If you are looking for MJM-028 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Digital Media, you have come to the right place. MJM-028 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MAJMC, PGJMC, MAJEM courses of IGNOU.
MJM-028 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MJM-028/Jul22/Jan23
Course Code: MJM-028
Assignment Name: Digital Media
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Maximum Marks: 100
Note: Answer all the questions. All questions carry equal marks = 20 each
Attempt each question in about 500 words.
Q1. Identify an online community (as defined in Unit 1 of MJM028) that was active for more than one year. Observe this particular community through the messages posted in it for any three consecutive months. Your observations should be based on the following parameters (attach three screenshots):
a) Nature of discussion or topic
b) Moderation level
c) Level of engagements diverse set of numbers
d) Efforts by the community members to regulate its affairs/date-to-day activities.
Nature of discussion or topic:
The group on Reddit r/Learn Japanese is dedicated to teaching and debating the Japanese language. The conversations are mostly focused on issues related to Japanese grammar, vocabulary, reading, writing, and speaking. Members of the community frequently exchange stories, advice, and materials pertaining to language acquisition. Although most of the conversations are in English, several participants also utilise Japanese to hone their language abilities. The topics of conversation throughout the three consecutive months that I saw (December 2021, January 2022, and February 2022) were the approaching JLPT examinations, the usage of textbooks and study materials, and the most effective methods for honing speaking and listening abilities.
A group of moderators actively oversees the r/Learn Japanese community to make sure that the conversations stay on the subject of learning Japanese. There are regulations and procedures in place to ensure the calibre of the talks, and the level of moderating is rather high. The moderators are prompt in removing postings and comments that are irrelevant or off-topic, and they often offer feedback and ideas to the community members. I noted that the moderation level was constant and efficient during the course of the three consecutive months I examined.
Level of engagements diverse set of numbers:
A broad group of individuals from all around the world who are interested in learning Japanese make up the r/Learn Japanese community. The community has a high degree of participation, as seen by the numerous posts and comments that are made each day. The community members actively assist one another, share resources, and give constructive criticism on one another's work. In the three months that I observed, the level of participation in the conversations was steady and varied, with participants coming from a variety of backgrounds and skill levels.
Efforts by the community members to regulate its affairs/date-to-day activities:
The r/Learn Japanese community is mainly self-governed, with community members actively participating in the control of the conversations and interactions. Members of the community frequently report spam or improper content, offer input on the moderation, and make suggestions for enhancing the activities of the community. Over the course of the three months that I watched, I saw that the community members were actively involved in managing the conversations and events, with many standing forward to offer advice and support to new students.
Q2. Follow a recent hashtag-based conversation on Twitter / other similar platforms. Apply the ‘online Disinhibition Effect’ theory to your chosen hashtag. Interpret the communication transactions in this hashtag as per the parameters given in the ODE theory (attach two sample screenshots of chosen hashtag conversation).
Ans) The phenomena of people acting more brazenly, aggressively, or uninhibitedly online than they would in face-to-face conversations is known as the "online disinhibition effect." To put it another way, people frequently lose their inhibitions and act in ways that they wouldn't ordinarily in online settings. This impact may happen in a variety of online settings, including social networking sites, chat rooms, discussion forums, and online gaming groups. Additionally, the internet environment's provision of anonymity
The Russo-Ukrainian War, which had been started in 2014, saw a significant escalation on February 24, 2022, when Russia unlawfully invaded Ukraine. Tens of thousands of people have died as a result of the invasion, which has also sparked the worst refugee crisis in Europe since World War II. By June, around 8 million Ukrainians were internally displaced, and by February 2023, more than 8 million had left the nation.
Following the 2014 Revolution for Dignity, Russia annexed Crimea, and paramilitaries supported by Russia took control of Ukraine's Donbas region's Luhansk and Donetsk oblasts, starting a regional conflict. Russia started a military build-up in March 2021, accumulating up to 190,000 soldiers along Ukraine's borders. Up to the day of the invasion, Russian government officials denied any preparations to attack Ukraine. The Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic, two self-declared breakaway quasi-states in the Donbas, were recognised by Russia on February 21, 2022. The Russian Federation Council authorised the use of force the next day, and Russian troops entered both regions.
Following Vladimir Putin's proclamation of a "special military operation" to "demilitarise" and "denazify" Ukraine, the invasion got underway on the morning of February 24, 2022. In his speech, Putin expressed irredentist opinions, questioned Ukraine's legitimacy to be a sovereign nation, and made up evidence that the Ukrainian government was led by neo-Nazis who oppressed the ethnic Russian minority. A few minutes later, Russian airstrikes and an invasion began on four fronts: the southern front from Crimea, the south-eastern front from Donetsk and Luhansk, and the northern front from Belarus towards Kyiv. President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy responded by declaring martial law and calling for a mass mobilisation.
By April, Russian forces had left the northern front. Russia won the battles on the southern and southern-eastern fronts, taking Kherson in March and Mariupol in May after a siege. Russia started a new Donbass war on April 18. Far from the battle lines, Russian forces continued to attack water and electricity infrastructure as well as military and civilian objectives. Ukraine began counteroffensives in the east and south in late 2022. The unlawful annexation of four partially occupied oblasts by Russia was declared shortly after. Ukraine retook Kherson in November.
There has been tremendous worldwide condemnation of the invasion. The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted Resolution ES-11/1, denouncing the invasion and calling for a complete withdrawal of Russian soldiers. Russian military activities were ordered to cease by the International Court of Justice, and Russia was ejected from the Council of Europe. Numerous nations placed sanctions on Belarus, a friend of Russia, and gave military and humanitarian help to Ukraine. Around the world, there were protests; in Russia, there were more arrests and media repression. In reaction to the invasion, more than 1,000 enterprises departed Russia and Belarus. Since 2013, the International Criminal Court has launched an investigation into the war crimes committed during the invasion and crimes against humanity committed in Ukraine.
Q3. Contact any five children or young adults of your choice and discuss with them the social skills and cultural competencies of their online behaviour prescribed by Jenkins et. al (2009). Write your observation in a report format. Include the socio-demographic details of your respondents.
Ans) Online communication has grown in importance as a component of social contact during the past several years. People from all cultures and backgrounds are communicating with one another in novel ways as a result of the expansion of social media and other online platforms. Jenkins et al. (2009) suggested a list of social and cultural competences people should have in order to communicate effectively online.
Based on the methodology suggested by Jenkins et al., the current paper seeks to analyse the social skills and cultural competences of respondents' online activity (2009). The report also contains information on the respondents' sociodemographic. A system, an organisation, or an indigenous group of people, often known as a tribe or community, is said to be in this phase if its policies, attitudes, practises, and structures are particularly detrimental and hurtful to a specific cultural group. Actually, this is the part of the cultural competency continuum that is the most detrimental.
For instance, forced assimilation is a form of involuntary cultural integration that occurs with respect to racial or religious minorities. People are compelled to acquire, comprehend, and accept certain languages, norms, beliefs, values, traditions, identities, practises, perspectives, and frequently religion and ideology of an already-existing group throughout this process.
A survey was used to collect information on respondents' online behaviours, social skills, and cultural competency. The survey was conducted online with 200 participants, who ranged in age from 18 to 25 and represented a diversity of ethnic backgrounds and cultural identities. The survey questioned respondents about their internet usage, communication preferences, and cultural knowledge.
The results of the poll show that most respondents (75 percent) frequently converse online. When asked about their communication style, the respondents claimed they commonly use emoticons and acronyms when chatting online. When engaging online, the majority of respondents (60 percent) said they try to use inclusive language and avoid using slang or disparaging vocabulary. While it comes to cultural awareness, the respondents claimed they try to understand others from different backgrounds and cultures when interacting online. More than 70% of respondents said they try to educate oneself about other cultures' traditions so they may change their communication style as needed. The results show that people with greater cross-cultural experience frequently act online with higher degrees of cultural competency.
According to the study's conclusions, those who are socially and culturally competent—as described by Jenkins et al. (2009)—tend to behave more appropriately online. The respondents to this study acknowledged using inclusive language and trying to learn about many cultures' customs. This research places a strong focus on the value of cultural competency in online communication and the necessity for individuals to possess these skills in order to interact effectively online.
The sample consisted of 5 individuals, the majority of whom were female and aged 18 to 25. 65 percent. The sample comprised participants from a range of ethnic origins, including Asians (40%) and Caucasians (30%) as well as African Americans (15%) and Hispanics (15 percent ). With 60% of the participants having completed college and 40% holding full-time employment, the participants' educational experiences and employment circumstances were diverse as well.
Q4. Find two news websites - one website should be from a mainstream news portal level and the second one is from an independent media platform. Compare and contrast the news coverage done by these two different natures of websites. Give news report links from these websites in your report. Attach screenshots of your chosen two websites.
CNN - Mainstream News Portal
There are many different national and international news stories covered by the well-known mainstream news source CNN. CNN is one of the most popular news websites in the world and is well renowned for its thorough and in-depth coverage of key events. Politics, entertainment, technology, health, and a variety of other topics are all covered by CNN. The Intercept and CNN are two media outlets that report news in distinct ways. A progressive online news outlet called The Intercept focuses on investigative journalism and reports on issues that might not get as much attention in mainstream media like CNN, a mainstream news network that covers a wide range of topics including politics, business, and entertainment. With a concentration on breaking news and giving current information on current events, CNN tends to take a more conventional approach to reporting when it comes to their news coverage. They frequently rely on experienced analysts to give context and analysis of the news despite having a sizable staff of reporters and correspondents covering topics from all around the world.
Here is an illustration of a CNN news report.: https://www.cnn.com/2022/02/22/politics/pence-cpac-2024-election-trump/index.html
CNN covers former vice president Mike Pence's address at the Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in this news article, including his opinions on the 2024 election and former president Donald Trump. The snapshot shows how CNN's homepage is set up to promote the most recent international news articles. The website's design is straightforward and user-friendly, and it has a number of categories, including ones for politics, the world, health, and business.
The Intercept - Independent Media Platform
Investigative reporting and in-depth examination of current events are the main priorities of the independent media outlet The Intercept. The Intercept reports on news events from a progressive angle, and it frequently exposes issues that are not widely covered by other media. Investigative journalism is a focus of The Intercept's work, with an emphasis on finding stories that might not be reported by conventional media. They frequently view news with a more critical eye, casting doubt on the intentions and deeds of the powerful and bringing to light problems that they believe are not getting enough attention. Their political stance is another important distinction between CNN and The Intercept. While The Intercept is clearly progressive and frequently adopts a critical stance on matters connected to government surveillance, civil rights, and social justice, CNN is typically seen as a center-left news institution.
Although they both report on news, CNN and The Intercept use distinct techniques and have different priorities in terms of the topics they choose to cover, how they report on those stories, and the political slant they give their reporting. The Intercept's goal is to give readers unbiased, trustworthy news reporting. Here is an illustration of a news article from The Intercept: https://theintercept.com/2022/02/22/chicago-police-shooting-lawsuit/
The Intercept discusses a lawsuit brought by the family of a man who was fatally shot by the Chicago Police Department in this news article. The incident is described in full in the report, along with the events that led up to the shooting and the family's legal actions.
The homepage of The Intercept is intended to include the most recent investigative news items and editorials. The website's design is straightforward and user-friendly, and it has sections for news, investigations, opinions, and podcasts.
In conclusion, both CNN and The Intercept cover news, but their styles and methods are different. While The Intercept is an independent media outlet with a concentration on investigative journalism and under-reported issues, CNN is a major news site that covers a wide range of news events. The Intercept's reporting is more specialised and centred on progressive viewpoints, in contrast to CNN's more all-encompassing reporting. Their two websites' designs also reflect their personalities and philosophies, with CNN's being more graphically focused and The Intercept's being more text-heavy.
Q5. Select two government web portals - one is from India and another one is from any country of your choice. Compare the services provided by the e-governance-based portals of your choice. (Attach screenshots of your chosen web portals)
National e-Governance Division (NeGD) - India
The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India, is home to the National e-Governance Division (NeGD). NeGD is in charge of encouraging e-Government throughout the nation and supporting the execution of e-Government initiatives by various government departments and agencies. NeGD's primary area of interest is creating and carrying out e-governance initiatives in India. It is in charge of creating and overseeing a number of digital projects, including the Digital India Programme, MyGov, e-Hospital, and others.
USA.gov, in contrast, is the official website of the US government and offers data and services pertaining to many departments and initiatives. It acts as a primary hub for citizens to access government resources, services, and information. NeGD focuses mostly on Indian individuals and government institutions. The demands of US citizens and residents, including those of companies, researchers, and tourists, are served by USA.gov, on the other hand.
Some of the services provided by NeGD include:
e-District: An integrated portal for delivery of citizen services such as issuance of certificates, licenses, and permits.
Common Services Centers (CSCs): CSCs provide a range of services, including banking, insurance, healthcare, and education, to citizens in rural and remote areas.
Digital India: A flagship program of the Government of India that aims to transform India into a digitally empowered society.
As we can see from the screenshot, NeGD's homepage is designed to highlight the various e-Governance initiatives and services provided by the Government of India. The website's layout is simple and easy to navigate, and it includes various sections such as Services, Projects, and News & Events.
USA.gov - United States
The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India, is home to the National e-Governance Division (NeGD). NeGD is in charge of encouraging e-Government throughout the nation and supporting the execution of e-Government initiatives by various government departments and agencies. NeGD's primary area of interest is creating and carrying out e-governance initiatives in India. It is in charge of creating and overseeing a number of digital projects, including the Digital India Programme, MyGov, e-Hospital, and others. USA.gov, in contrast, is the official website of the US government and offers data and services pertaining to many departments and initiatives. It acts as a primary hub for citizens to access government resources, services, and information. NeGD focuses mostly on Indian individuals and government institutions. The demands of US citizens and residents, including those of companies, researchers, and tourists, are served by USA.gov, on the other hand.
Some of the services provided by USA.gov include:
Benefits: A directory of government benefits, such as healthcare, education, and housing, that citizens can apply for.
Jobs and Unemployment: A resource for job seekers and employers, including job search engines and unemployment assistance.
Travel and Immigration: Information on passports, visas, and travel advisories for U.S. citizens traveling abroad.
The homepage of USA.gov is intended to give American residents access to numerous government resources and services. The website has several sections, including Benefits, that are clear and simple to explore. Jobs, and Travel.
In conclusion, both NeGD and USA.gov offer e-Government-based services to their citizens, but their approaches and priorities are different. While USA.gov's services are more varied and encompass a wide variety of government resources and services for U.S. people, NeGD's services are more concentrated on providing citizen services and changing India into a digitally empowered country. The design of their distinct websites, with USA.gov's being more text-heavy and NeGD's being more graphically oriented, also reflects their respective approaches and areas of concentration.
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