If you are looking for MPCE-033 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Organisational Development, you have come to the right place. MPCE-033 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MAPC, MACSR courses of IGNOU.
MPCE-033 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MPCE-033/TMA/2022
Course Code: MPCE-033
Assignment Name: Organizational Development
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
All Questions are compulsory.
Answer the following questions in 500 words each.
Q1) Discuss the nature of organizational development.
Ans) Organizational development is a process of planned systematic change aimed at improving an organization's overall effectiveness. It is a collaborative and participative approach to change management that involves the entire organization, including management, employees, and other stakeholders. The nature of organizational development can be described by the following key characteristics:
Organisational Development as-an ongoing Interactive and Continuous Process: Organizational development is an ongoing process, so it shouldn't be seen as a one-time fix for an organization's problems. Instead, it should be seen as a series of activities that help the organisation become more effective over time. Organizational development is a continuous process because how things are done is just as important as what is done. We need organisational development, or the self-renewing and culture-managing skills of the organization's staff, to solve problems and prepare for future problems.
Organisational Development as a form of Applied Behavioural Science: A programme for organisational development uses scientific and practical ideas from the behavioural sciences, including social psychology, social anthropology, sociology, psychiatry, economics, and politics. It can be defined as the use of knowledge, practises, and skills from behaviour science on ongoing systems in collaboration with members of those systems. Organizational development is both the result of using behavioural science and a type of behavioural science.
Organisational Development as Normative Re-Educative Change: It is a way to improve the effectiveness of an organisation. It means that things will be done in a different way, which usually means changing the organization's processes and culture. There are three ways to change an organisation through organisational development: the empirical-rational strategy, the normative strategy, and the power-coercive strategy.
Organisational Development includes the Incorporating a Systems Approach to Organisations: The focus is always on improving both a system's ability to handle stress and the way it works with other subsystems and the outside world. People always say that the systems approach is one of the foundations of organisational development; a big step was taken toward the creation of organisational development. The systems approach focuses on how organisation phenomena and dynamics work together. This is a good way to understand how an organisation works.
Organisational Development is based on an Action Research Model of Planned Changed: In organisational development, the value of data is more important than ever. Employees of an organisation learn how to collect and store data, and they should also know how to use data to solve problems in an organisation. The goal of collecting data is to improve the organisation and plan for growth in the future. This information is based on facts, and it can also be used to make plans for what to do next.
Organisational Development goes as an Experience-based Learning Mode that emphasises Goal Setting and Objectives: Organizational development is based on experience, and it stresses that people learn about how organisations work by using their skills and experiences in real life. In this system, people learn how to make decisions by making them and then judging how well they worked. This helps them learn how to make good decisions in the future.
Organisational Development Concentrates on Intact Work Teams as the Primary Instruments for Organisation’s Improvement: These various parts of organisational development serve as the process's foundations, characteristics, distinguishing features, or theoretical and practical underpinnings. This foundation has had a significant impact on the way organisation development is done.
Q2) Elucidate participation with a focus on its benefits and process. Explain how various programmes can be used to promote participation amongst employees.
Ans) Participation is a process in which individuals or groups are given an opportunity to contribute their ideas, perspectives, and experiences to decision-making processes that affect them. When employees are given the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes in the workplace, it can have several benefits, such as increased motivation, job satisfaction, and commitment to the organization.
Benefits of Participation
Increased Motivation: Participation in decision-making processes can help employees feel more invested in the organization and its goals, which can increase their motivation and sense of purpose.
Improved Job Satisfaction: When employees are given a voice in decision-making processes, they are more likely to feel that their opinions and contributions are valued, which can improve job satisfaction.
Higher Commitment to the Organization: When employees are given the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes, they are more likely to feel a sense of ownership and commitment to the organization and its goals.
Process of Participation
Identify the Decision: The first step in the participation process is to identify the decision that needs to be made and the stakeholders who will be affected by it.
Communicate the Decision: The next step is to communicate the decision to stakeholders, explaining the rationale and providing an opportunity for feedback.
Gather Input: The third step is to gather input from stakeholders through surveys, focus groups, or other means of communication.
Analyse and Evaluate: The fourth step is to analyse and evaluate the input received and incorporate it into the decision-making process as appropriate.
Implement and Monitor: The final step is to implement the decision and monitor its impact, adjusting as needed.
Programs to Promote Participation
Employee Suggestion Programs: These programs encourage employees to submit ideas for improving the organization, which can be evaluated and implemented as appropriate.
Employee Opinion Surveys: These surveys provide a way for employees to share their opinions and feedback on various aspects of the organization, which can be used to inform decision-making processes.
Quality Circles: These are small groups of employees who meet regularly to identify and solve problems related to their work.
Participative Management: This approach involves involving employees in decision-making processes at all levels of the organization, from day-to-day operations to strategic planning.
Team Building: Team-building activities can promote participation by encouraging collaboration and communication among employees.
In conclusion, participation in the workplace can have many benefits, such as increased motivation, job satisfaction, and commitment to the organization. The participation process involves identifying the decision, communicating the decision, gathering input, analysing, and evaluating the input, and implementing and monitoring the decision. There are many programs that organizations can use to promote participation among employees, including employee suggestion programs, employee opinion surveys, quality circles, participative management, and team building.
Q3) Explain the concept of diagnosis and describe its phases.
Ans) In the context of organizational development, diagnosis refers to the process of analysing an organization to identify areas that need improvement. Diagnosis is an essential part of the organizational development process, as it provides a framework for understanding the organization's strengths and weaknesses, as well as the underlying causes of problems and challenges.
Diagnosis is typically divided into several phases, which include the following:
Entry and Contracting: The first phase of diagnosis involves entering the organization and establishing a contract with key stakeholders. This includes meeting with top management to identify the organization's needs and priorities and defining the scope and objectives of the diagnosis.
Data Collection: The second phase of diagnosis involves collecting data from various sources to gain a comprehensive understanding of the organization. Data may be collected through interviews, surveys, focus groups, and other means of communication. This data provides a baseline for identifying areas that need improvement and developing recommendations for change.
Feedback: The third phase of diagnosis involves presenting the findings and recommendations to key stakeholders in the organization. This feedback can take the form of a report, presentation, or workshop, and is typically designed to engage stakeholders in a conversation about the organization's strengths and weaknesses.
Action Planning: The fourth phase of diagnosis involves developing an action plan to address the areas identified for improvement. This plan may include specific goals, timelines, and strategies for implementation, as well as identifying the resources and support needed to facilitate change.
Implementation: The fifth phase of diagnosis involves implementing the action plan, which may involve a range of interventions, such as training and development programs, process improvement initiatives, or changes to organizational structure and culture.
Evaluation: The final phase of diagnosis involves evaluating the effectiveness of the interventions and the impact on the organization. This may involve collecting data on employee attitudes, behaviours, and performance, and using this data to refine the action plan and ensure that the organization is making progress towards its goals.
The overall goal of diagnosis is to improve the effectiveness and performance of the organization by identifying areas that need improvement and developing strategies for change. Diagnosis is a collaborative and participative process that involves engaging stakeholders at all levels of the organization, from top management to front-line employees. By using a systematic and data-driven approach to diagnosis, organizations can ensure that they are addressing the root causes of problems and challenges and making meaningful progress towards their goals.
In conclusion, the concept of diagnosis in organizational development involves analysing an organization to identify areas that need improvement. The process of diagnosis typically involves several phases, including entry and contracting, data collection, feedback, action planning, implementation, and evaluation. By using a systematic and data-driven approach to diagnosis, organizations can improve their effectiveness and performance, and make meaningful progress towards their goals.
Answer the following questions in 200 words each.
Q4) Explain job design with a focus on its approaches.
Ans) Job design is the process of defining the tasks, responsibilities, and duties associated with a particular job or role within an organization. The primary objective of job design is to create jobs that are efficient, effective, and satisfying for employees. A well-designed job can increase employee motivation, engagement, and productivity, while also reducing the risk of injury or burnout. There are several approaches to job design, including the following:
Job Simplification: This approach involves breaking down a job into its component tasks and identifying the most efficient way to perform each task. The goal of job simplification is to minimize the amount of time and effort required to perform the job, which can improve efficiency and productivity.
Job Enlargement: This approach involves expanding the scope of a job by adding new tasks and responsibilities. The goal of job enlargement is to provide employees with a greater variety of tasks, which can increase motivation and job satisfaction. However, this approach can also increase the workload and stress levels for employees, which can lead to burnout and turnover.
Job Rotation: This approach involves periodically rotating employees through different jobs or roles within an organization. The goal of job rotation is to provide employees with a variety of experiences and skill development opportunities, which can improve motivation, engagement, and retention.
Job Enrichment: This approach involves redesigning a job to incorporate more challenging and meaningful tasks that require higher levels of skill and responsibility. The goal of job enrichment is to increase the level of autonomy and decision-making authority for employees, which can improve motivation and job satisfaction.
Q5) Describe various problems affecting teamwork.
Ans) Teamwork can be a powerful tool for achieving organizational goals and promoting employee engagement and satisfaction. However, there are several problems that can arise and hinder effective teamwork. Some of the most common problems affecting teamwork are as follows:
Lack of Communication: Effective communication is essential for successful teamwork. When team members fail to communicate effectively, they can misunderstand each other, duplicate efforts, or miss important information. This can result in delayed or poor-quality work, leading to frustration and conflict within the team.
Poor Leadership: A team without a good leader may lack direction, clear goals, or a shared vision. Without clear guidance and support, team members may struggle to collaborate effectively or make decisions. Poor leadership can also lead to micromanagement, favouritism, or unequal distribution of tasks, leading to demotivation and reduced trust within the team.
Conflicting Goals: Teams are most effective when all members share a common goal. When team members have different objectives or goals, it can lead to conflicting priorities and a lack of focus. This can result in wasted time and resources, lower motivation, and a sense of frustration and lack of direction.
Lack of Trust: A lack of trust between team members can undermine collaboration and lead to conflict. Without trust, team members may hesitate to share information or ideas, or they may fail to support one another. This can result in a lack of accountability and a reluctance to take risks or solve problems creatively.
Personality Clashes: Team members come from diverse backgrounds, and their personalities and communication styles may clash, leading to misunderstandings, frustration, and conflict. This can create a toxic work environment, reduce motivation, and harm the team's effectiveness.
Q6) Describe Marvin Weisbord’s Six Box Model.
Ans) The Six Box Model by Marvin Weisbord is a diagnostic framework used to understand and improve the performance of an organisation. The model is made up of six boxes that all connect to each other. Each box represents a different part of an organisation:
Purpose: This box represents the organization’s mission and vision, and the goals it is working towards.
Structure: This box represents the formal and informal systems and processes that govern how work is organized and coordinated within the organization.
Rewards: This box represents the incentives and recognition systems that motivate and encourage employees to perform well
Relationships: This box represents the internal and external relationships that the organization has with stakeholders such as employees, customers, suppliers, and partners.
Leadership: This box represents the leadership and management styles that are employed within the organization, and the extent to which they align with the organization’s goals and culture.
Helpful mechanisms: This box represents the tools, technologies, and resources that are available to employees to support their work and improve organizational performance.
The Six Box Model is a holistic way to figure out what's wrong with an organisation because it considers how different parts of an organisation are connected and how a balanced approach is needed to deal with performance problems.
Q7) Explain any three models of programme evaluation.
Ans) There are several models of program evaluation, but here are three commonly used ones:
Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Model: Donald Kirkpatrick came up with this model, which is often used to evaluate training programmes. There are four parts to the model: response, learning, behaviour, and results. At the first level, learners are asked how they feel about the programme. At the second level, they are asked what knowledge or skills they gained. At the third level, learners are asked if they have used what they learned at work. At the fourth level, the impact of the programme on organisational outcomes is looked at.
Jack Philip ROI Model: ROI is an acronym for Return on Investment. As the name suggests, the model looks at how well the results or returns of a programme match the money that was put into it. This is very important because an investment that doesn't pay off is a waste of money and should be avoided. So, this model can help us figure out the ROI of a certain programme.
CIPP Model (Context, Input, Process and Product): Stufflebeam and his colleagues came up with this model in the 1960s after evaluating education projects for the Ohio Public Schools District. As the name suggests, the model focuses on four things: the context, the inputs, the process, and the result. The model can be thought of as an evaluation method that focuses on making decisions. It puts an emphasis on providing information in a planned way so that a programme can be managed and run. This information, in turn, can help you decide what to do. This model's focus is on linking programme to decision making to make sure that a programme is implemented well.
Q8) Describe various strategies to motivate employees.
Ans) Motivating employees is an important aspect of managing a successful organization. Here are some common strategies to motivate employees:
Recognition and Rewards: Employees can be motivated by praise and rewards for a job well done. A simple "thank you" or a formal recognition programme are both ways to show appreciation. Rewards can be monetary incentives or non-monetary perks like extra time off, access to training or development opportunities, or other perks.
Clear Communication: Clear communication of goals and expectations can help employees know what is expected of them and feel like their work has a purpose. Managers should talk to their employees often to make sure they are on the right track and have the tools and help they need to do well.
Career Development Opportunities: Providing career development opportunities like training programmes, mentoring, and career planning can help employees see a future with the company and feel motivated to work towards their career goals.
Positive Work Environment: To get people to work hard, it's important to make the workplace a good place to be. This includes having a culture of respect and support, making sure the workplace is physically comfortable, and making sure there is a good balance between work and life.
Empowering Employees: Giving employees the freedom to make their own decisions and take responsibility for their work can motivate them to do a better job. This can be done by giving employees tasks and projects, giving them the resources and help they need, and recognising their contributions.
Setting Challenging Goals: Setting goals for employees that are hard but doable can help to motivate them to do their best work. These goals should be in line with the overall goals of the organisation and be made clear to employees. Managers should help their employees reach these goals by giving them support and tools.
Answer the following questions in 200 words each.
Q9) Organizational learning
Ans) Learning can happen at the individual, team, or organisation levels. Even though we usually think of learning as something a person does, more and more companies are using the idea of "organisational learning" to stay in business in a world where competition is fierce. Organizational learning is the ability of an organisation to understand and learn from experience through experimentation, observation, and analysis. This makes the organisation more efficient and effective so that it can compete with other organisations. Organisational learning looks at models and theories about how a group learns and changes. Effective organisational learning means changing the procedures and maybe even the assumptions, values, and goals that they were based on. This is done not only to solve current problems but also to stop them from happening again in the future. It not only helps solve problems in the organisation, but it also helps people learn and improve their skills and knowledge. Organizational learning is also related to organisational change because it can lead to and help with change. Organizational learning is based on five main areas: system thinking, team learning, a shared vision, mental models, and personal mastery. System thinking is the most important of these five areas. A learning organisation is also different from a bureaucratic organisation in these five core areas.
Q10) Action research
Ans) Action research is research about doing things with the goal of making those things work better. Action refers to things like programmes and interventions that are meant to fix a problem or make a situation better. The action research model is what most activities for organisation development are based on. In action research, there are three steps: collecting data, getting feedback on the data, and planning what to do next. Action research is a way to solve problems that involves a model, a process, and a set of activities and events. Action is used to describe programmes and interventions that are meant to solve a problem or make a situation better. Kurt Lewin thought that research on action programmes, especially programmes for social change, was necessary if social problems were to be solved. Action research and organisation development work well together in an organisation setting. Action research gives a way to collect and use information about the system itself, which will be used as a foundation for the action research. Action research can also be done by larger organisations or institutions with the help of professional researchers to improve their strategies, practises, and understanding of the environments in which they work.
Q11) Second order change in organizational development
Ans) Second Order Change is inevitable, but second-order changes, which are planned, are what frustrate leaders and scare people who follow them. These changes are meant to challenge widely held beliefs, break down the meaning of "organisation," and, in general, change the way society works. This, in turn, causes widespread confusion, anxiety, frustration, confusion, paranoia, anger, and cynicism, as well as short-term dysfunction. The changes that cause the most trouble are second-order changes, which make people question the whole context of an organisation. Because of this, paradigm change is not only traumatic in and of itself, but it also puts other things to the test and breaks down the connections between all domains. The result of this kind of change is an organisation that has been "transformed" or "renewed." Practitioners and researchers pay a lot of attention to new ideas, interventions, and areas of use in organisational development that could be called second generation or second order change. Different organisational development interventions are used in the second order change to help organisations change. These changes make room for organisational development applications, but they also push leaders and people who work on organisational development to their limits. In this kind of situation, the second order change in the development of organisations is taking shape.
Q12) Problem solving and cross-functional teams.
Problem Solving Teams: The main goal of this team, as the name suggests, is to focus on the problem and come up with a good solution. The people on this team get together regularly to talk about problems at work. Under this type of team, you can also make quality circles, which are mainly used to talk about and find solutions to problems related to quality, productivity, or costs. For the quality circles to work, the members and the leader need to know how to work well in a group, gather information, and solve problems.
Cross- Functional Teams: This kind of team is different because its members come from different parts or departments of the organisation. For example, this kind of team could be made up of managers from different parts of the company, such as finance, human resources, production, etc. But a problem can arise in these teams if people in different functions don't talk to each other. This is called "functional silos." Functional silos happen when employees in one department know a lot about their own work but don't know much about the work of other departments or aren't involved in it.
Q13) Parallel learning structures
Ans) Parallel Learning Structures might be a form of Knowledge Management. Knowledge management is the process of gathering all an organization's expertise, no matter where it lives, and getting it to the people who need it at the right time. They encourage innovation and change in large bureaucratic organisations while keeping the benefits of bureaucratic design. It is also known as communities of practise. Though the term is new, the practise has been around for a very long time. It is widely used in many organisations to help people learn and grow because knowledge is seen as an asset that needs to be managed well. Parallel learning strategies focus on people and the social structures that allow them to learn with and from each other.
Dale and Zand first talked about Parallel Learning Structures in 1974, but they called it "Collateral Organizations." They said that it was an extra organisation that worked with formal ones. Its main use is to deal with structural problems that the formal organisation can't deal with. Parallel Learning Structures is made up of a steering committee and several working groups. The steering committee and working groups study changes that need to be made, make suggestions for improvement, and keep an eye on the change process. The steering committee might also get help from groups that come up with ideas or do things.
Q14 The Power-Coercive approach
Ans) This way of making change is the one most often associated with political movements and social activism. In the words of Chin and Benne, "these strategies are geared against coercive and nonreciprocal influence, both on moral and practical grounds."
Strategies in this category include:
Changing things by using political institutions.
Shifting the balance of power among social groups, especially among the elites who are in charge.
Using moral pressure or nonviolent strategies to weaken or split up the opposition.
Roland Warren, a sociologist who has done a lot of work on social change at the community level, has come up with another classification of change strategies. His list of community-based change strategies includes consensus planning, bargaining, protest movements, research-based demonstrations, social action, non-violence, organisations of client populations, conflict, elite planning, organisation of indigenous groups, and civil disobedience.
He classifies these under four headings:
A Combination of Strategies.
This literature shows that there are two ways to look at change: being reactive or being proactive. From one point of view, people and groups are the things that change. They are on the receiving end, in the sense that change happens to them. From the other point of view, people and groups start changes, and changes happen because people want them to. Both points of view are, of course, correct, and they are closely related. For example, when one social group tries hard to make a change, there are always other groups who feel pushed around and try to stop the change.
Q15) Formative and summative evaluation
Formative Evaluation helps to improve the situation being evaluated. It does this by looking at how the programme is delivered and how well it is carried out, as well as by evaluating the organisational context. The goal of the formative evaluation is to make sure that the programme is well made. This is done through methods like talking to stakeholders, figuring out what they need, working as a group, etc. It makes it easier for stakeholders to talk to each other in groups, interview stakeholders about the program's implementation, and report on its development. It also figures out who needs the programme, how much they need it, and what might work to meet their needs.
Summative Evaluation: This is different from the others because it looks at how something turned out. It talks about what happens after the programme is given, including how the result was caused and what the overall effect of the cause was. Beyond that, the only immediate goals are figuring out what will happen and how much it will cost.
This may be further categorized into the following:
Cost effectiveness and cost benefit
Q16) Resistance to change.
Ans) Resistance to change is useful if it doesn't go too far. In other words, the energy we use to fight change also helps us keep our lives in balance by putting our habitual responses out of mind. Selective perception and selective retention are two of the most important parts of resistance. These help us organise what we know about our surroundings. As we get older, we learn to rely on the skills of others, whether they are our parents, teachers, doctors, sports coaches, or someone else. Society teaches us to accept the way things are. This makes it hard to trust yourself when you want to make a change and can even lead to going backwards.
All of these are, of course, things that the coach or consultant would be just as likely to go through as the client. But resistance is almost always talked about in terms of how clients act. There are theories about how resistance works in both social systems and in people. So, when trying to get rid of resistance, people tend to focus on the people who need to change. If team members don't want to do what their manager tells them to do, for example, we might organise group meetings where we talk about the need for change and encourage group plans to make it happen. We could do this by using joint diagnosis and consensus building to make people feel less threatened, get them interested, make them feel like the project is at least a little bit theirs, and try to make it fit their values and goals.
Q17) Cultural analysis
Ans) This intervention helps organisations develop cultures (behaviours, values, beliefs, and rules) that fit their strategies and environments. It focuses on building a strong culture for the organisation so that all its members pull in the same direction. As a field of study, cultural analysis is based on using qualitative research methods from the social sciences, like ethnography and anthropology, to collect data on cultural phenomena. This data is then analysed to learn something new or gain a better understanding.
This is especially helpful for figuring out and mapping cultural trends, influences, effects, and effects. Cultural analysis has four main points:
Adaptation and Change: This means how well a culture uses its own ways to fit in with its surroundings. Some things that show how a culture changed are food, tools, a home, the area around it, art, etc. Also, this part is meant to show how the culture in question makes the environment friendlier.
How Culture helps People Survive: How the given culture helps its members live in their environment.
Holism, Specificity: Holism and specificity mean being able to put all your observations into one group and present them in a way that makes sense.
Expressions: This is about studying the ways people speak and act in everyday life.
Q18) Behaviour modelling
Ans) Behaviour modelling is a technique used in training and development that involves teaching new skills or behaviours by demonstrating them through live or recorded examples. The approach involves showing learners how to perform specific tasks or behaviours by providing them with a visual representation of the desired outcome. In behaviour modelling, the trainer or facilitator shows the learners how to perform the desired behaviour in a step-by-step manner, explaining each step as they go. The learners then can practice the behaviour themselves and receive feedback on their performance. By watching and practicing the behaviour, learners can develop the necessary skills to perform the behaviour effectively.
Behaviour modelling is often used to teach a wide range of skills, from technical skills such as operating machinery to interpersonal skills such as effective communication and leadership. The approach is particularly effective for teaching complex skills that are difficult to explain in words alone, as it provides learners with a clear visual representation of the desired behaviour.
There are several approaches to behaviour modelling, including:
Live modelling: This involves a trainer or facilitator demonstrating the behaviour in person, allowing learners to observe the behaviour and ask questions in real-time.
Symbolic Modelling: This involves presenting a recorded or written example of the behaviour, such as a video or case study, for learners to observe and learn from.
Participatory Modelling: This involves having learners practice the behaviour themselves, while receiving feedback and guidance from the trainer or facilitator.
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