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MPSE-006: Peace and Conflict Studies

MPSE-006: Peace and Conflict Studies

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MPSE-006/ASST/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MPSE-006

Assignment Name: Peace and Conflict Studies

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor




1. Describe the modes of peaceful settlement of disputes under the UN system.

Ans) The two main modes to the peaceful or non-violent resolution of international disputes are those characterised by direct communication between the parties involved and those where the intermediary or third party plays a key role in reaching a compromise.




Direct communication between the parties is what constitutes negotiation, which tries to resolve their competing claims. The parties might be able to reach a mutually satisfactory settlement of their separate claims if each party seeks to accommodate, in part if not entirely, the other party's claim. Negotiation cannot move forward if one or both parties are adamant about their demands. A genuine negotiation calls for both parties to make an effort to comprehend one another's issues and meet as many of the other's needs as they can. Negotiations may result in a resolution of the conflict or a lack thereof.


Each party feels as though it is dealing with the opposing party on an equal level during negotiations. The political fact is that the negotiation parties are frequently not on equal footing. In the modern world, there are enormous powers, minor powers, and minitowers. When a major power and a minor power are negotiating, the former may be able to utilise its stronger position to force the latter to accept a specific outcome. The negotiation could come to an end if the minor power senses the effects of the coercion. A party is not required under international law to engage in negotiations to resolve a dispute unless a treaty or other agreement specifically mandates so. Additionally, being required to negotiate does not obligate one to come to a compromise.


Lending Good Offices


The arguing parties may be persuaded to pick up their conversation by a third party who is interested in the dispute's resolution. Lending good offices is urging and advising the parties to come to a mutually acceptable resolution.



Conciliation varies from mediation in the language of international law because in the former, the mediator not only serves as a channel of communication between the parties, but also actively participates by offering the parties potential terms of settlement. The mediator may take an active part in mediation or offering good offices by suggesting settlement terms to the parties. The conciliation process parallels court procedure in several of the treaty-mandated conciliation procedures. The conciliator, or group of conciliators, suggests a set of settlement terms after the parties submit their claims in paper and are permitted to speak orally.




This process was developed as an alternative to arbitration at the First Hague Peace Conference in 1899 so that individuals who might not be prepared to accept arbitration could accept this approach. In this process, the parties concur that the mediator will look into any factual disputes between them and present his findings. They could also decide that the middleman would provide clarifications on legal issues. The parties may agree to resolve the disagreement in light of such findings and clarifications, or they may reject the findings and clarifications. This process has in the past assisted in the resolution of some disputes.


Judicial settlement


Any party to a disagreement may file a complaint with a judicial panel that has the authority or jurisdiction to hear the case and summon the opposing party. The tribunal renders decision after deciding the contested factual issues and applying the pertinent legal standards. The decision must be carried out by the parties.


2. What is insurgency? What are its major forms?

Ans) An insurgency is a rebellion by an unorganised armed force against a legitimate government, an established administration, an occupation, or a recognised authority. It is an organised movement that aims to topple the existing order through armed conflict and subversion. Insurgency is a behaviour. While it might take many different forms, insurgency is nonetheless "action." A frequent goal of an insurgency is to change the organisation, members, or policies of the government by illegal means. Insurgency sits between politics and world conflict. If war is, as Clausewitz observed, "diplomacy by other means," then insurgency is surely "politics by other means."


Major Forms of Insurgency


Non-Violent Resistance: Through nonviolence, one can deprive a government of any popular support and deny it the sense of legitimacy it need to wield its authority. Despite being referred to as "passive resistance," it is an active, not a passive, way for insurgents to fight back against government rule. The military and police are frequently the focus of peaceful protest. Such a form of warfare does not always seek significant changes in the overall makeup and practises of the state. It serves as a sign of discontent. People express their desire for compromise while acknowledging the necessity for change.


Nonviolent Protest, Nonviolent Non-cooperation, and Nonviolent Intervention are a few examples of nonviolent approaches. Protesting peacefully is a symbolic gesture. Protest methods include demonstrations and protest marches. Its goal is to make those in positions of authority aware of the unhappiness that exists among the populace. One of the primary strategies used during the freedom struggle, led by Mahatma Gandhi, was non-cooperation. Some of its tactics include workplace slowdowns and strikes.


Coup: The power basis of the nation is not destroyed during a coup, and is typically not even affected. This is how a coup differs from a revolution. Typically, it involves the military seizing control of the civilian system of government. One group in the power structure of a society simply transfers power to another group in the same structure. Some academics explain this situation using Samuel Huntington's post-colonial states political order thesis. The main contention is that instability is not solely caused by poverty, ethnic, regional, and linguistic conflicts, etc. Institutions lack the strength to handle disputes over limited resources that result from socio-political mobilisation. The resulting disconnect between the State and Society serves as the fundamental justification or even excuse for military rule.


Guerrilla Warfare: The Guenilla War consists of combat operations carried out by primarily local forces in enemy-held territory. The operations, which employ military or paramilitary tactics, seek to lower the enemy's industrial capability, morale, and combat effectiveness.


Terrorism: According to one definition, terrorism is the sub-state use of violence or the threat of violence with the aim of frightening the populace. "Premeditated, politically motivated violence done against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine operatives, usually designed to affect an audience," according to the US State Department, is what is meant by terrorism.


Revolution: Revolutions upend the political and social structure of a society. Revolution involves more than just making things right; it's an apocalyptic plan for a complete social upheaval and the creation of a new society and its accompanying governance.


Civil War: A civil war is a social struggle that takes place within a nation. It may happen to either keep control over individuals in positions of authority, giving them the right to rule, or it may happen to take that control away from them.




Write a short note on each part of the question in about 250 words.


3. a) Concept of limited war

Ans) The Korean War demonstrated that the presence of nuclear weapons and deterrence by Cold War leaders on both sides did not stop a fight between the two adversaries. It was true that the two superpowers were not directly at odds with one another during the struggle, but rather, they were testing each other's resolve in limited rather than unrestricted ways, as would have been the case during the age of the world wars. To prevent the conflict from escalating into a major clash, the war was waged with caution and with channels of communication open. The era of "limited war" had officially started.


When it first emerged, the idea of limited war was centred on disputes between. Two superpowers engaged in conflict, although not directly on their soil or in other parts of the world. As a result, the emphasis when trying to comprehend the "limited" aspect of limited war is on the vast military might that both superpowers possess but do not actually employ in such a fight.


The purposeful restraint shown by the warring parties in the conduct of the war is the most significant distinction between a limited war and a general war. The nation's capacity to wage war directly affects this restriction. If the capability is constrained, the limitation is a result of the constrained capability rather than being an intentional one. Because the great powers had the capability to wage an unlimited war but chose not to do so for a variety of reasons, the idea of limited war was utilised primarily in the context of wars in which they were engaged. The nuclear doctrines that called for the strategic bombing of cities should logically also not apply in this situation. The phrase "deliberately hobbling oneself in the conduct of war" would be the best way to describe it.


b) Realist view of war

Ans) A critique of the idealist approach arose in response to the League of Nations' failure and the slow but certain march towards yet another world war. The Realists focused on power politics, national security dilemmas, aggression, conflict, and war whereas the Idealists had focused on the importance of international law, international organisation, interdependence, and cooperation as the key aspects of international relations. The most concise explanation of the realist stance can be found in Hans Morgenthau's six principles of realism. These well-known guidelines are, in brief,

  1. The foundation of politics is a constant and unchangeable aspect of human nature that is fundamentally egocentric, self-centred, and self-interested.

  2. The fight for power is at the heart of politics. Similar to domestic politics, international politics is characterised by state competition for national dominance.

  3. While the nature and forms of state power are not fixed but rather change with time, place, and context, the idea of interest does not change.

  4. While moral and ethical considerations have an impact on individuals, states are not moral agents because their actions must be evaluated in light of national survival.

  5. Though states will make an effort to justify their actions in terms of ethics, they are nonetheless intended to impart advantages, give them legitimacy, and advance the state's national interests.

According to Morgenthau, neither a naturally peaceful world nor the certainty of war are assumptions made by the concept of national interest. The system would be largely stable if every country worked to further its own national interests, with the "balance of power" mechanism containing any potential issues. The realists support maintaining a strong military force and place a strong focus on nationalism. The nation-state is given priority according to realism, which also contends that foreign affairs are most significant in terms of national security.


4. a) Feminist approach to peace

Ans) Over the past three decades, the frequency of both overt and covert violence against women has been a major concern in the field of peace studies. Women have traditionally been depicted in pacifist imagery. The notions of peace have been enhanced by feminine traits like nurture, compassion, and care. A crucial component in the fight for peace is the application of feminine ideals to the drastic reform of a repressive social order.


Violence against Women


While sexism, racism, human rights violations, and poverty affect both men and women, there are several forms of violence that affect women more frequently than men, including: In many parts of the world, family violence and the sexual and emotional abuse of women are serious problems. Rape, random physical abuse, and attacks during organised conflict are all examples of direct violence against women. In 1992, the Japanese government officially acknowledged that during World War 11, the Japanese Army had forced young Asian women from Korea, the Philippines, and other countries to work as so-called "comfort women" for Japanese soldiers. Serb nationalists carried out an act of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia-Herzegovina by raping and deliberately impregnating thousands of women, specifically Muslims. There have been stories of security personnel assaulting women in numerous other nations with anti-government insurgencies, including Peru, Columbia, and other places. However, the majority of governments did not denounce or prosecute those who perpetrated murder and rape.


Shared Goals of Peace and Feminism


Women are better able to understand the importance of peace than men because of their vulnerability to the structures of violence and deprivation. They have acted as moms, nurturers, and natural peacemakers for the majority of human civilisation. According to feminist philosophers, socialism, pacifism, and feminism are all logically related. The feminine notion of peace subtly reveals the hierarchical structure of our society by questioning the inevitable social order and violence. A hierarchical structure, like those found in military institutions, which relies on connections of superior and inferiority between particular individuals, is what leads to oppression and bloodshed. To achieve peace, violence must be eradicated in both the public and private domains.


b) Core features of Gandhian approach to peace

Ans) We must comprehend the foundation of *Sandhi's broad social and political ideas in order to comprehend Gandhi's approach to promoting peace. He possessed a comprehensive philosophy of life and society that was relevant to both domestic and global issues. His acts and thoughts both reflected this concept. His approach to peace and world affairs is underpinned by his views of man, society, and the state.




Gandhi's most innovative and significant contribution to social philosophy and activity is the Satyagraha. Gandhi developed and applied this strategy of nonviolent resistance to oppression, exploitation, and racial injustice during the anti-colonial and anti-racial struggles in India and South Africa. The Indian masses were primarily mobilised for the country's independence and the thinning of British imperial authority through the numerous satyagraha led by Gandhi. All situations—from interpersonal to group relationships, from national to international disputes, from micro to macro issues—can be addressed via satyagraha. It can also be applied to the global fight against injustice, exploitation, and war issues. Consequently, satyagraha is a key component of the Gandhian method to achieving peace. Gandhi actually views satyagraha as a moral alternative to war and as a better way to address a state's complaints.


Ahimsa or Non-violence


Gandhi's pacifism is based on the ideal of nonviolence, or ahimsa. Gandhi made a significant contribution to the reinterpretation of nonviolence. Truth can only be attained through nonviolence. Non-violence is in man's nature, just as aggression is what makes animals unique. Gandhi believed that non-violence is always preferable to aggression. Gandhi created nonviolence as a method of social change first in South Africa and later during India's war for independence. Gandhi's Ahimsa is a positive philosophy of compassion, sacrifice, and forgiveness for humanity that emerged from the early mental influences of Jainism and other religious literature. It takes more bravery to forgive than to exact revenge. Ahimsa is therefore active rather than passive. It represents the rejection of all types of force and compulsion rather than the denial of authority. The moral strength created by nonviolence is, in fact, immeasurably stronger than the force of weapons and violence.


5. a) Challenges of human security

Ans) After the first decade of the Twenty-First Century, we have come to recognize that the world has become a dangerous place, with terrorism and bloody local conflicts. Humanitarian efforts and human rights laws are largely ignored and systematically violated. Social inequality, inside states and among states, has increased dramatically, and poverty in the poorest areas is deepening. Consequent increasing competition for scarce resources contributes to unstable political structures and favours eruption of conflicts. Fluctuations in world commodity prices can trigger dangerous destitution and civil strife. Indeed many of the apparently senseless violent conflicts and acts of terrorism in the world become markedly more transparent when such roots are explored. A clear reference has to be made to gender insecurity. One has to underline again and again how much issues such as conflict, disease, abuse of power, violation of human dignity, illiteracy and malnutrition are bound up with abject poverty, a state in which hundreds of millions of human beings live.


Violence against women and children creates a high human insecurity for families and individuals. The expansion of the global sex industry, accompanied by trafficking of women and children into industrialized countries from developing and Eastern countries constitutes violence against women and a double discrimination, both gender-based and racial. Despite a number of measures and declarations progress is extremely limited. This remains a preoccupying cause of insecurity in the world.  Despite the many positive aspects of globalization that has certainly benefited people in developing countries, financial mismanagement and market fundamentalism have created a large exclusion of people from the global mega-competition.


b) Confidence Building Measures between India and China

Ans) Remembering the initial phase of Sino-Indian CBMs, India was the first non-communist and fourth Asian nation to recognise Mao's communist state and establish diplomatic ties with Beijing shortly after China's October revolution in 1949. Despite U.S. suggestions that they would consider New Delhi to replace Beijing on the Security Council, India had also supported Beijing's permanent membership there. To show its goodwill towards the new China, India, rather than succumbing to American pressure, gave up all of its military and administrative presence in Tibet and recognised Tibet as an autonomous area of the Chinese Republic. This was accomplished in accordance with the Panchsheel Agreement, which was signed in Beijing on April 29, 1954, following months of discussions. All of these programmes had a similar character to later European Cs since they were all intended to prevent potential Sino-Indian miscommunication and conflict. It is thought that these accommodations were made in light of the larger boundary agreement made between Nehru and Zhou En-lai.


The 1962 China-India war dashed this hope, and it took a long time for the two nations to resume meaningful talks. Despite the fact that they re-established diplomatic relations in 1976, it wasn't until after border tensions in the second part of the 1980s that things significantly improved. Chinese troops built a permanent camp in Samdurang Chu, a valley in the eastern sector of the contentious boundary, in 1986 after Indian soldiers guarding the Line of Actual Control briefly captured it. China and India both accused the other of interfering. The Indian leadership appeared to have been persuaded by this occurrence that using military force to resolve the border issue was inappropriate. Rajiv Gandhi, the then-prime minister of India, travelled to China in an effort to forge new diplomatic relations. Following that, a number of official trips and cultural interactions between Chinese and Indian leaders happened. These prepared the door for the conclusion of two significant CBM agreements, which have been very successful in guaranteeing peace and tranquilly on their disputed boundaries.

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