If you are looking for MPYE-003 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Epistemology, you have come to the right place. MPYE-003 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MAPY courses of IGNOU.
MPYE-003 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MPYE-003/TMA/2022-23
Course Code: MPYE-003
Assignment Name: Epistemology
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
i) Give answer of all five questions.
ii) All five questions carry equal marks.
iii) The answer of questions no. 1 and 2 should be in about 500 words.
1. Write an essay on knowledge as justified true belief. 20
Ans) Experience, reflection, and inference are the sources of knowledge. Its structure and content are distinctive. Knowledge can include information about things that are outside of ourselves. This view of epistemology is largely addressed by realistic theories and sense-data theories. But the knowledge is not limited to things on the outside. There are various types of knowledge as well. It also encompasses mental processes, creative processes, mathematics, etc. Knowledge is transformed into propositions and beliefs that must be true. Such knowledge, unlike knowledge gained through memory, reflection on intangible subjects, etc., is independent of perception but does depend on perception. Therefore, it is essential to justify beliefs as knowledge-based content. It requires support in order to be true. In this sense, a justified true belief must be based on an authority that is regarded as reliable. It frequently finds itself supported by epistemic, causal, and justificational grounds.
A belief is based on a causal foundation because it is based on an experience, it is based on a justification foundation because some components of our beliefs are related to that experience, and it is based on an epistemological foundation because the knowledge underlies the belief we hold as a result of our experience. Even though all knowledge is at least justified true belief, not all knowledge is true. Natural knowledge doesn't require justification of any other kind because it strongly depends on sense experience. The propositional knowledge does, however, require justification. The world serves as the foundation for knowledge about the world and truth. The justification, however, relates to the mental process. For the purpose of knowledge communication, it is therefore necessary to justify that which is not visible, or propositional knowledge.
Truth and justification are essentially related. An empirical belief or a propositional belief—both are linked to truth. Knowledge derives from the same sources as justification; the same internal states and processes that support our beliefs also link them to the reality of the world as it is. The two concepts of knowledge and belief are closely related. When a belief is dependent on indirect knowledge rather than direct knowledge, the basis of that belief needs to be carefully examined. The conviction that qualifies as knowledge may have descended from some knowledge in the extensive epistemic chain. In this sense, the epistemic chain may result in a circle or lead to an infinite regress without anchoring and providing a solid basis for knowledge. Such an epistemic chain may occasionally result in no knowledge, while other times it may result in a belief that represents direct knowledge.
The epistemic justification in this context is concerned with getting to the direct knowledge that supports the belief without going in circles. It connects to a direct or independent source of information, such as perception, memory, introspection, or reason. Reason can include legitimate inferences. The belief that is directly justified and only remains after all other options have been exhausted can be referred to as the foundational belief.
2. What are the conditions required to be a meaningful sentence in Nyaya Philosophy? Explain with examples.
Ans) Atomistic pluralism and logical realism are the tenets of the Nyya school of thought. It is atomistic pluralism because atoms make up matter and there are numerous entities, both material and spiritual, that make up the universe as a whole. It contradicts materialistic and spiritualistic monism by adopting a pluralistic stance. By adapting the idea that the world exists independently of our perceptions and knowledge, it is a system of logical realism. Furthermore, logical arguments and critical consideration of the nature of experience can be used to support the independent existence of the world rather than our faith or intuition.
The word anumana literally translates as knowledge that comes after other knowledge in Nyaya philosophy. It is mediated and indirect and is organised through the use of a mark known as a "hetu," which has an unchanging relationship to the feature being observed. Invariable concomitance serves as the foundation for the inference. Vyapti refers to the constant relationship between the hetu and the sadya. Paramarsa is the understanding of the characteristics of the "paksa" through the "hetu." As a result, inference, also known as anumana, is defined as knowledge obtained through paramarsa. To put it another way, this knowledge is the understanding of the sadhya's presence in the paksa through the Linga, which is a paksa quality and is always related by Vyapti.
This can be explained using the standard illustration of inference—the impact of a fire's presence on the perception of smoke. When one notices smoke on a distant hill, they reflect on their knowledge of the universal association (vyapti) of smoke and fire and come to the conclusion that there is fire there. The mark on the strength of which the character is inferred is the hetu (smoke), and the subject where the character is inferred is paksa. The character that is inferred is called sadhya (fire) (hill). The major, minor, and minor terms in the Aristotelian syllogism are represented by the three terms.
A key idea in Nyya Philosophy is the theory of causation. Let's first define "what is causation?" before discussing the Nyya theory of causation. The theory of causation consists of two crucial elements. A cause is one thing, and an effect is another. An unconditional and constant antecedent of an effect is referred to as a cause. An effect is described as an unqualified and constant result of a cause. The Nyya theory of causation is also referred to as "astkryavda" or "rmbhavda." They believed that although an effect is brought about by a cause, the cause and the effect are distinct entities. The result is the appearance of a new product that was not there before due to the cause. Therefore, every effect is a brand-new thing that wasn't in the cause before. For instance, clay is used to create pots. In this case, "clay" is the cause and "pot" is the result. According to Nyyikas, a pot is a brand-new creation, a fresh start that did not previously exist in the clay. In this way, they support the "asatkryavda" theory.
3. Give answer of any two questions in about 250 words each. 2*10= 20
b) Write a note on picture theory. 10
Ans) Wittgenstein's earlier viewpoint was picture theory. This theory holds that the logical ontological structure of the world is mirrored in the ontological structure of language. Names have a relationship to the structure of the world because they are fundamental parts of propositions that can be true or false according to linguistic logic. A potential state of affairs in the world is what can be logically expressed in the language. The world's conditions are determined by the logical necessity of propositions.
The picture theory of language is crucial to comprehending Wittgenstein before moving on to the language game theory. The Tractatus, one of his earlier works, contains the central concept of picture theory. Wittgenstein discovered through his study of the development of philosophy that linguistic misunderstandings were the root cause of philosophical issues. Therefore, a linguistic clarification would lead to the resolution of the philosophical queries. Wittgenstein sought to analyse language in Tractatus in order to use it as a solution to philosophical issues. The outcome of such an endeavour is the picture theory, in addition to other significant themes found in the Tractatus. The goal of picture theory is to clarify the structure of sentences and propositions. Wittgenstein was interested in understanding how it is possible for a group of words to convey a reality in the outside world.
According to him, a sentence is a representation or model of reality. He believed that when we string sentences together, we create a model of reality. For Wittgenstein, a sentence represents reality in the same way that a picture does. It accomplishes this by acting sane. If it is true, it illustrates how things are. A sentence made up of outdated words can convey a new situation because it is a representation of it. The visual components correspond exactly to the things in the state of affairs they depict. According to the picture theory, a picture, and the subject it depicts must share some characteristics.
c) Write a note on Paul Ricoeur’s idea of hermeneutics. 10
Ans) The core principles of Ricoeur's hermeneutics are clarification and comprehension. For him, the meta-critical discipline of hermeneutics embodies the work of exposing explanation and the imaginative role of understanding. He realised that when explanation is critical, socio-critical, or meta-critical, understanding operates at a post-critical level. Understanding necessitates a readiness to listen with openness to symbols and "indirect" language, as well as a willingness to expose and abolish idols that are nothing more than projections of the human will. As a result, the two central tenets of hermeneutics—explanation and understanding—invite, as appropriate, meta-critical or socio-critical suspicion, which leads to re-evaluations, as well as post-critical retrieval, which embodies openness to new possibility and may indicate renewal or change. His hermeneutics is known as hermeneutics of suspicion and retrieval because he based his theory on Freudian understanding.
According to Paul Ricoeur, existence is a form of hermeneutics or interpretation.
He contends that the social sciences are outside of philosophy and that in order for the meaning to emerge in a more comprehensive understanding, philosophy must engage in dialogue and exchange with them. The meaning is mediated by a never-ending process of cultural, religious, political, historical, and scientific interpretation. He views hermeneutics as the science of interpreting oblique meaning. The idealist theory that the self is transparent to itself was opposed by Ricoeur. Always, the self is as another. Through the linguistic mediation of signs, symbols, stories, ideologies, metaphors, and myths, the self is revealed. Through the expanded and enriched language of the others, the self-returns to itself. He made an effort to strike a balance between Husserl's transcendental idealism and Kant's rationalism.
4. Give answer of any four questions in about 150 words each. 4*5= 20
a) What is the relation between concept and proposition? 5
Ans) Similar to how railroad cars are related to trains, concepts and propositions are related to one another. A proposition is a collection of ideas connected logically, much like a train is a series of carriages connected by connectors. Although there are more complex ways to combine concepts than there are to connect carriages, concepts are still a component of propositions. While concepts are either true or false, propositions are either true or false (other things).
Philosophers disagree about the existence of concepts and propositions. But it is generally acknowledged that propositions follow concepts. The last truly influential explanation of philosophy and reason considered the concept's existence to be fundamental. That point of view claimed that philosophy was conceptual analysis, the goal of which was to create a statement that expressed the same proposition but more explicitly and clearly displayed its conceptual structure.
c) Evaluate Pragmatic theory of truth. 5
Ans) The two most common pragmatic theories of truth are those put forth by C.S. Peirce and William James, respectively, who proposed that truth be defined in terms of utility and that true beliefs will be accepted "at the end of inquiry." However, pragmatic theories of truth go further and concentrate on the relationship between truth and epistemic practises, particularly practises of assertion and inquiry. Depending on the specific pragmatic theory, true statements could be those that are reasonable to believe, the outcome of investigation, have withstood repeated scrutiny, meet a standard of warranted assertibility, or serve as examples of assertoric discourse norms. Pragmatic theories of truth are frequently proposed as an alternative to correspondence theories of truth, along with other theories of truth (such as coherence and deflationary theories). Contrary to correspondence theories, which have a tendency to view truth as a static relationship between a truth-bearer and a truth-maker, pragmatic theories of truth have a tendency to view truth as a function of the practises people engage in and the commitments people make when they solve problems, make claims, or conduct scientific research.
d) Write a note on correspondence theory of truth. 5
Ans) Metaphysical realism and the correspondence theory of truth are frequently used interchangeably. Coherentist, verifications, and other epistemic theories of truth, which are its traditional rivals, are frequently connected to idealism, anti-realism, or relativism. In recent years, deflationary theories of truth and, to a lesser extent, the identity theory have largely replaced these traditional rivals (at least in terms of publication space) (note that these new competitors are typically not associated with anti-realism). Two other strategies have attracted a lot of attention more recently. One is the truth maker theory, which is viewed alternately as a rival and a more liberal variation of the correspondence theory. The second is pluralism, which includes only one component—a correspondence account—in its overall account of truth. In other words, my perception of the reality—which is independent of my mind—must match the reality. Thus, a third element of realist theories of perception is correspondence theory of truth.
e) What do you understand with ‘the capacity of the text’? 5
Ans) The most important element is the text in the hermeneutical sense. Text is typically defined as a sequence of words with a beginning and an end. In a metaphorical sense, text can be expanded to include messages produced by non-verbal body language, sign systems used by different social, economic, and religious structures, etc. The foundation upon which hermeneutical operations are conducted is text. A text is defined as "a group of entities used as signs, selected, arranged, and intended by an author to convey a particular meaning to an audience in a particular context" in one of the definitions. It may take the form of a written, printed, or even a mental image. Text can be used for a variety of purposes, including expressing emotions, giving orders, getting responses, putting out requests, causing actions, etc. Texts lead to comprehensions. The text's meaning is distinct from its text and understanding. Both the author and the reader are essential to the text, but in a certain sense both are obscured because neither is present during the writing nor reading processes. As a result, the text plays a bigger part in changing its audience.
5. Write short notes on any five in about 100 words each. 5*4= 20
a) Coherence theory of truth 4
Ans) According to a coherence theory of truth, the coherence of a proposition with a given set of propositions determines whether or not it is true. The correspondence theory of truth, the coherence theory's main rival, differs from it in two keyways. Conflicting explanations of the relationship between propositions and their truth conditions are provided by the competing theories. According to one, the relation is coherence, and according to the other, it is correspondence. (In this article, the term "proposition" is not used in any technical sense; rather, it simply refers to the bearers of truth values, whatever they may be.) Conflicting accounts of truth conditions are provided by the two theories as well. The coherence theory states that other propositions make up a proposition's truth conditions
d) Confirmational Holism 4
Ans) The empiricist movement places a great deal of importance on confirmational holism. According to confirmational holism, when a hypothesis is supported by empirical evidence, all underlying theories that support it are also supported. In terms of improving our understanding of the world, this is crucial. As a result of situations like mathematical theory being based on prior mathematical theory, philosophy can easily become stuck or hit a roadblock. To even get to the hypothesis that is based on empirical findings, it would seem that a nearly endless series of proofs must be confirmed. However, confirmational holism enables the verification of hypotheses as a whole by discovering them in nature (Bueno).
e) Theory-Ladenness of observation 4
b) When an observation is impacted by the investigator's theoretical assumptions, it is said to be "theory-laden" in the philosophy of science. While perceptual theory-ladenness refers to their impact on the actual perceptual experience, semantic theory-ladenness refers to the influence of theoretical presuppositions on the meaning of observational terms. The concept of theory-ladenness is relevant for the results of measurement processes as well. The data obtained in this way can be said to be theory-laden because it is useless on its own without being understood as the product of the measurement processes involved. The problem of theory-ladenness arises because observational evidence may already implicitly presuppose the hypothesis it is intended to support.
f) Abhidha 4
Ans) They are Vyanjana, Laksana, and Abhidha (a word's primary, secondary, and tertiary potencies, respectively) (Tertiary potency). Three different meanings can be produced by these three vrttis. They go by the names Vacyartha (literary), Laksyartha (figurative), and Vyangyartha (implied meaning). The secondary meaning, or Laksana, is created when the primary meaning is hindered or obstructed in some way. Laksana is required because of a syntactical incompatibility or a barrier to the intended meaning. When the primary meaning is hindered in any way or when another meaning is substituted and linked to the primary meaning, laksyartha can occur. Sometimes Laksana is required by convention or purpose. The classification of Laksana contains variations.
h) Apohavada 4
Ans) First of all, according to Buddhist logicians, words do not directly refer to objective realities and the essence of meaning is negative in nature. They say this because, in their view, words have a direct relationship with conceptual images, which are purely fictitious mental constructs (vikalpas), and because there is a connection between words and mental images. Consequently, a word's meaning is an idea (vikalpa). The negation of all of its counter-correlates (anyapoha), which entails the exclusion of all things that are not concepts, is the essence of vikalpa. On this point, the Buddhists reject the idea that the universal good even exists (samanya or jati). In the end, the only thing that is real is the svalaksana, or a specific moment in time.
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