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MSD-016: Strategies and Models for Sustainability

MSD-016: Strategies and Models for Sustainability

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023

If you are looking for MSD-016 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Strategies and Models for Sustainability, you have come to the right place. MSD-016 solution on this page applies to 2023 session students studying in PGDSS, MASS courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: MSD-016/TMA/2023

Course Code: MSD-016

Assignment Name: Strategies and Models for Sustainability

Year: 2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Answer all the questions. All questions carry 25 marks each.


Q1) Explain the concept and components of India’s Smart City project.

Ans) The Smart City project in India is an ambitious initiative aimed at transforming the country's urban areas into technologically advanced and sustainable communities. The project was launched in 2015 by the Government of India with the goal of providing better living standards and improving the quality of life for citizens.


The concept of a Smart City is centred on the use of information and communication technology (ICT) to improve city services, increase efficiency and reduce costs. The components of this project include building smart infrastructure, creating a robust ICT network, promoting renewable energy sources, and developing sustainable transportation systems. Additionally, the project aims to improve the delivery of public services and increase citizen engagement through digital platforms and citizen-centric programs. The Smart City project in India is an opportunity to modernize the country's urban areas and address the challenges faced by rapidly growing cities.


The Smart City concept in India is aimed at developing cities that offer sustainable and efficient urbanization, with the use of technology and data-driven solutions to enhance the quality of life for citizens. The concept envisions cities that are environmentally friendly, economically vibrant, socially inclusive, and provide a good standard of living.


The components of India's Smart City project can be broadly categorized into five categories:

  1. Physical Infrastructure: This includes development of basic amenities like water supply, sewage treatment, and solid waste management. It also includes transportation, including intelligent traffic management systems, pedestrian walkways, and public transport.

  2. Social Infrastructure: This includes healthcare, education, and recreation facilities. The aim is to provide citizens with access to quality healthcare and education, as well as opportunities for leisure and recreation.

  3. Economic Infrastructure: This includes the development of commercial, industrial, and business districts, as well as financial services. The goal is to create a strong and diversified economy, with a focus on creating jobs and improving the standard of living.

  4. Digital Infrastructure: This includes the development of digital networks, such as broadband, Wi-Fi, and other digital services. The aim is to create a smart and connected city, where all services and amenities are accessible through a single digital platform.

  5. Institutional Infrastructure: This includes the development of effective governance and administration, including citizen participation, public-private partnerships, and capacity building. The goal is to create a transparent and accountable government, with a strong focus on citizen engagement and service delivery.


The Indian government has launched several initiatives to support the development of smart cities, including the Smart Cities Mission and the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT). These initiatives provide financial and technical support to cities, enabling them to implement smart solutions and infrastructure.


The Smart City project in India aims to improve the quality of life for citizens by leveraging technology and data-driven solutions to address urbanization challenges. The project focuses on developing physical, social, economic, digital and institutional infrastructure, creating a sustainable, efficient and liveable urban environment.


To sum it up, India's Smart City project is an ambitious program launched by the Indian government to transform 100 cities in India into smart cities. The concept is based on the integration of technology, innovation, and sustainable practices to improve the quality of life for citizens. The components of the project include smart infrastructure, sustainable transportation, clean and renewable energy, e-governance, and citizen engagement. In conclusion, the Smart City project is a crucial step towards modernizing and transforming the urban landscape of India, making cities more liveable, and enhancing the quality of life of citizens.


Q2) What is ENVIS? Explain its major objectives and function in India.

Ans) The Environmental Information System acronymed as ENVIS is a decentralized system with a network of distributed subject oriented centres ensuring integration of national efforts in environmental information collection, collation, storage, retrieval, and dissemination to all concerned. Presently in India the ENVIS network consists of Focal Point at the Ministry of Environment and Forest and ENVIS Centres setup in different organisations/establishments in the country in selected areas of environment. These Centres have been set up in the areas of pollution control, toxic chemicals, central and offshore ecology, environmentally sound and appropriate technology, biodegradation of wastes and environment management, etc.


ENVIS (Environmental Information System) is a network of subject-specific environmental information centres established in India. Its major objectives are to:

  1. Provide a centralized database of environmental information.

  2. Disseminate environmental information to various stakeholders.

  3. Promote environmental awareness and education.

  4. Support environmental decision-making and planning.

The ENVIS network operates under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India. It provides a platform for the collection, storage, dissemination, and exchange of environmental information and data related to various themes such as air and water quality, forests, wildlife, and hazardous waste management. The ENVIS network functions as a one-stop source for environmental information and acts as a bridge between policy makers, researchers, and the general public in India.


ENVIS stands for 'Environmental Information System'. It is a network of nodes of information and communication set up by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change in India. It is a decentralized system that provides environmental information to policy makers, researchers, planners, citizens, and other stakeholders.


The main objective of ENVIS is to collect, store, analyse, and disseminate environmental information and data generated from various sources. It also aims to create a network of environmental information systems in the country that can be used to support decision making and policy formulation. ENVIS also acts as a platform for the exchange of environmental information between various stakeholders.


The main function of ENVIS is to provide environmental information to various stakeholders to support decision making and policy formulation. It also acts as a repository of environmental data and information from various sources. ENVIS also provides access to environmental information through its online portal. The online portal provides information on various topics such as air and water quality, climate change, biodiversity, eco-tourism, sustainable development, and so on.


ENVIS has been developed to provide comprehensive environmental information and support decision-making processes. It is designed to provide access to scientific and technical information, as well as public information, to facilitate informed decisions and public participation in environmental management. ENVIS also serves as a platform for developing national and international collaborations and partnerships in the field of environment.


Major Objectives of ENVIS

  1. Monitor and provide access to environmental information from various sources.

  2. Facilitate the exchange of information among various stakeholders.

  3. Support informed decision making and public participation in environmental management.

  4. Create awareness among citizens, students, and policy makers about environmental issues.

  5. Strengthen the capacity of the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change to manage environmental issues.


ENVIS helps to provide a platform for environmental information sharing and exchange, and enables the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change to access and analyse environmental data for policy formulation and implementation. It also helps in policy making, environmental conservation and management, and environmental education.

The system consists of a network of ENVIS Centres, which are established at selected institutions/organizations across the country. These centres are responsible for collecting, processing, and disseminating environmental information. They also organize workshops and seminars on environmental issues and provide technical and scientific assistance to policy makers and the public.


Q3) Define ‘bio village’. How will it help in poverty alleviation and food security in India? Explain.

Ans) A bio village is a concept of sustainable rural development that seeks to promote economic, social, and environmental well-being in rural communities using sustainable practices and technologies in agriculture, energy, and other sectors. In India, the implementation of bio-villages can have significant impacts in alleviating poverty and improving food security.


Poverty Alleviation: In India, a large portion of the population resides in rural areas and is dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods. The implementation of bio-villages can provide numerous opportunities for employment and entrepreneurship in areas such as organic farming, renewable energy, and waste management. By promoting sustainable agriculture, bio-villages can also increase the income of farmers, as organic produce tends to fetch a higher price compared to conventionally grown crops. Additionally, the use of sustainable technologies can reduce the cost of inputs, such as water and fertilizer, which can lead to increased profitability for farmers.


Food Security: Bio-villages promote sustainable agriculture practices, which can have a positive impact on food security. The use of organic farming methods can improve soil fertility, leading to higher crop yields and greater food production. This, in turn, can lead to improved food security for both the rural population and the wider community. Additionally, bio-villages often promote the production of diverse crops, which can provide a wider range of food options and reduce the risk of crop failures due to pests or weather-related events.


Sustainable Agriculture: Bio-villages promote sustainable agriculture practices that aim to reduce the negative impacts of conventional agriculture on the environment and human health. This includes the use of organic fertilizers and pest management techniques, as well as the promotion of crop rotation and intercropping. These practices can improve soil fertility, reduce water usage, and protect the environment from the harmful effects of chemical inputs.


Renewable Energy: Bio-villages also promote the use of renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power, which can provide a clean and sustainable source of energy for the rural population. This can reduce the dependence on non-renewable energy sources, such as fossil fuels, which can have negative impacts on the environment. Additionally, the implementation of renewable energy technologies can provide employment opportunities and help to reduce poverty.


Waste Management: Bio-villages also promote sustainable waste management practices, such as composting and recycling, which can reduce the amount of waste generated and improve the health and well-being of the rural population. This can also provide employment opportunities and help to reduce poverty.


The implementation of bio-villages in India has the potential to have significant impacts in alleviating poverty and improving food security. By promoting sustainable agriculture, renewable energy, and waste management practices, bio-villages can provide numerous economic, social, and environmental benefits for the rural population. The key to success will be the ability to effectively implement these practices and technologies at the village level, with the active involvement and support of the local community.


A bio village refers to a self-sufficient and sustainable community that adopts organic farming techniques and supports eco-friendly living. It aims to promote a healthy and harmonious relationship between people and nature.  In India, bio villages can play a significant role in poverty alleviation and food security. By practicing organic farming, the villagers can produce high-quality food without relying on harmful chemicals and fertilizers. This can lead to increased food production and better health for the villagers, thereby reducing poverty levels. Moreover, by promoting sustainable living practices, bio villages can conserve natural resources, reduce waste, and prevent environmental degradation, which can ensure food security for future generations.


To conclude, bio villages are a promising solution to tackle poverty and food insecurity in India. By providing sustainable livelihoods and promoting organic farming practices, they can empower rural communities and ensure food security for all. Additionally, they can conserve the environment and promote eco-friendly living, thereby creating a harmonious relationship between people and nature. To make the most of their potential, the government should invest in their development and promote them as a model of sustainable living.


Q4) What is Cultural Landscape? Explain with suitable examples in India.

Ans) A cultural landscape refers to the tangible and intangible attributes of a place that are shaped by human activities, values, beliefs, and interactions with the natural environment. It encompasses the physical features of a landscape, such as buildings, monuments, fields, and roads, as well as the intangible elements such as cultural traditions, beliefs, and social practices.

In India, cultural landscapes are abundant and diverse, reflecting the country's rich history and cultural heritage.


Some of the most notable examples include:


Hampi: This UNESCO World Heritage Site in the southern state of Karnataka is famous for its ruined city and temple complex, which were once the capital of the Vijayanagar Empire. The landscape is characterized by massive stone structures, intricate carvings, and majestic temples, all of which offer a glimpse into the rich cultural heritage of India.


Ajanta and Ellora Caves: These caves in the western state of Maharashtra are famous for their elaborate rock-cut temples and monasteries that date back to the 2nd century BCE. The caves are a testament to the architectural and artistic achievements of ancient India, and they showcase the rich cultural heritage of the region.


The Great Himalayan National Park: This park in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh is known

for its diverse landscape, which includes snow-capped peaks, lush forests, and rolling meadows. The park is home to a rich cultural heritage, with local communities practicing traditional ways of life and relying on the natural resources of the park for their livelihoods.


From a sustainable development perspective, it is important to preserve and protect cultural landscapes in India. These landscapes serve as important cultural, historical, and ecological resources that provide economic, social, and environmental benefits to local communities.


The Hampi cultural landscape attracts tourists from all over the world, generating significant revenue for the local economy. The Ajanta and Ellora Caves provide livelihood opportunities to local communities through tourism and related activities. The Great Himalayan National Park provides important ecosystem services and protects biodiversity, which is critical for maintaining the livelihoods of local communities.


However, cultural landscapes are often under threat from rapid urbanization, industrialization, and other development activities. To address these challenges, it is important to adopt sustainable development approaches that prioritize the protection of cultural landscapes while supporting economic growth and improving the well-being of local communities.


One such approach is community-based conservation, where local communities play a central role in managing and protecting cultural landscapes. Another example is in Hampi local communities have formed a network of volunteers who work to protect the cultural heritage of the area and promote sustainable tourism. In the Great Himalayan National Park, local communities participate in conservation efforts and benefit from ecotourism and other sustainable livelihood opportunities.


Another approach is to promote sustainable tourism that supports local economies while minimizing negative impacts on cultural landscapes. For example, in the Ajanta and Ellora Caves, sustainable tourism initiatives are underway to reduce overcrowding, minimize the impact of tourism on the caves, and provide economic benefits to local communities.


Hence cultural landscapes play a crucial role in preserving the cultural heritage and identity of India, and they provide important economic, social, and environmental benefits to local communities. To ensure the long-term viability of these landscapes, it is important to adopt sustainable development approaches that prioritize the protection of cultural landscapes while supporting economic growth and improving the well-being of local communities.

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