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MDV-103: Issues and Challenges of Development

MDV-103: Issues and Challenges of Development

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MDV-103/ASST/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MDV-103

Assignment Name: Issues and Challenges of Development

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Answer all the questions. All questions carry 20 marks each


1. Critically explain various theories of population.

Ans) An illustration of how development impacts population is the transition model.


Malthusian Theory

Thomas Malthus outlined his hypothesis of the quantitative growth of human populations in his 1798 book An Essay on the Principle of Population. Malthus wrote six editions of his well-known treatise between 1798 and 1826, revising each one to reflect new information, respond to criticism, and reflect his own evolving views on the subject. In response to his father's and his father's friends' optimism about the future advancement of civilization, he produced the original text.


Malthus was sceptical of hopes for the future development of humanity because, historically speaking, certain people have always appeared to be destined for poverty. He provided an explanation for this occurrence by observing that population growth typically came before an increase in the population's access to resources, particularly the key resource of food. Malthus established two postulates as he developed his theory: first, that human beings need food to survive, and second, that sex-related passion is vital and will largely remain unchanged. He asserted the following claims in light of these two suppositions.


Primary theory: the axioms: The ability of the population to outnumber the capacity of the earth to provide for human subsistence is infinitely larger. Unchecked population growth follows a geometrical ratio. The cost of living can only rise in an arithmetic ratio. A basic understanding of mathematics will demonstrate the first power's immenseness in compared to the second.


Secondary theory: the consequences: However, the impulse to a virtuous attachment is so strong in all societies—even the most vicious—that there is a persistent push for population growth. The lower segments of society are more likely to experience distress as a result of this ongoing effort, and any significant long-term improvement in their situation is prevented. Malthus also recognised that societies have at various points throughout history, dealt with plagues, famines, or wars that served to obscure the core issue of populations exceeding the capacity of their available resources.


Proposed solutions: Malthus claimed that two different sorts of checks—positive ones, which increase mortality rates, and preventative ones, which decrease birth rates—kept population levels within the bounds of available resources. The preventative checks were abortion, birth control, prostitution, postponing marriage, and celibacy; the positive checks included famine, disease, and war. Malthus emphasised moral restraint more in the second edition and later ones.


Reactions to Malthusian Ideas

Neo Malthusian Arguments: A supporter of Malthus' ideas is known as a neo Malthusian. The proponents of neo-Malthusian theory can be viewed as a separate movement. In essence, they concur with Malthus that population control is inevitable and hold pessimistic views that view the global population's growth with fear and worry. However, they reject such oversimplified ideas and contend with Malthus that variables like war and starvation are the key to population control. Alternatively, they advocate for a variety of principles, such as planned parenthood as a means of population control.


Marxian Argument: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' publications, which first appeared in the middle of the nineteenth century, provided more criticism of Malthus' theories. Engels and Marx asserted that the issue Malthus perceived as the population's strain on the means of production actually represented the population's pressure on the means of production. They therefore interpreted it in terms of their idea of the labour reserve army. An idea from Karl Marx's critique of political economy is the reserve army of labour. Essentially, it refers to those who are jobless in a capitalist society. The phrase "army" is used to describe how employees are enlisted and organised into a hierarchy at work under the direction or control of capital owners.


2. Discuss the path of industrial development of Europe, America and Japan. What lessons India has to learn from them.

Ans) The term "industrialization" is frequently used to describe an economy's expansion of the manufacturing sector. According to the Business Dictionary, an industry is any business that produces goods or uses technology and can be found in any industry field, nation, region, or economy.


Industrialization in Europe

In 1700, Great Britain kicked off the development of industrialization in the Western nations. A conducive environment for the industrial revolution in Great Britain was established by the transformation in the agricultural sector in the 1700s. Industrialization began in the textile sector, where a series of innovations led to the development of new machines and a need for labourers. The process also resulted in the creation of a water-powered loom and a spinning jenny. Because of its advantage of having an adequate supply of iron ore and coal resources as well as a very effective rail and road transportation system, Great Britain assumed the lead in early industrialization. Industrialization began to spread after the 1850s to other nations in Europe, including Belgium, France, and Germany.


The expansion of employment opportunities is one of the key advantages of industrialization in Europe. Many new job opportunities were made possible by the development of factories and power machines. Their ability to work in factories and industries raised their standard of living by allowing them to earn higher wages and salaries. Because of industrialization, the GDP per capita of some European countries increased.


Industrialization in USA

Midway through the 1980s, the Second Industrial Revolution in the world began in America. It is important to note that in 1790, America was heavily involved in the agricultural sector, while Great Britain started the industrial revolution in the early 1970s. To demonstrate the successes at the First World's Fair, producers from various developed nations assembled in 1851 at London's Crystal Palace. Other nations were interested in this expo because of American manufacturing efforts. By the turn of the century, the United States had surpassed all other countries in manufacturing. The availability of technical, experienced, and knowledgeable labour was just as important as the abundance of natural resources in the United States for effective industrialization.


Industrialization in Japan

With the reinstatement of the Meji government in the middle of the 1980s, Japan's industrialisation process got underway. In order to set broad economic policy and manage specific businesses, a ministry of industry was established in 1870. Modern factories were built as a result to offer industrial experience and a more developed technical education system to provide technical training. Japan decided to depend on industries that were export-oriented during the early stages of industrialization, setting an example for other industries. Technology transfer from industrialised western nations like the United Kingdom and France is credited with greatly influencing Japan's early industrialization process, according to Masayuki Tanimoto. While Mark Mauson noted that many international or multinational farms had been established in Japan in the past and had given the host nation modern technologies as well as the management style and methods, which is known as knowledge transfer.


Learning for India

Talent flight is a major cause of concern for the Indian economy. India has a maximum number of English speaking science and technology professionals in the world. Indian industries just get a residue! The country has to work on a war scale to retain its talent pool by creating infrastructure and ecosystem. It has to overhaul its education system and remuneration structure that encourage excellence over the all-pervading mediocrity. Making note from the present situation in Japan, if India works towards a tighter job market, the economy will not only benefit from increase in GDP through increase in production but will also benefit from the higher domestic consumption that follows decrease in unemployment rate. Europe has created lots of job opportunities for the people , this should be the major learning of India from Europe.


3. Explain the relationship between health and development. Discuss various issues and challenges of health development.

Ans) Health is "a condition of total physical, mental, and social well-being and not only the absence of disease or disability," according to the World Health Organization.


Relationship between Health and Development

Numerous social scientists have pointed out that there are both direct and indirect links between development and health. Szirmai contends that enhancing one's health helps society achieve other developmental goals including economic growth, increased labour productivity, innovation-responsiveness, and future orientation.


According to Gills and others, there is a reciprocal relationship between development and health. While better health benefits economic development, improved health tends to increase health status. Health and labour production are closely related. Malnutrition and illness cause a loss of energy, strength, and productive potential, all of which have a detrimental impact on labour income. According to research by Basta et al., males with anaemia in Indonesia were 20% less productive than men without anaemia. A significant inverse association between the prevalence of malaria and economic growth was discovered by Gallup and Sachs. Chambers claims that sickness causes subsistence farmers to produce less.


The conclusion that health is intimately related to labour productivity, income, and economic growth can be drawn from all of the foregoing arguments. Insufficient health causes loss of endurance, which further leads to fewer hours worked, lower productivity, and lower income. Poor consumption as a result of lower income further compromises health, perpetuating the vicious cycle.


According to historical study, dietary and health advancements have contributed to nearly one-third of England's economic growth over the previous 200 years. It has been noted that investments in healthcare have a significant positive impact on economic development and growth. One of the key elements of development is considered to be good health. The United Nations' Millennium Declaration from September 2000 recognised health in general and the care of women and children in particular as a crucial element of development.


Issues and Challenges of Health Development

Insufficient Allocation of Resources: In comparison to industrialised countries, the proportion of GDP spent on health is low in emerging nations. In addition, there is a severe disparity in the amount spent on various activities, like paying for staff salaries, building hospitals, etc.


Inequity: Another significant aspect of the health care system in many nations that struggle with inefficiency and ineffectiveness is inequality. The guiding principle of public health care services must be reaching out to the unreached.


Inefficiency: In a nation with poor health, inefficiency in spending money and inefficient healthcare delivery by staff are frequently seen. Inefficient resource allocation affects how well the health centre delivers services. Sometimes poor personnel decisions have an impact on the system's effectiveness.


Poor Health Security and Health Insurance Facility: Health security is not adequately provided for in developing nations, especially for individuals who work in the unorganised sector. Even the meagre insurance premiums are too expensive for the poor families to afford. The cost of medical care and medications is rising daily, leaving the less fortunate households in rural and urban slum areas dependent on cheap, inadequately trained private practitioners.


Illiteracy: A significant factor in determining health is education. Compared to countries with low literacy rates, those with higher literacy rates score better on health metrics. For instance, Sri Lanka's health indicator is superior to those of Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. Sri Lanka has a higher than average literacy rate when compared to other South Asian nations. In comparison to Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh, Kerala in India has a substantially higher health indicator with a literacy rate of above 80%. Health and family wellbeing are impacted by low literacy rates in general and in women in particular. Numerous research investigations have proven the link between health and literacy.

4. What do you mean by climate change? Discuss consequences and impact of climate change on environment and development.

Ans) Climate change can be defined more simply as any significant shift in the planet's climate that lasts for a long time. A minimum time span of thirty years is often taken into account when analysing or forecasting any location's climatic state. Temperature and precipitation are two of the main components of climate. Climate change, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), includes "any change over time in the climate, whether brought on by natural variability or human activities."


United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC):"Climate change" is defined as a change in the climate that may be directly or indirectly linked to human activity that modifies the global atmosphere's chemical composition in addition to natural climate variability seen over a similar time span.


Consequences and Impact of Climate Change


Observations of Changes in Climate at Global Level:

The following are some of the 5th Assessment Report's highlights:

  1. The earth's surface has been increasingly warmer over the past three decades than it has been since 1850.

  2. Over 90% of the energy that the climate system has acquired between 1971 and 2010 is due to ocean warming, which has dominated the rise in energy in the system.

  3. Since the middle of the nineteenth century, the pace of sea level rise has increased more rapidly than it did on average over the previous two millennia.

  4. Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide concentrations in the atmosphere have reached heights unseen in at least the last 800,000 years thanks mostly to fossil fuel emissions and secondly to net emissions related to land use change.

  5. The total radiative forcing is favourable and has caused the climate system to absorb energy. The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration since 1750 is what accounts for the majority of the total radiative forcing.

  6. There is no doubt that the climate system is warming. Over decades to millennia, many of the temperature variations that have been recorded since the 1950s are unprecedented.

  7. Continued greenhouse gas emissions will increase global warming and alter all facets of the climate system. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions significantly and consistently will be necessary to prevent further climate change.

  8. The global water cycle will change, but not consistently. There will be a greater difference in precipitation between wet and dry areas and between wet and dry seasons.


Observations of Changes in Climate at National Level

The nodal agency responsible for India's UNFCC reporting is the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. It has so far sent the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change two reports, dubbed India's First and Second National Communications, in 2004 and 2012, respectively.


The National Communications of the Government of India in 2004 listed the following as the future effects of climate change:

  1. Reduced snow cover, which has an impact on glacial and snow-fed systems like the Ganges and Brahmaputra. The Ganges receives about 70% of its summer flow from melt water.

  2. Erratic monsoon has negative consequences on the supply of water and electricity, peninsular rivers, and agriculture reliant on rainfall.

  3. Even an increase in temperature results in a 4-5 million tonne drop in wheat production.

  4. Freshwater sources and mangrove ecosystems are at danger as a result of rising sea levels, which are displacing people along one of the world's most populated coastlines.

  5. Increased flood frequency and intensity. Inhabitants in the country's coastal, desert, and semi-arid regions are more vulnerable.

  6. According to studies, over 50% of India's forests are anticipated to change in terms of their forest kinds, which will have a negative effect on the related biodiversity, regional climate dynamics, as well as the livelihoods that depend on the sale of forest products.


5. Describe the need and importance of e-Governance in development. Discuss a few e-governance initiatives in India by giving suitable examples.

Ans) The term "e-government" refers to a wide initiative to modernise government operations with a focus on information-based services for the public.


Need for E-Governance

The use of ICT to deliver and enhance governmental services, transactions, and interactions with citizens, enterprises, and other branches of government is referred to as e-Governance, also known as electronic governance, digital governance, or online governance. Although e-government is frequently associated with online or Internet-based government, many non-Internet electronic government technologies, such as telephone, mobile, fax, wireless networks and services, etc., can also be used in this context for a variety of management and development activities of the government.


By utilising IT in the following areas, e-government has developed into a crucial tool for development:

  1. More openness.

  2. Delivering information to the public quickly.

  3. Enhancing organisational effectiveness.

  4. Enhancing public services such those in the areas of transportation, electricity, water, health, and security.


Importance of e-Governance

At the moment, cities are the biggest causes of climate change and global energy use. 75 percent of the world's energy is used by just the 20 biggest cities, each of which has a population of more than 10 million. The fast growth of urban areas around the world and the requirement to update cities' out-of-date 20th-century infrastructures are further factors. ICT has a huge potential to help with these urban problems.


A shared objective of many authorities around the world today is the further development of the information, knowledge, and network society. Modern telecommunications can be considered as a new type of urban administration as well as a new method of functioning. E-governance can provide and administer urban services more effectively. This may apply to the collection of property taxes, vehicle tracking, or effective transportation services. Numerous sectors and activities place a high value on the effectiveness and variety of conventional transportation networks and services. ICT and its uses will eventually have an impact on spatial development.


One could contend that in light of this, ICT ought to be considered in all future processes of spatial design. The built environment, energy, and mobility are three areas that have received a lot of attention in the policies and strategies for sustainability and eco responsibility in cities. It is evident that a fourth, equally crucial element—ICT—must be handled as we enter the twenty-first century.


e-Governance Initiatives in India

  1. Aadhaar is a unique identification number issued by UIDAI that serves as proof of identity and address on the basis of biometric data.

  2. is a national citizen engagement platform where people can share ideas and be involved with matters of policy and governance.

  3. UMANG is a Unified Mobile Application which provides access to central and state government services including Aadhar, Digital Locker, PAN, Employee Provident Fund services, etc.

  4. E-Seva (Andhra Pradesh) facilitates payment of utility bills, issuance of certificates, licenses and permits.

  5. Khajane Project (Karnataka) digitalized the treasury system of the state.

  6. FRIENDS (Kerala) is a single-window facility to pay taxes and other financial dues to the State government.

  7. Lokvani Project (Uttar Pradesh) is a single-window solution relating to the handling of grievances, land record maintenance and providing a mixture of essential services.

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