actual objects.



Children's play and involvement can alter if books that are pertinent to their current interests are placed strategically throughout the space. For instance, place a book on robotics next to a recycling container.


Items from Nature

This includes anything you've gathered outside, such leaves or nuts, or a vase filled with fresh flowers. Simple Display Modifications: For instance, placing several toy boats on top of a child-safe mirror that is set flat in the block area could encourage kids to think more about water transportation and inspire them to build various ships and barges out of blocks.


Designing for All

The requirements and learning objectives of every kid should be taken into account while designing or redesigning your classroom. You should think about what modifications need to be made each time a new pre-schooler enters your classroom in order to best encourage their engagement in the lesson. Speaking with the family and your trainer, coach, or supervisor about the child's special needs will help you understand their requirements and what supports will be most helpful for them. Making sure that your classroom is welcoming to kids from all cultural backgrounds is essential to fostering the success of all the kids in your space, as we will cover in the lesson on materials.


Q6. Describe any two tools for evaluating children's progress in a preschool centre. (300 worth) (4 marks)

Ans) The process of doing a childhood assessment is acquiring data on a kid, analysing the data, and using the data to develop educational activities that are accessible to and useful to the child. An early childhood programme that is of the highest calibre must include assessment. When educators do an assessment, they watch the student to learn about his abilities and knowledge. An educator can compile a record of a child's growth and development by observing and recording a child's work and performance over the course of a year. Teachers can use this knowledge to start planning effective curricula and tailored instruction for every child.


This evaluation record is a fantastic resource to share with parents so they can monitor their child's academic progress, identify their child's strengths and weaknesses, and make plans for extending the learning at home. Assessment offers vital knowledge about a child's growth and development to teachers, parents, and households. Evaluation can:

  1. Describe the progress made in all domains of development, including cognitive, physical/motor, linguistic, social/emotional, and learning styles.

  2. Determine whether intervention or support services are required by identifying kids who might need extra help.

  3. Support teachers in creating tailored lessons for a single child or a group of kids who are going through the same developmental stage.

  4. Find out a program's advantages and disadvantages as well as how well it satisfies the children's needs and goals.

  5. Establish a point of agreement amongst parents, families, and educators so that they may work together to develop a plan to help their child.


There are both informal (such as making natural observations, gathering information and children's work for portfolios, and employing educator and teacher ratings) and formal methods of evaluating children (using assessment tools such as questionnaires and standardised testing). Both approaches work well and can provide educators and parents with information about a child's development.

  1. Children's activities can be observed with little to no interference. Every aspect of growth, including the intellectual, linguistic, social-emotional, and physical, can be regularly observed by educators.

  2. Portfolios serve as a repository for information gathered from the work that students have produced throughout time. The collection amply demonstrates a child's developmental progress. The use of portfolios can be a crucial strategy for fostering parent-teacher collaboration.

  3. The evaluation of children's cognitive and linguistic skills as well as their social and emotional growth can be done through educator ratings. These scores may be connected to further assessment techniques, such as standardised testing or other evaluation instruments. (See the following query below.)

  4. Parent Ratings involve parents in the evaluation procedure. Parents who are encouraged to watch and listen to their children can assist identify and focus on key developmental milestones and behaviours.

  5. A collection of testing standards is used to generate standardised tests. These examinations are regularly used to evaluate the performance of kids in programmes since they are given, scored, and administered consistently.


Q7. Discuss any two methods of reaching out to parents to involve them in the activities of the childcare centre. (500 words) (5 marks)

Ans) Any early education program's success depends on family participation. Family participation helps to build relationships of trust and good communication with families, which may help you boost referrals to your centre, improve retention rates, and increase family happiness. There are various ways for you as a director to involve parents in the teaching of your students and the operation of your day-care centre. The ten tactics listed below can help your facility attract more families.


Educate Parents on the Importance of early Childhood Development: While some parents want to be involved in their children's education, they are unaware of child development or the use of methods that are developmentally appropriate. Others might be afraid to ask questions of you or your team. By outlining your learning objectives at the beginning of the school year through a back-to-school night, new family orientation, a family handbook, or an introduction email, you may help parents educate themselves.


Use Parent-teacher Conferences to collaborate on Educational Goals: Parent-teacher conferences offer a great chance to work effectively with parents to set learning development goals for their kids. In order to make sure that you and the parents are on the same page regarding the development of their kid, it is also crucial to continue the conversations that were initiated during your conferences throughout the year. In order for teachers to be ready to address parents' queries and concerns with information and solutions, some directors and teachers may find it advantageous to gather parents' questions and issues in advance of the meeting.


Organize Enjoyable and Instructive Programmes for Students and their Families: Organizing educational workshops for kids and their families is another method for boosting family involvement. During these sessions, concentrate on particular academic or developmental abilities. Focusing on certain knowledge or skills may aid in building trust since it enables you to show the educational worth of your programme in an interesting and practical way. Kids' fine motor skills are improved by painting pinecones using washable tempera paint and droppers or pipettes. Organise a natural scavenger hunt to hone your social and problem-solving skills. Singing their favourite songs and asking parents to draw what happens in the lyrics are great ways to help kids improve their language, creativity, and storytelling skills.


Consistently Solicit Input from Parents: A great way to increase family engagement is to use parental and family feedback. They will feel as though their desires and worries are being addressed by taking into consideration their opinions. In an ideal world, you should ask for feedback a few times throughout the academic year. You may monitor and evaluate how things are doing on the parent side of your centre with regular input, and you can also make any necessary improvements or modifications.


Make the most of Parents' Abilities through Volunteer Opportunities: Volunteering is a great way to improve parents' commitment to your programme because they are directly involved in making it successful! Surveying parents about their skills and ways they may contribute is a great technique to increase family participation since parents are more inclined to volunteer if the opportunity fits something they are good at.


Send Newsletters Published on a Regular Basis: Newsletters are a great way to alert parents of important policy updates and reminders. To make them more interesting to read, you should also add a human element. Photos of events, special trips, or the kids are typically a nice addition. These are some of the subjects to go over:

  1. Recent classroom activities and their contribution to the achievement of learning objectives

  2. Commendations to students

  3. Tips for at-home education

  4. The teacher in the spotlight

  5. Parents Hall of Fame—honor parents who have volunteered!

  6. Notifications of new students and how to greet them at your facility.

  7. From the classroom, recipes


Q8. Discuss any three causes of aggression among young children'? Explain three strategies using which parents can socialize/handle the child's aggressive behaviour, (500 words) (3+3=6 marks)

Ans) Physical symptoms of aggression should decrease when a child is mature enough to verbally express his or her feelings, which is usually about age 7, she continues. If this does not happen, it is time to start getting concerned, especially if your child often puts himself or others in danger or causes damage to property. Watch out for these warning signs that your child's behaviour is having a negative impact:

  1. Academically challenged.

  2. Having trouble establishing relationships with classmates.

  3. Frequently causing domestic disturbances.

Your child's conduct might be indicative of an underlying issue that need care. All of these conditions, including ADHD, anxiety, undetected learning difficulties, and autism, can contribute to issues with aggressive behaviour.


Recognise the reasons for aggression: Child psychologists believe that if a child frequently acts aggressively toward their parents, it is most likely because they are unable to communicate their powerlessness, worry, or anger to their parents in a healthy way. As a result, they act aggressively and are more prone to strike, shove, kick, and shout. Making them understand that using words rather than violence to communicate their emotions is the greatest approach to assist them.

Allow children to calm: Children that become aggressive frequently pay little attention to those around them. Instead of slapping them in this circumstance, just maintain your composure and let them cool off. Parents will be able to take control of the issue and communicate with their children more effectively in this way. Speak to your youngster softly when he or she has recovered from a tantrum. Find out what bothered him or her and why. It's important to teach children how to recognise and control emotions like rage.


Manage own anger: Controlling one's own temper is a difficult task for parents of abrasive children. The best way for parents to deal with their children's violent behaviour is to be patient and maintain composure. Children who are aggressive are more likely to become calm when their parents are composed and patient, according to child psychologists. By watching how parents handle their own anger, children might learn how to control their own.


Instill self-control in your children: Children lack the capacity to restrain their powerful emotions. Parents should help their kids learn how to control their negative emotions and to stop and think before expressing their anger aggressively. Children must be taught how to regulate their emotions, their impulses, and how to express their anger verbally by their parents.


Avoid encouraging toughness: Even today in many families across India aggressiveness is encouraged — especially among the male children. Parents often use the word “tough” to pay a compliment to a child. This can send wrong message to children causing them to think they can become aggressive in order to win their parents approval. Also, these children will exhibit the same behaviour in their school or elsewhere. Hence parents should be careful in encouraging such attitude in the kids.




In this Section you have to do any one of the Practical Exercises related to observing children. Choose any exercise out of Exercises 4, 6 and 7 described in the Practical Manual of this Course i.e., DECE-1 and submit it to the counselor for evaluation. It would be useful for you if you were to do all the three exercises. This would give .you practice in observing children, recording your observations and interpreting them. You can then choose the exercise which you feel you have done the best and submit it for evaluation. The marking instructions for the exercises are as follows.


Exercise 6

Break-up of marks:


Observing the child and recording the observations

Ans) Two years old is Kate. She was born in Singapore and has been in school since she was a young child. The family's lone child is her. The kids were given enough time in this situation to participate in continuous shared activities. Kate was given time to scoop ice with a spoon and then pour it into a bucket. This pertains to the learning environment at the school, where kids create their knowledge and are competent and capable students. The school also promotes giving kids the tools they need to explore. From an ecological standpoint, Bronfenbrenner emphasised that the environment is made up of the immediate surroundings as well as the social and cultural framework, such as the home, school, and job. Kate's schooling has been significantly impacted by the school her parents sent her to. She now has the chance to undertake ice exploration in a classroom context thanks to this. Kate might not have had much experience with ice in the past, so this is something new to her. Her encounters with other students have increased her interest in ice exploration. As she started school, Kate was fortunate to have the chance to be in this environment.


Analysis of observations and conclusions

Ans) At first, writing a child observation report may seem like a difficult endeavour, but educators who are equipped with the fundamental methods of child observation may produce thorough reports on child observations. Here are a few examples of child observations, or documenting children's learning, based on research from the Family Day Care Association of Queensland to get you started:

  1. "Hannah made her way over to the climbing wall. She stepped forward and halted after doing so. Behind her, torn was followed by Jake and Beth. She waved them on while stepping back. You go, she commanded. When they were gone, she stepped up once more, but when additional kids showed up to use the climbing frame, she retreated. Hannah took a minute to look toward the painting easels while standing at the foot of the frame. She moved in their direction. "Sierra puts her left hand on the gate as she approaches the play area and scans the space. She releases the gate as she turns to her right and moves into the residential area. She says, "Baby," as she stoops down and takes up a little doll with her right hand. After that, Sierra turns around while still holding the doll in her right hand. She moves over to the toy cart.

  2. "Tim went directly to the book corner once more when he arrived today. Greg (age 7) and Michael (age 6.5) were already reading and having fun while perched on the cushions. Tim paused, appearing hesitant to enter the place. He picked a book from the shelf and set it down on the mat's edge. The other boys that were there went unnoticed by him.

  3. "Ben exhibits a significant level of non-play during this time sample period. Ben's emotional state seems to be one of exhaustion and a need for a sense of safe attachment to familiar things. "Blair exhibits a learning propensity of creativity and imagination. Ben uses non-verbal communication to express his need for comfort and certainty. When manipulating the rope and wool to create paintings, Blair demonstrates fine motor control. Additionally, he has a remarkable ability to convey his personal camping experiences through language and the arts.




In this Section you have to do any one of the Practical Exercises related to planning play activities for children and conducting them. These are Practical Exercise numbers 5, 8 and 9, described in the Practical Manual of this course i.e., DECE-1. Choose any one of the exercises and submit it to the counselor for evaluation. It would be useful for you if you were to do all the three exercises. This would give you practice in planning and organizing play activities. You can then choose the exercise which you feel you have done the best and submit it for evaluation. The marking instructions for the exercises are as follows:


Exercise 8 Total marks: 20

Break-up of marks:


Planning the two activities 5+5

Ans) Activity 1: The first teaching moment occurs at the water table outside. With the practitioner observing and offering assistance as needed, the kids work in pairs. Four years and nine months old child under observation for the purposes of this report. The two components of foundation stage development that this activity emphasises are personal, social, and emotional development and mathematical development. Shape, space, and measures are all covered in these parts, as well as traits like attitudes and dispositions. There is a lot of room for differentiation in this activity. While the more competent children might be able to document their findings, the less able children will be able to enjoy the experience of witnessing the water travel from container to container. In this situation, the practitioner is organising the child's learning experience in order to guide the youngster through the procedures. This was referred to by Bruner as his scaffolding theory. The practitioner may stay with the child the entire time if they are more needy in terms of the amount of care they get. According to Kohlberg's theory, kids learn to behave in ways that will win adults' favour. Writing down the results can give the kids a way to share their research with teachers and their peers, which can help them get recognised for their efforts.


Activity 2: The second educational activity takes place in the role-playing section. It is one of the constant classroom amenities that has been used for this lesson's objectives. The role-play space is decorated to look like an Italian takeout place for this activity. A tiny global cooker, microwave, office supplies, phones, and some pizzas are included. In a previous exercise, the kids had made the pizzas and the toppings that would go on them. The kids are given the chance to place orders, take orders, and prepare orders for delivery or pickup. This exercise is being done by two females. The older of the two is four years and two months old, while the younger is four years and six months old. The learning areas being tested by this task include communication, language, literacy, knowledge, and comprehension of the world. The goals are to give kids the chance to engage in good communication on a particular issue and to maintain their attention on it. According to Steiner, allowing children of various capacities the chance to express themselves through imaginative play enables them to reach their full developmental potential. The kids are learning how to utilise the tools in a way that encourages this interaction and fuels their imagination by taking part in this activity. The practitioner engaging in this activity has a significant impact on the development of the kids. They will interact with the kids and provide the kids with the necessary instruction as needed. According to Bruner's theory, children learn best via play, and a spiral curriculum only becomes effective with adult involvement. When the children put their orders, the teacher can expand on this to lengthen the activity and enable topic-specific vocabulary growth.


Carrying out the two activities and analyzing and evaluating them


Evaluation 1

This activity worked well with the youngster it was done with, but if it were done with additional kids, problems might arise. The practitioner must be aware of the effects the water may have on the particular children engaged since the unstructured flow of the water can be both energising and soothing. The practitioner used Bruner's idea of scaffolding to observe the kids playing from a distance before interjecting to explain what they were doing and to encourage the use of different containers. Children may benefit from improved communication and the ability to form relationships within defined groups if they are paired according to their skill levels. The fact that the learning activity involved measuring water mixed ludic play with epistemic labour made it successful. The teaching assistant achieved the ideal balance of unstructured and guided play, and the children made tremendous progress and interacted well with one another. The exercise kept the students' attention, and as McMillan suggested, because they were out of the classroom, the atmosphere was calm.


Evaluation 2

Some young people might already be acquainted with the apparatus used in this practise. By estimating the amount of support the children could need from the practitioner, this learning experience allowed for differentiation of the children's talents. As a result of the practitioner's familiarity with each child's abilities and the use of the stepping stones as a guide, she can adjust the environment to meet the particular needs of each child. In addition to helping the kids develop their speech and interpersonal skills, this exercise also has a big impact on their personal, social, and emotional development. Considering this, it is feasible that the less capable children may be expected to have a positive attitude and show confidence, while the more capable children may be encouraged to demonstrate a higher level of participation and to show that they are still interested in and driven by their work. With the help of this exercise, students have multiple opportunities to pick up knowledge and skills from both the taught and untaught curricula. The students will get experience with the communication goals outlined in the plans, but they will also develop their skills in other subject areas. The trainer may incorporate the use of money into the game or encourage kids to collaborate to build a simple computer menu.


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